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Hyderabad Industries Ltd


Hess Concrete Machinery
India (P) Ltd
Metecno India Pvt.Ltd
Hyundai Construction Equipment
India Pvt.Ltd
Greaves Cotton
Ltd
Fayat Group
Editor-in-Chief
editor@masterbuilder.co.in
Vice-Chairman
kgk@masterbuilder.co.in
Director Editorial, Construction Chemicals
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those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect those of the management.
K.P. Pradeep
K G K Moorthy
Dr. Y P Kapoor
Ravi Damodaran
Nigel Narayan
Bhavani Balakrishna, Saadat Ali, Sanjay
M.K. Prabhakar
H. Usha Devi
Pradeep Nair
G.B. Muralidharan
R. Prema
K. Sravanthi Kiran
Lakshmi
S. Nithiyanandam
Caroline D'sylva
R. Anand
R. Mariya Selvi, Sateesh Kuniyil, S. Sasi
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Ashok Natarajan
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P By
Sadagopan Seshadri
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should be sent to: The Editor,
The Masterbuilder, 102/11
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n economy is the method through which a nation prepares today so
Aas to afford the improvements of tomorrow a thought widely believed
and conceived. Aligned with this thought is the current scenario where the
infrastructure sector is one of the thrust areas in the recent budget, as
finance minister Mr. Pranab Mukerjee announced a slew of proposals,
including allowing financial institutions and others to raise about ` 60,000
Crores from tax-free bonds and envisaging a greater private participation.
Most industry captains I had a dialogue with, post-budget, believe the
government has given a much-required push to the infrastructure sector
through flagship programmes and nodal organisations such as NHAI that
is responsible for spear-heading the progress of change in the sector. By
allowing these organisations to raise ` 60,000 Crores through tax-free
bonds, UPA II, he has clearly demonstrated the government's intention to
provide the muchneeded financial support to these organisations.
Increase in investment in the sector has been envisaged through a combination of public investment and
public private partnerships (PPP).To attract private investment in specific sectors such as irrigation, oil and
gas storage facilities and telecommunication provisions has been made to provide stakeholders with
viability gap funding (VGF) under the scheme 'Support to PPP in Infrastructure'. The finance minister in his
budget speech reiterated the need for significant investment in various infrastructure sectors.
Government's dependence on private sector for augmenting the investment through PPP route was also
emphasised.
Mr.Pranab Mukerjee has also provided more avenues of raising funds with measures like relaxing external
commercial borrowing (ECB) guidelines, reductions in withholding tax (WHT) and proposal to remove
cascading effect of dividend distribution tax (DDT). Also, the government has approved the guidelines for
establishing joint venture companies by public sector undertakings in defence sector through the PPP
mode. To encourage PPP in road construction projects, the finance minister has permitted ECB for capital
expenditure on the maintenance and operations of toll systems for highways. The allocation to the
highways sector has also been enhanced by 14 per cent to ` 25,360 Crores in 2012-13 with a target of
covering a lengthof 8,800 km roads under NHDPnext fiscal.
On the whole the current budget should pave way for the country to growprogressively at a rate of close to
7% in spite of the formidable challenges it may face in the coming days. A number of recent economic
reports have vividly predicted that by 2015 India will begin to outpace China in terms of annual GDP growth
rate. However, the immediate objective should be to take the country into a double-digit growth trajectory.
This target is quite realisable, provided India unleashes its full potential and dares to challenge the hurdles
that have been restricting its growth engine from going full throttle. And now there are also some
encouraging signals to this effect. Foreign direct investment (FDI) into India has gone up by an impressive
56 per cent to $2.53 billionrecently, indicating improvement ininvestor sentiment.
The current edition of the magazine attempts to disseminate valuable information on modern day methods,
materials and practices inthe field of corrosion, formwork and tunnelling for the benefit of our readers.
We hope youenjoy the current editionand as always, we are all ears to knowwhat youthink.
Regards
Encouraging Signals
EDITOR'S COMMENT
FORM IV: The Masterbuilder
Place of publication: Chennai, Periodicity of Publication: Monthly, Printers Name: Ashok Natarajan, Nationality: Indian, Address : Times Printers &
Publishers, No.57 (29), Dr. Besant Road, Ice House, Chennai - 600 014 Publisher's Name: K P Pradeep, Nationality : Indian, Address : MB
Publishers Pvt. Ltd, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Editor's Name: K P Pradeep, Nationality: Indian,
Address: MB Publishers Pvt. Ltd, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Names and addresses of individuals
who own the newspaper and partners or shareholders holding more than one percent of the total capital: K P Pradeep, No.102/11, Tripti
Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Nigel Narayan, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008.
Declaration
I, K P Pradeep, hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Date: 25/March/2012
Sd/-
K P Pradeep
K.P Pradeep, Editor-in-Chief
editor@masterbuilder.co.in
Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd
The month of March, financially the most critical month in the Indian
economy, the month that sets in the mercury heat across the country, and
the Union Budget presentation, surely qualifies to be the most eventful
period inthe year.
While the drama surrounding the announcement of the Railway Budget
completely overshadowed the announcements in the budget itself, the
Union Budget 2012-13 did not have major surprises waiting for the industry,
as was expected by industry captains. The UPA, in the aftermath of electoral
setbacks in UP seems to have played it safe this time around. While there
are some positive measures announced for the infrastructure sector, it
remains to be seen as to how the government is able to push further policy
reforms suchas FDI inretail and aviationinthe near future.
Along our journey to become the premier construction magazine in the
country, we have always settled for nothing but the best. We are also forever
fuelled by the results of our hard work - delivering the highest quality of
content to our readers.
As we march towards our goals, this month surprised us with a booster, and
awards immemorable. We received the Vishwakarma Award from The
Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) for the Best Online
Construction Magazine and Best Journalist 2012. We followed this up with
another award from the Builder Association of India (BAI-Southern Region)
for Best Construction Magazine. These awards not only recognize our high
value for content but also our innovative routes to market in the dynamic era
that we belong to.
It's great to be recognized for our achievements, but our focus is still remains
steady on the road ahead, driven to be and remain the most comprehensive
civil engineering magazine inthe country.
I also take this opportunity to thank all our readers, advertisers and well
wishers for accepting our invite to attend the recently concluded International
Construction Chemicals Conference (C3) organized by CCMA. The conduct
of C3 could not have been timed better as we enter a crucial second phase
of infrastructure development and the eyes of almost every other industry is
towards the construction sector. The larger scale of projects, which has
pushed up demand for high-strength and quick setting concrete, plus the
greater emphasis on quality, has automatically made a positive impact on
the constructionchemicals market.
The growth story of CCMA also makes for fascinating reading. It is really
interesting since it is perhaps the only industry association whose members
are engaged in intense competition in the marketplace, a point that was
bought out Mr. R. K. Jha, Director, Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT),
during his inaugural address at the conference. The association has grown
to include over 35 member-manufacturers within a remarkably short span of
time. C3 saw every top player in the field of construction chemicals rub
shoulders with each other, all for the greater cause of the promotion of the
industry, something that is remarkable in this day and age of intense
competition.
K.G.K.Moorthy | Vice-Chairman
moorthykgk@yahoo.co.in
10 The Masterbuilder - March 2011 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Eventful March
Loya Constructions Pvt.
Ltd
Contents
Editor's Comment.................
News & Events............................
E-Scape.....................................
Advertisers Index........................
Classification Index.....................
8 & 10
20
252
16
18
Formwork: Industry Analysis
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor
Formwork Equipment:Policy Initiatives Hold the Key for Continued
Growth of Formwork Industry
88 28
40
48
54
66
72
76
84
86
28
66
48
40
12 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
162
Concrete: Benefits
Concrete VS Asphalt Battle for the Future Choice
of Construction Material
Concrete: Durability
Mechanisms of Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete Structures
Dr. Manu Santhanam, Associate Professor, Department of
Civil Engineering, IIT Madras
Corrosion: Reinforcing Steel
Corrosion of Steel in Concrete & Assessment Techniques
George Sergi, Ph.D, Technical Director, Vector Corrosion Technologies
Concrete Corrosion: Reinforcing Steel
Recent Developments in Mitigation of Rebar Corrosion
in Concrete
M N Ramesh, CEO, Savcor India Private Limited
Corrosion: Repair & Rehabilitation
Repair Principles for Corrosion Damaged Reinforced
Concrete Structures
MG Alexander and JR Mackechnie, Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Cape Town
Concrete: Repair & Rehabilitation
Repair and Rehabilitation of Corrosion Damaged
Concrete Structures
P. Srinivasan, Principal Scientist, ACTEL, CSIR- Structural Engineering Research
Centre , CSIR Campus, Taramani
Communication: Feature
Comprehensive Guidelines for Execution of Epoxy/PU
Floorings - Part II
92
94
106
118
124
140
152
Benefits of BIM Technology in Reinforced Concrete Industry Budget 2012-13: Analysis
Budget 2012-13 Impact on Infrastructure Sector
A Masterbuilder Bureau Report
Automation and Robotics
Automation and Robotics in Construction: Applications,
Advancements and Challenges
Chaitanya Goyal
Ground Engineering: Structural Failure
Non-compliant Building in New Zealand Meets a Fatal End
Bhavani Balakrishna
Urban Engineering: Computational Tools
Computational Tools Applied to Urban Engineering
Armando Carlos de Pina Filho, Fernando Rodrigues Lima,
Renato Dias Calado do Amaral Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil
Urban Engineering: Traffic Management
'
Intelligent Traffic Management Systems: A Growing Necessity
Bhavani Balakrishna
Sustainable: Infrastructure
The Beijing Bohai Innovation City
MB Report
Urban Engineering: BIM
Sustainable Design Analysis and Building Information
Modeling
Manideep Saha, Head, AEC & Geospatial, Autodesk India
Communication: Feature
URCIMSTM En-Route to a Systematic Future
'IT' Providing an Impetus for the Surveying Industry
H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd
Contents
216
174
194
226
14 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Formwork: Failure
Formwork Failure: Cases & causes
Special Correspondent
Quake Resistant: Infrastructure
Unraveling the Secrets of 'Tokyo Sky Tree'
Bhavani Balakrishna
Focus Formwork :
Modern Formwork Systems: A Ringside view of the Variety of
Formwork Systems Available Today
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor
Focus: Fabric Formwork
Fabric Formwork: Skys the Limit
Special Correspondent
'Next - Gen' Fiberglass Shuttering Systems from Indigo
Making a Mark with Modular Tunnel Formwork Systems
Construction Chemicals: International Conference
C3 Catapults CCMA into National Limelight
MB Bureau Report
Events: Stimulus 2012
UltraTech 'Stimulus 2012'
MB Bureau Report
Communication: Feature
Revolutionary Solutions for Concrete Repair
Intelligent Shutters from Gandhi Automations
In Conversation with Mr.Ajay Maini, Director,
Maini Construction Equipment
Crush and Convey: The Only Answer to Tackle
Present Day Surface Mine Economics
235
236
238
246
250
251
234
231
168
156
174
180
Tunnelling: Construction Chemicals
The Influence of Construction Chemicals on Tunnel Durability
Willie Kay, Managing Director of WAK Consultants Pte Ltd /
WAK Technologies Pte Ltd , MC Bauchemie Muller GmbH & Co
Tunnel Engineernig: TBM's
Modern TBMs: Enabling the Next Wave of Infrastructure
Growth in India
Bhavani Balakrishna
Tunnel Engineering: Repair & Rehabilitation
Tunnel Repair and Rehabilitation Using Shotcrete
Special Correspondent
Tunnel Engineering: Concrete Admixtures
Durable Concrete for Tunneling Applications
Eugenkleen, MC - Bauchemie Mueller GmbH and Co. KG
Construction: Chemicals
Construction Chemical Industry in India 'vision 2020'
Dr. SK Manjrekar, Managing Director, Sunanda Specialty Coatings Pvt. ltd.
Infrastructure: Tunnels
The Gotthard Tunnel Pass: A True Tunneling Marvel
Bhavani Balakrishna
Infrastructure Tunnels
Marol Maroshi Tunnel: Quenching Mumbai's Thirst
Bhavani Balakrishna
Communication: Feature
Stirling Lloyd Maintains Cut and Cover Tunnel
Success in Hot Aggressive Climates
188
194
204
210
216
220
226
228
Cover Picture Courtesy: www.rmdkwikformnews.co.uk
Singh Construction
Equipments
Contents
Advertisers Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Action Construction Equipment Ltd 123
Ambattur Scafolding Company 187
Atul Fasteners Ltd 117
Baicon 2012 237
Bajaj Products 223
Case New Holland Construction
Equipment (India) Pvt.Ltd 23
Cerachem Pvt.Ltd 35
Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd 25
Chowgule Construction
Technologies Pvt.Ltd Back Cover
Cosmos Construction Machineries
& Equipments Pvt.Ltd 173
Cosmos Sales Corporation 177
Credence Engineers Pvt.Ltd 213
DCS Trading & Services Pvt.Ltd 93
Dextra India Pvt. Ltd 227
Doka India Pvt. Ltd 21
Esquire CMAC Pvt.Ltd 105
E-Surveying Sofetech (India) Pvt.Ltd 209
Fayat Group 7
Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd 9
Greaves Cotton Ltd 6
H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd 13
Hess Concrete Machinery
India (P) Ltd 2nd Wrapper
Hyderabad Industries Ltd Front inner (1) / 53
Hyundai Construction Equipment India Pvt.Ltd 5
Rockster India Ltd 201
Roof India 233
Roshanlal Jain & Sons (Roljack Industries) 203
ROTHO - Robert Thomas Metall- and
Elektrowerke GmbH & Co. KG 223
Savcor India Pvt.Ltd 81
Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt. Ltd 51
Sika India Pvt.Ltd 155
Singh Construction Equipments 15
Sleek Boards (India) Ltd 33
Speedcrafts Ltd 139
Sreerama Industries 229
STA Flooring (Sanjay Tekale Associates) 69 / 115
STP Ltd 101
Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd 181
Technocraft Group 165
Tekla India Pvt.Ltd 79
Texsa India Ltd 27
The Masterbuilder Subscription Form 249
The Supreme Industries Ltd 37
Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt.Ltd 197
Unipave Engineering Products 135
Unisteel Engineering Works 65
United Steel & Structurals Pvt. Ltd 97
Universal Construction
Machinery & Equipment Ltd 91
URC Infotec Pvt.Ltd 73
Venus Equipments & Tools Pvt.Ltd 29 / 31
VRVR Constructions 209
Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd 47
Zamil Steel Buildings India Pvt.Ltd 109
S
T
U
V
W
Z
I
J
L
M
N
P
R
IBK Media 215
Igloo Tiles 71
Indigo Multitrade Pvt.Ltd 159
INSTRUCT 225
JB Engineering and Industrial Company 213
JBA Concerete Solutions 129
Larsen & Toubro Ltd 43
Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd 57
Loya Constructions Pvt.Ltd 11
Machines & Engineering Company 121
MahindraGenio 19
Maini Construction Equipment Pvt.Ltd 161
Maruti Steel Fab 167
MC Bauchemie Pvt.Ltd 61
Metal Tech Constructions Pvt.Ltd 87
Metecno India Pvt.Ltd Front inner (2)
MM Castings (P) Ltd 219
MRT Chemicals Pvt.Ltd 223
National conference on Fast Track Road
Construction in India 215
Nav Nirman Beam Technics 17
Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt.Ltd 89
Neocrete Technologies Pvt.Ltd 83
Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd 151
Pidilite Industries Ltd Back inner
Reliance Industries Ltd 193
Relyon Facility Services Pvt.Ltd 229
Robbins Tunneling & Trenchless
Technology (I) Pvt.Ltd 145
16 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Nav Nirman Beam Technics
Contents
Advertisers Index / Classification
AAC
Building Materials
Concrete demolishing
Construction Equipment & Machinery
Cranes
Crushing
Doors Automatic
ECC
Hyderabad Industries Limited Front Inner (1) / 53
MRT Chemicals Pvt Ltd 223
Concrete Block Making Machinery
Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt Ltd 2nd Wrapper
Machines & Engineering Company (MEC) 121
VRVR Construction 209
Action Construction Equipment Ltd. 123
Case New Holland Equipment Pvt Ltd 23
Chetra Machinery India Pvt. Ltd. 25
Cosmos Construction Machineries &
Equipments Pvt.Ltd 173
DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd 93
Esquire CMAC Pvt.Ltd 105
Hyundai Construction Equipment India Pvt. Ltd. 5
JB Engineering And Industrial Co 213
Marini India Pvt Ltd. (Fayat India) 7
Schwing Stetter India Pvt. Ltd. 51
Singh Construction Equipments &
Machinery Pvt. Ltd. 15
Unipave Engineering Products 135
Universal Construction Machinery &
Equipment Ltd. 91
Venus Equipments And Tools Pvt Ltd 29 / 31
Wirtgen India 47
Unisteel Engineering Works 65
Action Construction Equipment Ltd. 123
DCS Trading & Services Pvt Ltd 93
Kormann Rockstar Recycler India Pvt.Ltd 201
Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt Ltd. 89
Roshan Lal Jain & Sons (Roljack Industries) 203
Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd 9
L & T Construction 43
Loya Peb 11
Metecno India Pvt. Ltd. Front Inner (2)
United Steel and Structurals Pvt Ltd 97
Zamil Steel Buildings India Pvt. Ltd. 109
Atul Fasteners Ltd 117
Ambattur Scaffolding Company 187
Bajaj Products 223
Maini Construction Equipment Pvt Ltd 161
Maruti Steel Fab 167
Sreerama 229
E Surveying Softech (Indias) Pvt. Ltd. 109
Tekla India Pvt LTD. 79
URCIMS 73
Dextra India Pvt. Ltd 227
Igloo Tiles 71
H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd 13
Robbins Tunneling & Trenchless
Technology (I) Pvt. Ltd. 145
Cera - Chem Pvt. Ltd 35
Chowgule Construction Technologies Back Cover
Credence Engineers Pvt Ltd 213
Dr. Fixit (Pidilite) Back Inner
Mc Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd. 61
Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd 151
Sika India Pvt.Ltd 155
STP Ltd 101
The Supreme Industries Ltd. 37
Texsa 27
Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd 151
Sika India Pvt.Ltd 155
Roofing Fastners
Scaffolding
Software Solutions
Splicing Systems
Tiles Manufacturers
TMT-Technology Suppliers
Tunnel Boring Machine
Waterproofing
Waterproofing-Tunnel
Formwork
Facility Services
Flooring
Green Building Products
OEM Suppliers
PEB
Precast Concrete
Repair and Rehabilation
Roofing
Bajaj Products 223
Cosmos Sales Corporation 177
DOKA India Pvt Ltd 21
Indigo Multitrade Pvt Ltd 159
Maini Construction Equipment Pvt Ltd 161
Maruti Steel Fab 167
Nav Nirman Beam Technics 17
Sreerama 229
Relyon Facility Services Pvt. Ltd. 229
JBA Concrete Solutions 129
Neocrete Technologies Pvt Ltd 83
Reliance Industries Ltd 183
STA Concrete Flooring Solutions 69 / 115
Hyderabad Industries Limited Front Inner (1) / 53
MM Castings Pvt. Ltd. 219
Loya Peb 11
Metecno India Pvt. Ltd. Front Inner (2)
United Steel and Structurals Pvt Ltd 97
Zamil Steel Buildings India Pvt. Ltd. 109
Rotho(Robert Thomas Metall- und Elektrowerke
GmbH & Co. KG) 223
Cera - Chem Pvt. Ltd 35
Chowgule Construction Technologies Back Cover
Credence Engineers Pvt Ltd 213
Dr. Fixit (Pidilite) Back Inner
Mc Bauchemie (India) Pvt. Ltd. 61
Nina Concrete Systems Pvt Ltd 151
Sika India Pvt.Ltd 155
STP Ltd 101
The Supreme Industries Ltd. 37
Lipi Polymers Pvt. Ltd. 57
18 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
MahindraGenio
Exception from Import Duty for Road Equipments and TBM's
News & Events
space. In total, 300,000 square meters
of space are available for bauma China
2012.
Interest from the industry worldwide
continues at a high level: Austria,
Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy,
Korea, Spain and the US will each be
taking a pavilionat bauma China.
Tougher emission norms have become
the norm, throughout the world and
India is no different. Construction
equipment suppliers are therefore
going the whole hog literally to come
out with products that less polluting and
more importantly also fuel efficient, a
key factor affecting sales in a country
like India.
There are already several research
initiatives that are focused on coming
out with alternate sources of fuel for
powering construction equipment.
Haulage trucks that are powered by
liquefied petroleum gas or LPG is a
good example. There are also reports of
hybrid haulage vehicles on the line of
cars that could hit the market soon.
A lot of R & D focus of major construc-
tion equipment suppliers of late has
been focused on improving engine
performance, which bodes well ulti-
mately for the customer. It however,
remains to be seen as to how the
suppliers manage to offer technologi-
cally advanced, fuel efficient and envi-
ronment-friendly machines, while at the
same time keeping their prices compet-
itive.
The buzz around bauma China is
getting bigger by the day. Already
bauma China is setting a new exhibitor
record: By the middle of February 2012,
over 1,900 companies had already
applied to exhibit at the International
Trade Fair for Construction Machinery,
Building Material Machines, Construc-
tion Vehicles, and Equipment, which
takes place in November 2012. This
figure exceeds the figure of 1,892 exhib-
Record Number of Exhibitors
at bauma China 2012
Natural Gas Could
Soon Fuel Construction
Equipments
CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
20 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Full exemption from import duty on
specified equipment imported for
road construction by contractors of
Ministry of Road Transport and High-
ways, NHAI and State Governments
is being extended to contracts
awarded by Metropolitan Develop-
ment Authorities.
Tunnel boring machines and parts for
their assembly are covered by this
exemption. The Union Finance Minis-
ter, Mr.Mukherjee proposed to allow
their import free of duty without end-
use condition, in the Union Budget
2012-13.
The pace of awarding of road and
highway projects is expected to pick
upsteam inthe next fewmonths.
itors who took part in the last bauma
China. And we still have nine months to
go before bauma China 2012 gets
under way: it is to be held between
November 27 and 30, 2012 at the
Shanghai New International Expo
Centre (SNIEC).
Mr.Collin Davis, Exhibition Group
Director at Messe Mnchen Interna-
tional, commenting onthe development
said "It was our aim to offer our exhibi-
tors improved conditions for their
presentations in the halls. And, as we
have eight more halls available for this
year's event, we have been much better
able to meet their space requirements."
Demand for space on the open-air site
far currently exceeds the space avail-
able. Important key players, however,
are making use of the additional hall
Doka India Pvt. Ltd
INFRASTRUCTURE
News & Events
22 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
38 New BRTs Proposed
for Delhi
Expert Panel says
PPP not a Good Idea
Mega Infrastructure
Projects Expected to Reach
Completion by 2013
Standard & Poor Explores
the Risks Involved in Indian
Infrastructure Projects
While there have been calls from
several quarters for increasing the
focus on public-private partnership
(PPP) model for infrastructure develop-
ment, an expert panel has said some-
thing to the contrary.
A planning commission working group,
headed by former Managing Director of
Delhi Metro, Dr.E.Sreedharan has
rejected the PPP model for developing
urban infrastructure projects, particu-
larly transport infrastructure, according
to a recent news report. The group also
pointed out that internationally too the
PPP model has not been successful,
particularly in the case of urban infra-
structure projects.
It however remains to be seen howseri-
ously the government takes the panel's
recommendations, provided the fact
that it has been banking on huge private
sector participation for furthering the
infrastructure development process in
the country.
The Maharashtra state government has
allocated funds to the tune of ` 4,825
crore for the MMRDA (Mumbai Metro-
A recent Standard & Poor's (S&P) rating
states that Indian infrastructure projects
are likely to be affected by the airport
regulator's decision to put forth a tariff-
increase proposal for Delhi international
airports. The decision can hold back
private-sector participation in regulated
high-investment projects.
politan Region Development Authority)
to compl ete mega-i nfrastructure
projects in and around Mumbai in the
fiscal year 2012-13. Informing that no
new announcements have been made,
Rahul Asthana, the MMRDA Commis-
sioner stated that the goal is to
complete mega-projects.
The budget was sanctioned recently at
the MMRDA's 130th meeting chaired by
the Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan. The
22-km Mumbai-Trans Harbor Link
would be started at an estimated cost of
` 8,800 to be spent through 4 to 5 years.
The 126-km Virar-Alibag Multi-Modal
Corridor will be implemented at a cost
of ` 9,326 crore. Involving two phases
namely, the 79-km Virar-Chirner and 47-
km Chirner-Alibaug, it will emphasize on
separate lanes for buses, two-wheelers
and non-motorized transportation, said
the IANS news report. The ` 338 crore
allocated for the Metro rail will cover the
Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar stretch,
t he Char kop- Bandr a- Mankhur d
segment and the underground Colaba-
BKC-Andheri Link.
The monorail has been allocated with
` 870 crore, while the road network
around the city will be developed at a
cost of ` 1,460 crore. The suburban
railway network, which is the lifeline of
Mumbai, will be developed at a cost of
` 290 crore, and the satellite towns
around Mumbai have been allotted
` 800 crore. The MMRDA has also
allotted ` 390 crore to expand water
resources, taking into account the
increasing water requirements in the
Mumbai MetropolitanRegion.
The Delhi government has planned 38
new corridors, with 14 already sanc-
tioned of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). In
2011, it decided to rename BRT as inte-
grated transit corridor, probably to
make Delhiites forget their regular plight
on the Ambedkar Nagar-Moolchand
BRT, known for its jams and lengthy-
signal cycles.
Six corridors have been handed over to
the DIMTS (Delhi integrated multi-
modal transit system) which is respon-
sible for maintaining BRTs. DIMTS will
apply the same design constituting a
central bus lane with MV (motor vehicle)
lanes on either side. The remaining part
of the road is to be retrofitted according
to the guidelines of UTTIPEC (Umbrella
Traffic and Transport Agency).The
design also includes separate parking
spaces f or Gr ami n Sewa and
autorickshaws, apart from hawker
spaces close to intersections.
According to DIMTS, it has adopted a
hybrid system considering the conges-
tion in the areas, so that the separate
bus lane can merge with the mixed
traffic on narrow stretches. Prof P K
Sarkar, a transport planning expert, said
that the designdoes not use space opti-
mally, and the main problem is in the
junction treatment involving lengthy
signal cycles. He added that the
corridor could work if the bus lane is
totally separated or elevated, as traffic
jams are unavoidable in a traffic-heavy
junction with a bus lane at grade with an
MV lane.
URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE
Case New Holland Construction
Equipment (India) Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
least one lakh toilets in rural areas to
achieve total sanitation cover in next ten
years. He requested Dr. Pathak to come
forward to support government's aim in
this regard.
Expressing great concern over the
issue of open defecation in India, the
Minister pointed out that country still
lacks in the field of sanitation. He called
upon NGOs to launch awareness
campaigns to motivate for use of toilets
instead of going for open defecation,
further added the release.
Abhiyan. Addressing a group of liber-
ated manual scavengers during his visit
to Sulabh headquarters here, he said
that the government is considering
increasing the grant of ` 3 thousand to
` 7-8 thousands for the construction of
individual toilets in rural areas. The
minister said that his ministry would
focus on the implementation of sanita-
tion related issues at gram panchayat
level. He announced to open a sanita-
tion club for each and every school of
the country and the ministry will provide
an annual grant of ` 3000 for every sani-
tation club to create awareness among
childrenat grass root level.
Appreciating the efforts of Sulabh Inter-
national in the field of Sanitation,
Mr. Ramesh ur ged i t s f ounder
Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak to focus on rural
areas to achieve the target of total sani-
tation in the country. Lauding the initia-
tive of Sulabh, the minister said that
there is a need of the construction of at
24 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
INFRASTRUCTURE
Mr.Rajiv Vishwanathan, the credit
analyst of S&P was quoted stating that
the potential rise in tariffs at Delhi airport
stresses the requirement for a private-
public participation policy at every level
of the government. He explained that
private funding can be sought by
building confidence with regard to
several factors like proper project prep-
aration, feasibility study, transparent
bidding and so on.
An impact of the tariff-rise on airlines
and passengers was also mentioned
apart from the reasons behind the
demand of higher tariffs at the Delhi
airport. It further describes the effect
brought upon the project sponsor due
to tariff-adjustment delays. Private
sector participants will observe the
consequences, transparency and
timeframe for the regulatory process.
Mr Vishwanathan opined that higher
tariffs can have a negative impact on a
few low-cost airlines functioning
outside Delhi, and stated that large
international airlines could bring down
the frequency of flights, rather thanstop-
ping operations to Delhi or shifting to
low-cost airports.
The Union government is seriously
considering to 40 percent increase for
sanitation sector in the annual budget
this year, according to a recent press
release from the Union Ministry of Rural
Development. Indicating this Union
minister for Rural Development,
Mr. Jairam Ramesh announced to
l aunch a nati onwi de sani tati on
campaign with title Nirmal Bharat
Rural Development Ministry
proposes 40% increase in
sanitation projects
First Private Airport in the Country to be Built at Karaikal
The country's first fully private airport
would become a reality in another two
years time. The airport would come
up near Karaikal, in Puducherry,
stated the developers, a Coimbatore-
based consortium, Super Airport
Infrastructure Pvt, making it a rare first
in the country. The airport could boost
tourism in the region which has
several spiritual centers dotting
nearby towns. The airport is also
expected to give boost to further
economic development of the
region, along with the nearby port in
Karaikal.
According to the Chairman of the
company, Mr. J. Venk at es am
Chowdhury, the project would be
spread over an area of 562 acrea,
with the initial expense involved will
be `150 crore.
AIR PORTS AIR PORTS
Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
26 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
of quakes in north India is still high with
Sikkim and most of north India coming
under seismic zones 4 and 5, viz. high
vulnerability to high-intensity earth-
quakes. (pi ct ure court esy: Chi p
Chipman/Bloomberg)
The consortium of Tata Power Co. Ltd
and SN Power group that was formed in
2009 is holding discussions about a Rs
200 crore transaction to buy a sizeable
stake in the 96 MW hydroelectric power
project from Sarda Energy and Miner-
als, Sikkim, according to reports. Sarda
Energy has appointed Deloitte Touche
Tohmatsu India Pvt. Ltd for advice on
the stake sale. According to Tata
Power's website, the consortium was
formed to jointly carry out hydroelectric
development plans in India and Nepal.
Currently involvedin Himachal Pradesh's
236 MW-Dugar hydroelectric projects,
and Nepal's 880 MW-Tamakoshi-III
project, the consortium aims at
launching 2000 MW with construction
underway or operational by 2015, and
an aggregate of 4000 MW by 2020. A
Sarda Energy spokesperson stated that
the equity amount to be divested by the
company will be fixed after discussions,
as the project is in the preliminary phase
and the company is looking for inves-
tors.
The power sector of India requires an
additional investment of $400 billion in
the 12th Five Year Plan, with fund scar-
city endangering to deteriorate the
current energy deficit, which is the chief
stumbling block to sustain and further
economic development. Hydropower
projects require dedicated technology
and design, and are vulnerable to
geological disasters like earthquakes,
landslides, and floods.
The 6.8 magnitude quake that struck
the Sikkim-Nepal border last September
has raised concerns over the future of
hydroelectric development in the coun-
try. Scientists predict that the probability
Tata Power with SN Power
plan to buy major stake in
Sikkim's Sarda Energy project
Rural Electrification
Corp. Ltd to avail a new loan
of 100 million from
KfW Bankengruppe
Japan's Kobe Steel
acquires 3.25 percent stake
in Man Industries (India) Ltd
water by 2015, and 15 percent by 2020.
India's top power-sector regulator
namely, Central Electricity Regulatory
Commission has put forth guidelines to
issue renewable energy certificates in a
bid to encourage green energy. States,
individuals and trading entities can buy
green energy from certificate holders.
Different levels of purchase obligations
will be apportioned to different states,
but the high production costs and
impact on the budgets of power utilities
are likely to cause dissuasion.(Picture
Courtesy: http://www.sarkaritel.com)
The REC (Rural Electrification Corp.
Ltd), a state-owned corporation is
raising a 100 million-loan from
Germany-based KfW Bankengruppe to
fund renewable energy projects at
concessional interest rates. The REC
Chairman & MD, Mr. Rajeev Sharma
said that the process is almost done
with the loan agreement to be signed
soon, and a spokesperson from KfW
Bankengruppe confirmed the sanction,
stating that the contract will be signed
this month.
REC has already availed a 140 million
loan for power transmission and distri-
bution projects. It has sought a foreign
lender to overcome the acute funds
shortage in power companies in India.
Together with PFC (Power Finance
Corp. Ltd), REC accounts for about 60
percent of financing for the power
sector. This is the first time that REC has
set forth guidelines for financing renew-
able energy projects, given the current
scenario that demands diverse energy
sources, forcing the need for alternative
renewable sources. According to the
climate-change action plan, India must
generate 10 percent of its power from
renewable sources like solar, wind and
Japan's Kobe steel is set to buy 3.25
percent stake in the Mumbai-based
Man Industries (India) Ltd, a steel pipe
manufacturing company. The invest-
ment is calculated at ` 30 crore and the
duo have planned to survey the pros-
pects in the global market, as part of the
transaction.
A report from Man Industries states that
the companies will carry on with their
research to strengthen their 'strategic'
partnership on a long-term basis. Kobe
intends to pick up 1.81 million shares at
` 165 per unit. Man Industries showed a
17 percent rise in revenues and a 4.7
percent rise in the net profit for FY12's
first nine months.
According to Mr.R.C. Mansukhani, the
promoter and chairman of Man Indus-
tries stated that it is the first such alli-
ance, where a plate/coil manufacturer
from Japan has associated with a pipe
manufacturer based in India. (Picture
Courtesy: Kobe Steel)
CORPORATE
Texsa India Ltd
Budget 2012-13 Analysis
he Union Finance Minister Mr.Pranab Mukherjee's
budget speech for 2012-13 was punctuated by bits
Tof dry humour in between. A good example was
when the seasoned politician stated that being the
Finance Minister of the country was one of the most
difficult jobs. In a way, the Finance Minister was speaking
the truth since he had the onerous task of balancing
populism with a crying need for reforms. The budget was
focused on trimming down subsidies to two percent of the
GDPand left India Inc withmixed feelings.
Terming 2011 as the year of recovery interrupted, the
Mr.Pranab Mukherjee stated that the current year was a
challenge for Indian economy but India has thrived under
such challenges and will continue to do so. He said that
the aim of his budget is to create an enabling atmosphere
for corporate entities, farmers, entrepreneurs, and workers
to take initiatives for robust growth. He further said that the
budget also aims to ensure that the benefits of growth
reachall sections of population.
As expected, focus on infrastructure development was
one of the key components of the Union Budget 2012-13.
While several measures to rejuvenate the infrastructure
development process through infusion of fresh funding
sources has been made, there were several other areas
where the pressure of coalition politics and the recent set
back in elections in some states seemed to have clearly
weighed heavily on the Centre, stopping them from taking
bold reform initiatives. Let us take a look at some of the
highlights of the Union Budget 2012-13 and its impact on
the infrastructure and real estate sectors.
28 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
IMPACT ON
IMPACT ON
INFRASTRUCTURE sector INFRASTRUCTURE sector
2 12-13
2 12-13 2 12-13
2 12-13
BUDGET
BUDGET
A Masterbuilder Bureau Report A Masterbuilder Bureau Report
Venus Equipments & Tools
Pvt.Ltd
30 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Sector Empowered
Emphasizing on infrastructure and
industrial development, the Finance
Minister said that during the 12th Plan,
infrastructure investment will go up to
` 50 lakh crorewith half of this expected
from private sector. Stating that in
2011-12 tax free bonds for ` 30,000
crore were announced for financing
infrastructure projects, he proposed to
double it to raise ` 60,000 crore in
2012-13.
The Minister proposed to allow
External Commercial Borrowings (ECB)
to part finance Rupee debt of existing
power projects. The coal shortage issue
which has been plaguing the power
sector has been addressed , at least
temporarily through the customs relief
for fuel for thermal power projects that
has been announced under the budget.
In the realm of infrastructure, customs
relief is being given to power, coal and
railways sectors. While coal gets full
customs duty exemption for 2 years,
natural gas, LNG and certain uranium
fuel get full duty exemption this year.
Different levels of duty concessions are
being provided to help mining, railways,
roads, civil aviation, manufacturing,
healthand nutritionand environment.
The budget was though silent on
the duty levied on imported power
equipment. Those who were waiting for
policy initiatives aimed at attracting
overseas power equipment companies
to set up shop in India also need to wait
sincenosuchinitiativeswereannounced.
In a move aimed at giving further fillipto
the renewable energy sector, solar
thermal plant imports have been given
customs duty exemption.
TheRoadtoGrowth
The allocation for the Ministry of
Road Transport & Highways has been
enhanced to ` 25,360 crore, in 2012-13
which is a 14% hike from the previous
allocation. The Finance Minister in the
budget proposed to allow External
Commercial Borrowings (ECB) for
capital expenditure on the maintenance
and operation of tolled roads and
highways, as long as it is part of the
original project. This is with a view to
encourage PPPs in the road sector,
according to the Finance Minister.
The Finance Minister said that a
target of 8,800 km for the highways to
be constructed under the NHDP has
been set during 2012-13. He stated
that the Ministry of Road Transport &
Highways is geared up to achieve the
target of awarding projects for 7,300
km under NHDP during 2011-12. This
would be 44% higher than the figure of
5,082 km awarded during 2010-11.
The Finance Minister informed that
out of the 44 projects awarded during
2011-12, 24 projects have fetched a
premium. The allocation for Pradhan
Mantri RoadSadakYojana(PMGSY) has
been proposed to be increased by 20
per cent to ` 24,000 crore in2012-13.
Mixed bag: The Union Budget 2012-13 was neither outright populist nor reformist
Budget 2012-13 Analysis
Venus Equipments &
Tools Pvt.Ltd
The hike in allocation is likely to see
a renewed impetus as far as awarding
and building of major highway projects
and expressways inthe near future.
ASmoothRide
The government has bought some
cheer to the urban infrastructure
planners, with the Urban Development
Ministry getting an increase of Rs.874
crore in its annual budget. A significant
chunk of the amount is expected to be
spent ondevelopingthemetronetworks
around the country. The ministry's
allocation last year was ` 6,855 crore
which has been now increased to
` 7,729 crore. The increased allocation
is expected to expedite project com-
pletion processes in metro projects in
the near future by the ministry.
Not Grounded
While no dramatic measures were
announced for improving civil aviation
infrastructure during the Union Budget
2012-13, a slew of steps to improve
cash flow in order to bring back airline
carriers on the right track hold promise.
While airline carriers can now get
cheaper dollar loans through ECB, the
Finance Minister also announced that
the step to allow 49% stake for foreign
airlines in Indian carriers and direct
import of aviation turbine fuel (ATF),
measures that could improve the
situation for airline carriers and in turn
put pressure on improving airport
infrastructure inIndiancities.
This apart, the stimulus package
announced as part of the budget for
the infrastructure sector is expected to
have a positive impact, as far as
development of civil aviation infra-
structure is concerned. It remains to be
seen as to what are the other policy
initiatives that the government brings
into address issues such as land
acquisitionandgrantingof environmental
clearances for civil aviation infrastructure
projects.
Status Quo
The port sector looks set for a long haul
withnomajor policyinitiativesannounced
pertaining to its development in the
Union Budget 2012-13. However, a
significant chunk of the ` 50 lakh crore
investment that has been announced
for the infrastructure sector during the
12th Plan period is expected to flow
into the ports sector, which with the
boost to manufacturing, is automatically
expected to play a key role in the next
five years.
ManufacturingThrust
The lack of clarify on the implemen-
tation of the Direct Tax Code (DTC)
means that the situation with respect to
investment in Special Economic Zones
(SEZs) is likely to be uncertain for some
moretime. Therearehowever indications
that the manufacturing sector would
continue to get attention on a priority
basis, which could prove a boon to
project developers. The Finance
Minister for example, has announced
to reduce basic customs duties on plant
and machinery imported for setting-up
of iron ore pellet plants or iron ore
beneficiation plants from 7.5 percent to
2.5 percent. Mr.Mukherjee said that
relief has been proposed for sectors
such as steel, textiles, branded ready-
made garments, low-cost medical
devices, labour intensive sectors
producing items of mass consumption
and matches produced by semi-
mechanized units. He proposed to fully
exempt automatic shuttle-less looms
from basic customs duty of 5 per cent.
Similarly, full exemption on basic duty
is being accorded to automatic silk
reeling and processing machinery as
well as its parts, measures which could
give much needed impetus to the textile
sector and in turn impact the fortunes
of project developers.
Adding to the manufacturing sector
focus is the announcement on the
Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor by
the Finance Minister. Mr.Mukherjee
informed that the Japanese Prime
Minister has announced US $ 4.5 billion
for the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor
(DMIC). In September last year, the
Gover nment appr oved Cent r al
assistance to the tune of ` 18,500 crore
The power sector has got much needed funding in Union Budget 2012-13
32 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Budget 2012-13 Analysis
Sleek Boards
(India) Ltd
for a period of five years for the project,
the Minister added. The DMIC is being
developed on either side of the Western
Dedicated Rail Freight Corridor.
Rural Tilt
There was also a distinct tilt towards
rural development in the Union Budget
2012-13, with the announcement of
enhancing allocation under the Rural
Infrastructure Development Fund to
` 20,000 crore with ` 5,000 crore
exclusively earmarked for creating
warehousing facilities.
Similarly, Viability Gap Funding (VGF)
under the Scheme for Support to PPP
in infrastructure has been extended to
irrigation including, channels, embank-
ments and dams, which comes as
much needed good news for project
developers.
EnsuringInvestment Flow
The government has realizing the
importance of the infrastructure sector
s the driver of economic growth had
recently approved a harmonized
master list of infrastructure sector. The
move is aimed at removing ambiguity
with respect to defining sectors that fall
under the infrastructure sector and
improve the investment climate in the
sector. The Finance Minister in his
budget speech highlighted how the
Indian Infrastructure Finance Company
Limited (IIFCL) has been set up to
improve ease of access to credit to
infrastructure projects. The government
has also announced a proposal to
introduce a new scheme called Rajiv
Gandhi Equity Savings Scheme to
allow for income tax deduction of 50
per cent to new retail investors who
invest up to ` 50,000 directly in equities
and whose annual income is below
` 10 lakh. Regarding capital markets,
the Finance Minister proposed to allow
Qualified Foreign Investors (QFIs) to
access Indian Corporate Bond market.
He also proposed simplifying the
process of Initial Public Offer (IPO), all
measures that are likely to have a
positive impact on the investment
climate with respect to infrastructure
projects in the country. The increased
flowof investment, apart from the other
policy initiatives that have been
proposed as part of the Union Budget
will also play a role in deciding how the
next phase of urban infrastructure
development initiatives pan out in the
near future.
ChuggingAlong
The political drama that was
witnessed after the announcement of
the Railway Budget 2012-13 perhaps
completely overshadowed the fact that
it was the first time in several years that
passenger fares had been hiked, how-
ever marginal, a fact which made it a
different budget, inmorewaysthanone.
In this Budget, the Railway Minister
has focused on five important fields,
which are: Safety; Consolidation; De-
congestion & Capacity Augmentation;
Modernization; and to bring down the
Economic turnaround of airline carriers and increased flow of investment into infrastructure is expected to
give push to airport projects
A proposal to develop and maintain railway stations on the lines of airports has been announced in the
Railway Budget 2012-13
34 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Budget 2012-13 Analysis
Cerachem Pvt.Ltd
Win some, lose some: the Union Budget has brought some cheer to the realty sector
Operating Ratio from 95% to 84.9% in
2012-13.
Proposing highest ever plan outlay
for the Railway Budget, the Railway
Minister. Mr. Dinesh Trivedi, in his
budget speech said that it will be
financed through Gross Budgetary
Support (GBS) of ` 24,000 crore;
Railway Safety Fund of ` 2,000 crore;
internal resources of ` 18,050 crore;
and Extra Budgetary Resources of
` 16,050 crore, which includes market
borrowing of ` 15,000 crore through
IRFC.
One of the highlights is the proposal
to set up the Indian Railways Stations
Development Corp, to maintain and
develop stations on the lines of airports.
Another eagerly awaited development
that has left many disappointed is inthe
sphere of high speed trains. The minister
has announced the setting up of a
National High Speed Rail Authority and
the addition to the pre-feasibility
studies to the already six high speed
corridors that have been identified. The
Delhi-Jaipur-Ajmer-Jodhpur line will be
takenupfor study in2012-13.
The minister has announced a rail
coach factory at Palakkad, apart from
other coach manufacturing facilities in
Kolar in Karnataka andKutch in Gujarat.
A wagon factory in Sitapali, in Odisha
has also been announced. A new
component factory wouldbe established
at Shyamnagar inWest Bengal.
Safety was the buzzword in the
minister'sbudget speech. Heannounced
thesettingupof anindependent Railway
Safety Authority and that all unmanned
level crossings in the country would be
abolished inthe next five years time.
Another positive move has been
the announcement during the Railway
Budget 2012-13 of setting up of
renewable energy capacities by the
Railways for its own use. The move if
implemented in all earnestness could
prove to be a trendsetting one, worthy
of emulationby other sectors.
It however, remains to be seen as to
whether theoverall packageannounced
as part of the Union Budget to 2012-13
to rejuvenate the infrastructure sector
has a positive impact onthe railways.
TheRealty Scene
For those in the real estate sector,
the Union Budget 2012-13 was among
the most eagerly awaited ones in
recent times. Ultimately the announce-
ments of the Finance Minister turnedout
to be amixedbagfor thoseinthesector.
For those hoping for interventions
such as award of infrastructure status
to realty and increase in income tax
exemption on principal and interest,
were left disappointed, as the budget
kept silent onthese key issues. Grant of
infrastructure status has been a long
pending demand, since the sector is a
known driver of economic growth and
generates thousands of jobs across
the country.
However, there was a silver lining in
the form of the extension of the 1%
interest rate subvention loans up to
` 15 lacs for housing projects upto ` 25
lacs by 1moreyear. External Commercial
Borrowings (ECBs) for affordable housing
is another move that is expected to
boost the sagging fortunes of the realty
sector. Similarly the setting up of a
Credit GuaranteeTrust fundfor ensuring
institutional credit for housing loans is
another measure that is expected to
bring some cheer to buyers.
The hike in indirect taxes though is
expected to put a spanner again into
the smooth delivery of real estate and
could impact demand inthe long run.
The government has also stated
that it is committed in its efforts to arrive
at a broad based consensus on the
issue of FDI in retail, is another hope
amidst the gloom for the realty sector.
The real estate sector was in immediate
need of support measures through
means of policy stimuli and easing of
liquidity, tax concessions and the
development of atransparent regulatory
mechanism, steps that could have lead
to significant spurt in demand, especially
inurbanagglomerations.
No specific policy initiatives were
announced for attracting more FDI into
the realty sector in the budget. It was
felt that the easing of norms pertaining
to investment and exit from projects
would have helped in reviving the
interest of overseas players in the
Indianreal estate market.
PictureCourtesy
Thebigprojectme.com, Situanafro.com
Mumbai-localtrains.com, Wikipedia.org
Twocircles.net
36 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Budget 2012-13 Analysis
The Supreme Industries Ltd
40 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Automation and Robotics
of paramount importance andefficiency
in the same lays the foundation for a
fruitful and quality project. It is when the
construction manager's worst nightmares
are about to come true, that the
automation and robotics technology
synchronizes with an engineer's and a
manager's needs and comes to their
rescue!
ecent advancements in the
construction industry have helped
Rus analyze the importance of
time boundprogress, productivity, safety,
quality and skilled labor availability for
profitable and successful construction.
Among the various phases of structure
formation from site survey to its
completion, the construction phase is
Theadvent of computer scienceand
evolution of electronics and robotics
proved to be a milestone in the history
of mankind. Computer technology
applications in construction changed
thevery faceof theindustry. Theeighties
witnessed introduction of robotics and
automation in construction for the
prefabrication of components and
Chaitanya Goyal
Automation and
Robotics in Construction:
Applications, Advancements and Challenges
41 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Automation and Robotics
houses, with the world's first robot
developed in Japan for the purpose of
spraying fireproofing material on steel.
The nineties saw rise of on-site mobile
robots in routine construction, which
are now considered as the most
conventional and critical robots for any
construction activity. Today, artificial
intelligence (AI) provides new tools for
requires developing of automated and
robotized construction system today.
This includes industrialized process
orientation in mining, construction
material production, prefabrication of
construction components, on site
construction, facility management,
rehabilitation and recycling. The
problems facing today's construction
projects can be approached by flexible
automation, using robots based on
computer assistedplanning, engineering
and constructionmanagement.
Influencing construction through a
widespectrumof applications
The project success fromthe project
management's viewpoint is achieved
when the project is completed, bringing
each of the project performance indi-
cators (PPI)- such as cost, schedule,
quality, safety, labor productivity,
materials consumption or waste, etc. to
an optimum value. Applying automa-
tion and robotics in construction is
addressed from the perspective of
raising building projects performance
to serve the client and the environment.
Today, there are several examples of
robotics systems influencing the civil
infrastructure enormously, leading to
astounding performance overall.
ConcreteWorks
Applications for automation in
addressing large-scale and complicated
field problems and humanoid robotic
technology is being developed for
construction site and building service
application.
Analyzing the need of automation and
robotics inconstructionindustry
The need for such technology in the
industry canbe realized inthe definition
of an automated construction robot
itself. Ever since machines came
under computer control we have had
automation. Though robotics provides
altogether new dimensions to the
technology, automated machines are,
in fact, robots. They not only carry out a
complex sequence of operations, but
can also control their performance.
They may vary from a simple tool to fully
automated device, from a material
handling robot that merely helps a
worker install dry wall by balancing the
weight of the panel to a tile inspection
robot that, once started, navigates itself
upa wall, takingsounddata andgraphi-
cally displaying results inreal time.
Construction work is labor intensive
and is conducted in dangerous
situations, also the work content and
materials change frequently. Robots
are thus used widely to help human
workers in construction sites. A
competitive, market oriented and
rationalized construction tomorrow
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Teleoperated Concrete Distribution
42 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
concrete works cover material production,
concrete mixing, laying, post-laying
leveling, removal of surface water, and
final floor finishing. Control systems for
ready mix, precast, pre-stressed and
block plants as well as dispatch
systems for ready mix are now
common at a construction site. Mixer
moisture control, color batching software
for solid or liquid dispensers, etc. are
some examples of the same.
Catchingthetrend, somecontractors
have started to use robots in concrete
floor finishing. Working with soft concrete
can be both physically demanding and
frustrating. An intelligent horizontal
distributor robot has been developed
to pour concrete while it moves and
levels the soft concrete. The robot can
move in any direction and also avoids
obstacles in the work zone, such as
poles. Reducing the difficulty of concrete
floor finishing by using robots like this
to automate the work provides concrete
contractors with a much more efficient
process, allowing more time for more
projects, thus generatingmore revenue.
Remote controlled demolition robots
have also been designed for dismantling
concrete slabs, walls and other interior
structures.
In addition, efforts are underway to
design a robot for concrete surface
processingwhich receives the floor plan
as an input, and after some calcula-
tions of its movement, presents it to the
operator for improvement before acting.
Such applications, when implemented
on common scale, around the globe,
will probably change the overall system
for concrete work.
Constructionof Roads
Road construction projects are very
expensive and highly influenced by
unpredictable factors like weather, type
of soil, environmental issues, etc. This
has led to difficulties in developing
accurate construction plans and
modeling the construction operation
using a traditional simulation system.
The process of automated road
construction starts with input data
measurements carried out on the site.
In road projects, the key input data
includes variations in terrain, elevation
and soil features. Over the past few
years, laser scanning from an aircraft,
helicopter or on the ground has
developed greatly and become increa-
singly popular. A laser-scanned cloud
of 3-D points adjusted to the relevant
coordinate system can be imported
Automation and Robotics
Concrete Floor finishing Robot Modular mobile light weight concrete finishing robot
Sensor Based Compactor
Larsen & Toubro Ltd
into a semi-automatic analysis applica-
tion that can be used to model not only
thecontoursof theterrainbut alsothetree
stands, road alignments and buildings.
The projects executed in the last
few decades were mainly focused on
the development of new generation of
semi-autonomous road pavers and
asphalt compactors. Road paving
robots show high level of automation
through automated reception of asphalt,
automaticcontrol of asphalt conveyance,
asphalt spreading, steering control with
mechanical sensor, paving speed and
automatically controlled start/stop of
all paving functions.
production and customization that are
the norm in manufacturing, apply to it. It
is thus easy to adapt to automation,
integration and optimization. In this
scenario, newer materials can be
applied, tight tolerances achieved,
while the built products are not affected
by outside climatic conditions, as is the
case for site built housing.
The automation pertaining to the
prefab construction sector, typically
fallsintooneof threecategories:1) prefab
components making process, (parts,
panels, precast, formwork, etc.) which
deal primarily with the construction of
the building blocks; 2) assembly
44 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
The use of different 3-D methods in
measuring, design, machine control
and as-built measuring has increased
a lot. For example, laser scanning,3-D
ground penetrating radar, 3-Dmodeling
and design software's, 3-D machine
control systems, the development of
an integrated total process model for
comprehensive automation, etc. have
witnessed a considerable rise in their
application.
Prefabricationandmodular construction
The sector that represents factory
built housing includes products built in
factories. Thus the principles of mass
Automation and Robotics
3-D control (Trimble, two GPS antennas) for grader A 3-D machine control model for excavator
brick assembly robot Attaching the ceramic tile with hybrid construction robot system
process in which the construction
components are installed to create
buildings, houses, etc. by an array of
subcontractors, sometimes having
conflicting workflows; 3) construction
business processes that represent
both the business and support
processes like project management,
supply chain management, document
management, workflow management,
change management, planning &
scheduling, etc.
In prefabricated masonry, stationary
brickwork machines drastically raise
production capacities. Moreover, they
lead to considerable relief in labor and
manpower savings. A new develop-
ment surge had been under way for
some years, which in, individual cases
has already led to Computer-Aided
Manufacturing (CAM) and in some
approaches to Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing (CIM) of pre-fabricated
concrete parts. We today are thus in
the phase of promoting flexible
production system using robotic cells
which could execute various tasks such
as setting molds, placing reinforcement
bars or mats distributing concrete for
various products such as floor, roof,
wall, beam and columnelements.
Earthmoving
Industries such as mining and
construction in which earthmoving
plays a fundamental role are constantly
under pressure to improve productivity,
efficiency, and safety. Also, automation
of field worthy earthmovers is a difficult
problem. These machines must operate
in unstructured, dynamic, outdoor
environments, often in poor visibility
conditions androughweather. However,
after decades of increments in size and
power, practical limits have been
reached and now automation is being
sought for further improvements. Com-
puting technology has also reached
the stage where fast, compact and
rugged components can match the
bandwidthof sensory data.
Beyond the industrial arena, which
is motivated mainly by economic
considerations, automated earthmoving
machines are needed in worksites that
are hazardous for humans. For example,
NASA is interested in setting up Lunar
and Martian habitats for humans, and it
is expected that automated excavators
will do much of the work before humans
arrive. Another example is in the
remediation of waste sites where
chemical and nuclear wastes are
stored. The cycle of operation for a fully
autonomous machine is: sense, plan,
Automated Excavator
The user-interface of the 3-D control system of excavator
Autonomous wheel loader
Automation and Robotics
45 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Radio Emitter
GPS Position
Position
Emitter
Color
Microcamara
Posicion
Sender Wire
Handheld
GPS
Microphone
Headphones
Antenna
Differential
Correccion
Wire
To / From
Control
Center
Microcamara
Batteries
Voice & Images
Communication
Antenna
and execute. First, an automated
machine must sense its own state and
the world around it. Next it must use this
information along with a description of
a goal to be achieved to plan the next
action to be taken. Finally, the action
must be executed via the mechanism.
Apart from these applications,
automation and robotics have extensive
application in timber and steel produc-
tion. It is widely used for on site and off
site welding activities and to produce
and erect structural steel components.
Also, now it is being put to use in
construction management and main-
tenance systems.
Barriers and future of automation and
robotics inconstructionindustry
Typically in manufacturing field,
robots are stationary and product moves
alongtheassemblyline. Thusautomation
is easier to incorporate because each
product is identical with respective
tasks done over and over. However,
construction robots face with different
demands than conventional industrial
robots. They must move about the site,
because buildings are stationary and
of a large size. Construction robots are
also faced with changing site condi-
tions and must be reprogrammed with
each newcondition. They must be able
to function under adverse weather
conditions including variations in
humidity and temperature. Additionally,
they are constantly exposed to dust
and dirt on the site. Thus, there is a
need to develop a robotic system for
full-scale experimentation for realistic
assessment of automation in the
construction industry. In recent years,
many prototype robots have been
developed, but few practical examples
canbefoundonconstructionsitestoday.
Due to the high complexity of the
construction process and the stagnating
technological development a long-
term preparation is necessary to adapt
automation to advanced construction
methods. Architects, engineers and all
other participants of the construction
process have to be integrated in this
adaptation process. The short- and
long-term development of automation
will take place step-by-step. It is almost
inevitable that intelligent machines will
find their way into construction. Without
question, both the fragmentary nature
and the size of this industry make it
unreceptive to revolutionary changes.
In addition, there are many institutional
barriers. Despite these facts, there are
signs that forecast a transition period in
construction, and they are becoming
more and more visible.
Countries like USA and Japan have
been the pioneers in leading the
research and development of auto-
mated systems with the European
Union following not far behind. India
though, still has a long way to go to
contribute to this rapidly evolving
technology. Although the fully automated
construction site is still a dream of
some ci vi l engi neers, research
devel opments have shown the
promise of robotics and automation in
construction.
Completely equipped helmet for better safety and operation
Carpentary aid wearable robot
Transportable welding robot in an integrated
automated building construction site
Automation and Robotics
46 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd
48 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Ground Engineering Structural Failure
structural design of the building. Not
only was the building subject to
considerable horizontal movement,
but also amongst the highest recorded
(in any urban environment) vertical
acceleration.
New Zealand's Department of
Bui l di ng and Housi ng recentl y
released a report analyzing the causes
of the collapse of the CTV building and
three other buildings in the neighbor-
hood. Todeducethemost likelycollapse
scenario, structural analyses were
undertaken to develop an understan-
anterbury Television (CTV)
building in Christchurch, New
CZealand, collapsed in the
aftershock of a magnitude 6.3
earthquake causing death of 115
people and leaving several others
severely injured. Built in 1986, the CTV
building survived the effects of
September 4, 2010 earthquake and
December 26, 2010 aftershock without
significant damage. However, it could
not withstand the aftershock of Feb 22,
2011 since the demands greatly
exceeded those anticipated in the
ding of the building's likely response to
earthquake ground motions, and the
demands placed on the key compo-
nents in the building's structure. These
analyses were considered, along
within formation from eye-witness
accounts, photographs, physical
examinations and selective sampling
and testing of building remnants.
As per the report, three factors
played a vital role in the collapse of the
building. These were the intensity of the
horizontal ground shaking, lack of
ductility in the columns and asymmetri-
Non-compliant Building
in New Zealand Meets
a Fatal End
Bhavani Balakrishna
49 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Ground Engineering Structural Failure
cal shear wall layout. It wasalsoaccepted
that the following factors added to or
may have added to the effects of the
critical factors - lowconcrete strengths,
vertical ground accelerations, interaction
of columns and spandrels, separation
of floor slabs from the north core and
structural influence of masonry walls.
The report also ascertained that the
limited robustness and integrity of the
tying together of building components
was not a cause of the collapse but was
inadequate to holdthe buildingtogether
when the collapse started. Also, the
foundations were not a factor in the
collapse.
Thebuildinghadfailedtocomply with
three aspects of design and construc-
tion that was expected by the standards
intheyear 1986whenit wasbuilt - column
ductility, asymmetrical layout of shear
walls and column shear strength. Also,
the tests on 26 columns (21% of all CTV
Building columns) after the collapse
found that the concrete in many columns
wassignificantlyweaker thanexpected.
Based on the analysis corroborated
with the arrangement of the collapse
debris and eye-witness reports, it is
conjectured that there was an initial tilt
of the building to the east initiated by
failure of one or more columns on the
mid to upper levels on the east face.
Inter-storey displacements along this
linewerehigher thanmost other locations
and there was the prospect of premature
failure due to contact with the spandrel
panels. Loss of one of these columns
on the east face would have caused
the gravity load to shift to the adjacent
interior columns. Becausethesecolumns
were already carryinghigh vertical loads
and were subjected to lateral displace-
ments, collapse would have been likely.
The lowamount of confinement steel in
the columns and the relatively large
proportion of cover concrete gave the
columns little capacity to sustain loads
and displacements once strains in the
cover concrete reached their limit. As a
Before Shock After Shock
Picture Source: civildefence.govt.nz
result, collapse was sudden and
progressed rapidly to other columns.
The slabs dropped and pulled away
from the north core and the perimeter
beams, then the building collapsed
onto its footprint pulling over the south
wall onto the floor slabs.
Based on the analysis of the failure
of the CTV Building, the investigation
panel organized by the New Zealand
Department of Building & Housing
concluded the following.
- Geometrically irregular structures
may not performas well as structural
analyses indicate. Limitations on
eccentricity should be reviewed,
limits tightened and the concerns
brought to the attention of structural
engineers and territorial authorities.
- The minimum confinement require-
ments for gravity-load bearing
columns in 'secondary' structural
systems must be reviewed.
- Adequate attachment of floors to
shear walls must be achieved.
- There is a need to assess minimum
clearance requirements to non-
structural components (for example
spandrel panels and infill walls) that
may detrimentally affect structural
performance. Greater awareness
of the importance of these require-
ments is needed amongst structural
designers, architects, territorial
authorities and builders.
50 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
- There is a need for improved
confidenceindesignandconstruction
quality. Measures need to be
implemented which achieve this.
Design Features Reports should be
introduced and made mandatory.
Designers must haveanappropriate
level of involvement in construction
monitoring. There should be a focus
on concrete mix designs, in-situ
concretetest strengths, construction
joint preparation and seismic gap
achievement. There is a need to
check the strength/quality of
concrete achieved in arrange of
structures throughout the country.
New Zealand's Department of
Building & Housing has been quick to
chart out other post-investigation
actionables in order to avoid repetition
of such disasters. These include the
following.
- A multi-agency, multi-disciplinary
research programme to use the
experience in the Canterbury
earthquakes to improve the under-
standing of building performance in
earthquakes. This research will
lead to potential changes to the
Building Act and the Building Code
and in turn to the education and
training of those involved in design,
construction and consenting through-
out New Zealand. The outputs of
this researchwould include.
- The Expert Panel was concerned at
the level of information onsite soil
conditions used as a basis for
decisions on foundations. The
Department is leading work with the
New Zealand Geotechnical Society
and their members to review geo-
technical information standards. In
addition the Department will
develop appropriate geotechnical
information standards for commer-
cial buildings, work with the sector
to establish mechanisms to share
geotechnical information utilizing
sof t ware l i ke BI M (Bui l di ng
Information Modelling) and BEIM
(Built Environment Information
Modelling) systems in future
building design and consenting
processes. The outcome sought is
the appropriate level of geo-
technical information to inform the
design of resilient new or retrofitted
buildings consistent withtheseismic
risk and ground conditions for the
area. This will result in the right
building being constructed for the
conditions.
- In conjunction with, the Department
in collaboration with the Ministry of
Civil Defence and Emergency
Management and the NewZealand
Society of Earthquake Engineers,
will lead there view of methods for
post-earthquake inspection of
buildings. Apart from raising
awareness among building owners
about post-earthquake evaluations,
it also aims to reassess approaches
to and general requirements for
achieving earthquake resistance in
buildings with emphasis on improving
structural integrity and resilience,
limiting the irregularity of structures,
A rescue worker uses a thermal imaging camera to search for signs of life
Rescue workers search for signs of life in the rubble of the CTV building
Ground Engineering Structural Failure
Schwing Stetter (India)
Pvt. Ltd
encouraging capacity design,
encouraging displacement-based
approaches to design and assess-
ment, avoiding unintended interac-
tions between structural and other
parts of a building, identifying and
removing critical vulnerabilities,
introducing compulsory Design
Features Reports for significant
buildings new or retrofit and
introducing tighter controls to
trigger requirements for earthquake
strengthening when buildings are
altered or their use changed.
- The Department has already identified
and commenced the process to
make the necessary legislative
changes to support a more robust
approach to the consenting of
commercial buildings after realizing
that building consent authorities do
not have the right skill sets to
perform their assurance function on
commercial building consent
applications. The Department will
investigate establishing Centres of
Expertise for commercial consenting
as part of its work on improving the
overall consentingregulatory system.
The change will also include a
requirement for an upfront risk
profile prior to consenting and an
agreed quality assurance plan for
how those risks will be managed
Workers and police converge on the rubble of the CTV building to seek victims
during construction(with the plan
being audited by the consenting
authority).
- The Department will lead a com-
prehensive programme of work
with the Structural Engineering
Society of New Zealand, the New
Zealand Society of Earthquake
Engineers and universities, together
with the building and construction
sector, to ensure the provision of
revisedstandardsandguidanceon:
Retrofit approaches to buildings
withlightlyreinforcedshear walls
Axial load limits for walls and
columns including ductility
(resilience) and confinement
requirements
Designof cantilever structures
Suitable analysis and design
methodologies for diaphragm
connections and diaphragm
systems with respect to con-
struction and materials and
dealing with torsional or irregular
behaviour.
This will be followed by input
to curricula and Continuing
Professional Development for
practitioners in the sector and
promulgationof advicetoowners,
territorial authorities, NewZealand
Property Council and building
owner organizations. The out-
comes will be more effectively
designed or retrofitted buildings
which will perform effectively in
seismic events.
- The Department has already agreed
to work with Cement and Concrete
Association of New Zealand and
leading building contractors to
review the level of in situ concrete
strengths. The Department will then
consider actions necessary to revise
standards and procedures for the
manufacture, delivery, placement and
curing of concrete in newbuildings.
The Department will oversee the
implementation of the agreed
changes by the relevant industry
groups. The Department will also
advise building owners, territorial
authorities and the New Zealand
Property Council of any potential
issue on concrete strength. Building
owners will need to assure them-
selves of concrete strength when
they plan to alter or reassess the use
of buildings, whichmay well become
a factor in determining earthquake-
prone buildings. Buildings with
inappropriate concrete strength will
be progressively removed from the
stock as they are either upgraded
or demolished.
Investigations are still on with the
collapse of CTV building and it is not
clear whom to hold responsible for the
disaster the architects &the designers,
the builders or even the Building &
Housing board for outdated building
codes or providing approvals and not
reviewing buildings that are non-
compliant with the codes. While the
actionables proposed and acted on by
the New Zealand Building & Housing
Department are a step in the right
direction, a more looming topic is the
ethical question raised by this
catastrophe who can be blamed for
this gross negligence in the practice of
engineering?
Publisher's Note
PictureSource
www.reuters.com, www.ap.org
52 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Ground Engineering Structural Failure
Hyderabad Industries Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 54
Computational Tools Applied
to Urban Engineering
Armando Carlos de Pina Filho,
Fernando Rodrigues Lima,
Renato Dias Calado do Amaral
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil
T
he objective of this chapter is to present some of
the main computational tools applied to urban
engineering, used in diverse tasks, such as:
conception, simulation, analysis, monitoring and
management of data.
In relation to the architectural and structural project,
computational tools of CAD/CAE are frequently used.
One of the most known and first software created to
Personal Computers (PCs), with this purpose, was the
AutoCAD by Autodesk. At first, the program offered 2D
tools for design assisted by computer, presenting
technical and normalisation resources. After that, the
program started to offer 3D tools, becoming possible
the concepti on and desi gn of more detai l ed
environments. The program is currently used for
construction of virtual environments (or virtual scale
models), being used together with other programs for
simulation of movement and action inside of these
environments.
Another software very used currently is the ArcGIS,
created to perform the geoprocessing, in which tools
and processes are used to generate derived datasets.
Geographic information systems (GIS) include a great
set of tools to process geographic information. This
collection of tools is used to operate information, such
as: datasets, attri bute fi el ds, and cartographi c
elements for printed maps. Geoprocessing is used in
all phases of a GIS for data automation, compilation,
and management, anal ysi s and model l i ng of
advanced cartography.
In addition to the programs of CAD and GIS, other
i nteresti ng technol ogy i s rel ated to Bui l di ng
Information Modelling (BIM), which represents the
process of generating and managing building data
during its life cycle using three-dimensional, real-time,
dynamic building modelling software to decrease
wasted time and resources in building design and
construction. Some of the main software used for BIM
Urban Engineering Computational Tools
http://workshopsfactory.wordpress.com
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 55
are Autodesk Revit Architecture and Vico Constructor.
Computational tools for monitoring and management are
very important for the urban development. Several urban
systems, such as: transports, water and sewerage system,
telecommunications and electric system, make use of
these tools, controlling the processes related to each
activity, as well as urban problems, as the pollution.
Therefore, in this paper we will present details about these
technologies, its programs and applications, which will t
serve as introduction to the use such computational tools
for study and solution of urban problems.
2. CAD (Computer-Aided Design)
It is a technology largely used in the conception of projects
of Engineering and Architecture. It consists of a software
di rected to the techni cal drawi ng, wi th several
computational tools. Amongst the areas in which the CAD
is applied, we have the Urban Engineering.
Urban Engi neeri ng studi es the probl ems of urban
environments, emphasising the creation of planned
environments to be sustainable, considering the balance
of economi c, terri tori al , and soci al factors. The
i nfrastructure urban systems are subject of study,
searching to optimise the planning of the environment,
sanitation sectors, transports, urbanism, etc. It is in this
context, that we can begin to understand the use of CAD
programs in assisting urban projects.
In respect of development of CAD software, we observe
that without the postulates of the Euclidean Mathematics
(350 B.C.) i t woul d not be possi bl e to create thi s
computati onal tool . Thousand of years l ater, more
specifically at the beginning of the 60th decade of the
20th century, Ivan Sutherland developed, as thesis of PhD
in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), an
innovative system of graphical edition called "Sketchpad".
In this system, the interaction of the user with the computer
was perform by "Light pen", a kind of pen that was used
directly in the screen to carry through the drawing,
together with a box of command buttons. It was possible
to create and to edit 2D objects. Such system was a
landmark in computer science and graphical modelling,
considered the first CAD software.
In the beginning, the use of CAD software was restricted
to companies of the aerospace sector and automobile
assembly plants, as General Motors, due to the high cost
of the computers demanded for the systems. Such
software were not freely commercialised in the market.
The Laboratory of Mathematics of MIT, currently called
Department of Computer Science, was responsible for
the main research and development of CAD software. In
other places, as Europe, this type of activity was started.
Other prominence developers were: Lockheed, with
CADAM system, and McDonnell-Douglas, with CADD
system.
Fig. 1. Example of virtual scale model: Hospital Metropolitano Norte, Pernambuco,
Brazil (http://acertodecontas.blog.br)
From the 70th decade, CAD software had passed to be
freely commercialised. The first 3D CAD software, CATIA -
Computer Ai ded Three Di mensi onal I nteracti ve
Application, was developed in 1977 by French company
Avions Marcel Dassault, that bought the Lockheed,
revolutionising the market. The investments, as well as
the profits, vertiginously grown. In the end of the decade,
programs for solid modelling already existed, as, for
example, the SynthaVision of the Mathematics Application
Group, Inc. (MAGI).
From 1980, with the development of the first Personal
Computer (PC), by IBM, the Autodesk released, in
November 1982, the first program of CAD for PCs, the
"AutoCAD Release 1". In 1985, the Avions Marcel Dassault
released the second version of CATIA. In this same decade,
the workstations (microcomputers of great efficiency and
high cost, destined to technical applications) were
developed, using the operational system UNIX. In the 90th
Fig. 2. Interface of AutoCAD software
Urban Engineering Computational Tools
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 56
decade, specifically in 1995, the SolidWorks company
released the SolidWorks 95 3D CAD, revolutionising the
market for used the operational system Windows NT, while
the majority of the programs developed was destined to
UNI X. I n consequence of thi s, Sol i dWorks 95
demonstrated to be a software with good relation of cost-
benefit, when compared with the competitors, excessively
expensive.
In the following years to present time, the technology
comes being improved and the software became very
accessible around the world, with open access versions
(freeware). An important application of the 3D CAD
programs is the creation of virtual environment, also known
as electronic or virtual scale models (Fig. 1). Such
application is largely used in architecture projects.
2.1 Working with CAD
As previously said, we had a great development of CAD
software in the last decades. Amongst the main programs
of CAD, the AutoCAD (http://www.autodesk.com.br) is
distinguished. The software developed by Autodesk had
its first version released in 1982, and recently, the
Autodesk released the AutoCAD 2010.
Fig. 3. Project in SolidWorks (http://www.danshope.com)
The AutoCAD (Fig. 2) is a 2D and 3D modelling program
with several applications, such as: mechanical, civil,
electric, and urban engineering projects; architecture;
industrial manufacture; and HVAC (heating, ventilation
and air conditioning). It is important to notice that the
AutoCAD is also largely used as tool in academic
disciplines of technical drawing.
AutoCAD have commands inserted by keyboard, making
possible a practical creation of entities (elements of the
drawing), at the moment of the conception of the desired
model , opti mi si ng the work of the desi gner. Such
commands substitute the necessity of navigation with the
mouse to manipulate the toolbars.
Fig. 4. Example of project of Civil Engineering - a highway (http://
usa.autodesk.com)
The program generates diverse types of archive, which
can be exported to other programs. Some examples:
DWG (*.dwg); 3D DWF (*.dwf); Metafi l e (*wmf);
Encapsulated (*.eps); and Bitmap (*.bmp). DWG archive
is an extension shared for several CAD programs.
AutoCAD is capable to import archives of the type 3D
Studio (*.3ds), from Autodesk 3D Studio Max. User of
AutoCAD is able to associate with your projects, programs
made by programming languages, such as: Visual Basic
for Applications (VBA), Visual LISP e ObjectARX. Another
CAD software largely known is the SolidWorks (http://
www.solidworks.com).
Developed by SolidWorks company, from group Dassault
Systmes, is a 3D CAD program for solid modelling,
generally used in the project of mechanical sets (Fig. 3).
SolidWorks can also be used as CAE software (Computer-
Aided Engineering), with simulation programs, such as:
SolidWorks Simulation, and SolidWorks Flow Simulation.
SolidWorks Simulation is an important tool of analysis of
tensions in projects. The program uses finite element
methods (FEM), using virtual application of forces on the
part.
SolidWorks Flow Simulation is a program of analysis of
draining, based on the numerical method of the finite
volumes. This program allows the professional to get
reasonable performance in analysis of the project under
real conditions.
SolidWorks is compatible with DWG files generated by
AutoCAD, being able to modify 2D data or to convert into
3D data.
Other i nteresti ng CAD programs i ncl ude: CATI A
(Computer-Ai ded Three-di mensi onal I nteracti ve
Application), developed by Dassault Systmes and
commercialised by IBM (http://www.3ds.com), and Pro/
Urban Engineering Computational Tools
Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 58
ENGI NEER, devel oped by Parametri c Technol ogy
Corporation (http://www.ptc.com).
2.2 Application of CAD
CAD software have as main use the aid in projects of Civil
Engineering and Architecture for urban environment, such
as: buildings, roads, bridges, etc (Fig. 4). CAD also is
widely used in the project of transmission lines of electric
energy. Such practice consists in optimise the allocation
Fig. 5. Schema extracted from ArcGIS Reference manual showing the three views
of GIS
of transmission towers and wires, in accordance with the
technical norms. An important characteristic is the
topography of the land.
Other applications in Urban Engineering include: the
maintenance and update of sanitary networks, and the
environmental recovery in urban areas. In the first case,
CAD is used to update the database of the sewer network
of the city, supplying detailed information. In the second
case, CAD is used for mapping of a region, with the aid of
a GPS system (Global Positioning System), identifying
environmental delimitation (sources of rivers, roads,
buildings, etc)(Mondardo et al., 2009).
There are several other applications of CAD in urban
systems and areas related to Urban Engineering, and it is
important to note, in practical terms, that CAD is nearly
always associate to other technology: GIS (Geographic
Information System), that it will be seen to follow.
3. GIS (Geographic Information System)
Engineering problems were on the last 40 years gradually
directed to employ computerized solving techniques.
Precision and increasing speed for calculating multi-
vari abl e operati ons are a good reason to use
computati onal resources, but the qui te unl i mi ted
possibilities to organize, simulate and compare data
turned computer sciences on a strong allied for research
and design activities.
The final claim to say that now we are living in an
information systems age is the large accessibility of
hardware and software, the diffusion of personal systems
and al l rel ated faci l i ti es: servers, networks,
telecommunications, etc.
An information system can be defined as an organised
quiver of tools and data that can be used to answer on a
systematic way questions structured by specialists. As
these questions can be classified in patterns, it should
be possible to build on artificial intelligence to make the
system learn and deliberate by itself.
If the answer to a problem employs variables associated
to geographic information, it's recommended the use a
dataset structure to implement and model graphic objects
that represents al l on earth, natural or arti fi ci al . A
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a set of tools that
work with data presenting three basic concepts (Fig. 5):
Geodatabase, Geovisualization and Geoprocessing
(Harlow, 2005).
Geodatabase represents the set of spatial data that can
be expressed by rasters, vector features, networks, etc.,
and every rule to control their creation and management.
Geovisualization is an action performed on spatial data
by intelligent maps and views, from which we can view
the database for queryi ng, anal ysi ng and edi ti ng.
Geoprocessing is the term used to designate operations
on datasets that obtain outputs of analyses and generate
new information.
Fig. 6. Vector features overlays raster satellite image
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Some engineering projects have territorial themes as
industrial projects, social benefits, general infrastructure,
l ogi sti cs, demography, and other geo/urban/
environmental aspects. On those cases the solution
involves studying geographic elements and their available
information, in order to perform technical analyses. So an
information system for geographic data organisation,
visualisation and processing will be appropriate to those
problem solving. To be efficient as a GIS, the system must
perform some general tasks:
acquire, convert, organise and project the geographic
elements; import, organise and extract imagery, numeric
and textual information; process geographic elements
and information with data integrity and operational
efficiency; display appropriately the data and related
operations (geoprocess techniques); perform simulations
and comparison of alternatives; present support for
program language and custom computational routines;
generate new data based on selected results; publish
maps and all sort of documents for project discussion;
and permit data interchange with other systems.
As we can observe, GIS is designed to manage spatial
data, and the geographic representation of this data can
use many types of elements for plotting the information
(Fig. 6): vector based features classes, as points, lines
and polygons; raster datasets, as digital elevation models
and imagery; networks, as roadways, pipelines, hydrology
and other interlaced elements; survey measurements, as
topographic annotation; and other kind of information, as
postal codes, address, geographic place names, etc.
These elements can be organised by layers, and could
be selected by pointing or grouping for edition tasks or
custom display. The selection methods could also be
performed from spatial analyses or statistic classification.
Georeferenced co-ordinates and related data tables of
GIS elements help to improve these tasks.
Geographic data representation has integrity rules
(Harlow, 2005), performed by spatial relationship patterns
between el ements, as topol ogi es and networks.
Topologies are used to manage boundaries behaviour, to
apply data integrity rules, to define adjacency and
connectivity properties, to structure creation and edition
of new geometry, and to express other topological
operations. They are used to represent area contours,
parcels, administrative boundaries, etc. Networks are
used to represent graphs and thei r connecti ons,
controlling paths, barriers and flows. They are used to
represent behaviour of pipeline, transportation, traffic, etc.
Although organisation and management of spatial data
can be well attempted with modern GIS programs, there
is until an important aspect: how to deal with data quality.
Fig. 7. Example of a workflow model for GIS based research on industrial location
The cartographic databases can be generated from old
charts or maps digitalisation, or from satellite and aerial
imagery treatment. The numeric and textual databases
must be converted into tables, and quite often comes
from census and researches output. A great variability of
data procedures can be observed world-wide when
integrating data obtained from different fonts, places and
scales. The periodicity of data actualisation is another
deal to GIS users.
The problems don't result ever from confidence, trusted
fonts may have different methodological approaches, and
personal interpretation can also give different valid
outputs. Professional development of GIS operators can
help them to detect, evaluate and work that variability,
and a methodological approach is needed to treat it
suitable to each research task.
3.1 Working with GIS
Many users can be satisfied on using GIS as a dataset
management tool for generating maps and classify data,
but nowadays GIS is turning on a knowledge approach,
where models incorporate advanced behaviour and
i ntegri ty rul es. The ul ti mate devel opment on GI S
procedures is directed to intelligent use of geoprocessing
for built, explore and share the possibilities of geographic
information. Users now are able to structure schemas and
workflow models in order to improve their geoprocessing
tasks, as import, check, integrate and compose data
(Fig. 7).
As GIS is the best way to work data from local to global
level, an efficient DBMS (Data Base Management System)
is needed to perform data integration, actualisation,
access and sharing. As result, GIS catalogue portals based
on Web nodes are increasing in number and their
interoperability is part of a concept called SDI (Spatial
Data Infrastructure). Servers are used to host enterprise
GIS and their databases, and to provide multi-user access.
Geographic Databases are employed to control and
develop published data, as maps, features and tables.
They are known as Geodatabase, have a proper logic to
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work with datasets by applications and tools, and perform
access and management tasks.
But GIS capabilities can also provide single users to
customise their data. A Personal Geodatabase (PGDB) is
an example of option to collect and organise features
and tables attempting to user needs, using desktop
computers at low cost and with feasible results. If you are
a adviser or researcher and are in charge of studying
urban problems, you can go ahead on mounting your
PGDB, however some steps must be observed.
The start point is to structure correctly your problem,
identifying the factors and conditions that impacts on, a
methodological approach to face it, and a technical
procedure to get alternatives and produce results.
First, you must study what kind of information you need,
identify the sources and think about layer and features
organisation. Next, you must acquire geographic data
from GIS portals or institutional sources. Many research
and administrative institutions provide download of vector
and raster data from their DBMS, or send it by request. If
there is no available geographic data, it will be necessary
to digitalis existing map and imagery, but for this task is
recommended a professional with advanced knowledge
of geodesics, cartography and geoprocessing.
After getting the appropriate geographic information is
important to know that vector data is usually related to a
table, which has a column whose contents link the graphic
representation to a register. Raster image has pixel
position attached to a co-ordinate value. Vector features
as point, line or polygon has as code number for the system
link requirements, but can also have a code for geographic
cadastral purposes (Fig. 8). Geocode is a tendency on
GIS procedures and has the advantage to make easy
later joins and relates of table data with none geographic
plot.
In other words: if you get a basic data of shapes with
related table presenting geocode column you can
aggregate new data from other ordinary tables that has
also this geocode column. GIS also enables visualisation
of each element by selecting it from geocode, and permits
editing the tables to insert new columns containing yours
own information. Second, you must organise your features
Fig. 9. Use of GIS in the mapping of water and sewer ducts (http://www.gis.com)
and tables in a dataset, defining co-ordinate systems and
importing independent features and tables to the PGDB.
This modality of data organisation provides more security
and flexibility, increasing edition and analysis tasks.
Working with stand alone features can face restrictions
that are not present on a PGDB structure, as it works more
properly with layers, overlays, projections and co-
ordinates. Third, you must know what to do to improve
your queries on GIS ambience. It is a lost of potential to
use a GIS only for data visualisation or map creation, there
is more than this. Both DBMS or PGDB can generate data
performing spatial analysis or statistic classification. As
you have the demands of your research well structured,
GIS can help you to answer by crossing multi-layer
i nformati on, sel ecti ng and edi ti ng data from SQL
(Structured Query Language) statements and processing
new features containing partial and conclusive results.
Finally, you must obtain a valid output for your problem
solving, and communicate it to others on a suitable way.
GIS can help you on producing thematic maps, analytical
graphs and technical reports. You can also get community,
representatives and specialists to work in a participative
mode using GIS to generate and validate output of
decision sessions. Some people have difficulties to
identify and interpret geographic elements, and GIS can
highlight and detach text and visual information for
making it easier.
Fig. 8. Vector features as point, line and polygon with associated table containing
geocode
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Application of GIS
GIS technology is much used in Urban Engineering to
analyse, in a detailed way, characteristics related to urban
planning. In addition to CAD, GIS presents solutions for
several problems, and it is applied, in a integrated way, in
projects of Civil Engineering and Architecture, including
the most diverse urban systems (Fig. 9), making possible
the maintenance and update of service networks, as well
as the environmental recovery in urban areas.
Nowadays, the accessibility of GIS technology stimulates
educators to work in a new concept, called Geographical
Inclusion, which can be performed on basic education
class in order to provide young students with geographic
visualisation and interpretative capabilities. We are living
a age of saving resources, environmental care and
sustainable actions, and GIS with his solving problem
design and participative net work potential is the most
strong partner in managing data for this purposes.
Concluding the technologies presented in this chapter,
we will see to follow the BIM technology (Building
Information Modelling), that it represents, in a certain way,
an evolution of CAD technology, previously presented.
BIM (Building Information Modelling)
It is a technology that consists in the integration of all
types of information related to conception and execution
of a project of Civil Engineering. Such information, stored
in efficient database, not say respect only to design or to
modelling of plants and virtual environments, but also to
management of execution time of project, geographic
information, quantification of material used in all building,
detailing of the constructive processes, sustainability, etc.
In short, the technology makes possible that the work team
has an integrated vision of the project. This allows, for
example, that engineers and architects idealise and
execute the project sharing the same base of information.
This technology has been spread together with the
practice of Urban Engineering.
In a certain way, BIM is seen as an evolution of 3D CAD
techniques. In fact, this technology is defined as 4D CAD,
where the fourth dimension is not physical, but the set of
information that go beyond the engineering concepts,
used in the development of the project.
The use of BIM can mean an effective optimisation of time
and increase of the productivity levels. Other important
characteristic is the easiness to perform modifications in
the project, in any phase of execution. BIM makes possible
the meeting of information, such as: the documentation
of licensing for building, the established environmental
conditions, and other legal aspects that are of extreme
i mportance for executi on of the project. Thus, the
technology allows to greater efficiency in the taking of
decisions during the elaboration of the project, easiness
in the emission of building documents, establishment of
deadlines, estimate of costs, information about the
analysis of risks and management of the operational
conditions of the installations.
Fig. 10. Interface of Autodesk Revit Architecture (http://images.autodesk.com)
Using a CAD software in an engineering project, the
designer inserts detailed specifications through the
headings, for example: specification of the material used
in the confection of a wall, manufacturer of the material,
necessary amount. In the case of BIM technology, such
information is directly inserted in the drawing at the
moment of the modelling.
Working with BIM
In BIM technology, a set of tools provided by one or more
software is used for: modelling of surfaces; modelling and
structural calculation; management of the building;
manufacture management; environmental analysis;
estimate of costs; and specification.
Fig. 11. Interface of Google SketchUp (http://www.crackvalley.com)
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Autodesk Revit Architecture (usa.autodesk.com)(Fig. 10),
is one of the main BIM software, having: tools of 2D and
3D drawing; co-ordinated database, in such way that
alterations performed in the information are automatically
update in all model, reducing the possibility of errors and/
or omissions; associative sections of divisions table;
libraries of details, that can be created and be adapted
to the patterns of the proj ect team; parametri c
components, that function as an open graphical system
for design concern and shape creation; inventory of
materials, that allows the calculation of detailed amounts
of material, updating while the project evolves, on the
basis of parametric alterations; etc.
project; exportation of DWF files (used in CAD programs);
and navigation in real time.
Other popular freeware is the Google SketchUp (http://
sketchup.googl e.com)(Fi g.11), much used i n the
academic area, presenting modelling by means of
surfaces. Such software presents limitations compared
to the programs already cited. SketchUp works efficiently
with information related to the localisation, size and
design, reason for which is used in the confection of models
that can be exported to programs, as for example, the
Autodesk NavisWorks Review.
There are several other programs rel ated to BI M
technology, as for example, Vico Constructor (http://
www.vi cosoftware.com), presenti ng di verse chara-
cteristics and resources, such as: the structural analysis
of the building; the constant update of the information,
correcting possible errors of execution; the estimate of
costs of the enterprise; etc.
Application of BIM
As well as CAD and GIS technologies, BIM presents a
series of applications in the area of Urban Engineering,
and currently it comes substituting CAD, in a effective
way, because it presents advantages in relation to the
management of the projects.
A current example of BIM application is the National
Centre of Swimming of Pequim, China (en.beijing2008.cn/
46/39/WaterCube.shtml). Seat of the competitions of
swimming during the Olympic Games of 2008, known as
Water Cube, the place have a useful area of 90,000 m,
five Olympic swimming pools and capacity for 17,000
spectators, and BIM was used in all phases of the project
(Fig. 12 and 13).
Other example of BIM application is the International
Airport Maynard Holbrook Jackson Jr., Atlanta, United
States (Fig. 14). This airport is in construction phase with
Fig. 12 and 13. Assembly of the structure of the Water Cube, and aerial photo of the
place (http://comunicacaoexponencial.com.br)
There are other BIM programs by Autodesk, as Autodesk
Navisworks (usa.autodesk.com), that it does not present
tools of environment modelling, being destined to the
revision of 3D projects or visualisation of models, that is
the case of the freeware NavisWorks Freedom. The main
tools include: aggregation of files and 3D data; revision
tools; creation of 4D table; object animation; management
of interference and detention/correction of conflicts in the
Fig. 14. Model of the Airport (http://bim.arch.gatech.edu)
Urban Engineering Computational Tools
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characteristics and with diverse applications in urban
projects, providing better results in relation to the
planning, management and maintenance of the systems.
In relation to presented software, it is important to note
that the authors do not have any connections with the
cited companies. The programs were shown only as
computational tools that use the presented technologies,
and there are many other commercial software and
freeware that can be used in works involving CAD, GIS or
BIM. Therefore, the work presented here does not represent
any intention of marketing for no one of cited software
and/or companies.
References
- Autodesk (2006). Orange County Sanitation District - Customer
Success Story. Autodesk Infrastructure Solutions
- Autodesk (2009). Langan Engineering & Environmental Services
- Customer Success Story. Autodesk Infrastructure Solutions
- Ford, K. (2009). Maynard Holbrook Jackson Jr. International
Terminal. Holder Construction Group LLC, Georgia Tech
- Harlow, M. (2005). ArcGIS Reference Documentation. ESRI:
Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc., Redlands
- Kymmell, W. (2008). Building Information Modelling - Planning
and Managing Construction Projects with 4D CAD and
Simulations. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
- Mondardo, D., Bellon, P. P., Santos, L. B., Meinerz, C. C. &
Haoui, A. F. (2009). Proposta de Recuperao Ambiental na
rea Urbana da Microbacia do Rio Ouro Monte. 2nd International
Workshop - Advances in Cleaner Production, So Paulo, Brazil
- Sutherland, I. E. (2003). Sketchpad: A man-machine graphical
comunication system. Technical Report 574. University of
Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, p. 20
- http://acertodecontas.blog.br/ Accessed in August 13, 2009
- http://bim.arch.gatech.edu/ Accessed in December 04, 2009
- http://comunicacaoexponencial.com.br/ Accessed in
December 04, 2009
- http://en.beijing2008.cn/ Accessed in December 04, 2009
- http://images.autodesk.com/ Accessed in December 01, 2009
- http://usa.autodesk.com/ Accessed in November 27, 2009
- http://www.3ds.com/products/catia/ Accessed in August 24,
2009
- http://www.autodesk.com.br/ Accessed in August 21, 2009
- http://www.crackvalley.com/ Accessed December 03, 2009
- http://www.danshope.com/ Accessed in August 22, 2009
- http://www.gis.com/ Accessed in August 14, 2009
- http://www.ptc.com/products/proengineer/ Accessed in August
24, 2009
- http://www.solidworks.com/ Accessed in August 22, 2009
- http://www.vicosoftware.com/ Accessed in December 03, 2009
a stipulated deadline for 2011. In this project, of great
magnitude, BIM is extremely necessary in the optimisation
of execution time, since the old airport of Atlanta is
overloaded. The estimated cost of the enterprise is
approximately US$ 1.4 billion (Ford, 2009).
Conclusion
This chapter looked for to present the main details on
three technologies much used in Urban Engineering: CAD
(Computer-Aided Design); GIS (Geographic Information
System); and BIM (Building Information Modelling). As it
can be seen, each one of them presents speci fi c
Urban Engineering Computational Tools
Unisteel Engineering
Works
66 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Urban Engineering Traffic Management
to cope. While the Government has
been laying emphasis on building
roads, bridges and underpasses and
creating alternative modes of mass
public transport systems, this may not
be sufficient to address the traffic
congestion. Traffic management has
always posed a challenge in India and
it may continue to become more
difficult with every passing day unless
we start building some intelligence into
the way we look at resolving these
issues. The solution lies in leveraging
advanced technologies and intelligent
s per a World Bank report, the
density of India's highway
Anetwork (0.66) is on par to that
of the United States (0.65) and several
times greater than that of China (0.16)
or Brazil (0.20). In metropolitan and
major Indian cities like Mumbai, Delhi,
Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai and
Hyderabad, traffic is growing four
times faster than the population. With
increased urbanization and increase in
vehicular traffic, cities everywhere are
battling an increase in demand and an
inability to build sufficient infrastructure
solutions. Some intelligent traffic
management systems are already
being implemented in cities like Delhi
and Bangalore making an impact in the
form of reduced congestion less fatal
accidents. Other cities are likely to
followsuit soon.
Subset of a larger subject, Intelligent
Transportation System (ITS), intelligent
traffic management systems assist road
authorities inmaximizingtheoperational
performance and reliability of all aspect
of the road network. Intelligent Transport
Systems (ITS) is essentially the
Intelligent Traffic Management Systems:
A Growing Necessity
Bhavani Balakrishna
Picture Source: www.mobility.siemens.com
67 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Urban Engineering Traffic Management
application of computer and communi-
cations technologies coming in aid of
thetransport problems. Thismayinvolve
use of CCTVs in strategic junctions,
vehicle presence detectors, in-road
magnetic loop detectors and other
remote video surveillance devices to
assure automated control in good or
bad weather and in varying traffic
volumes. Based on real-time data and
historical data, the traffic management
system alters traffic signal cycles in real
time, based on the in-situ sensors or
surveillance devices, to respond to
changing traffic conditions. These
traffic control systems feed data from
individual controllers at each intersection
to master controllers that can synchro-
nize a groupof the individual controllers.
Themaincontrol center receivesinforma-
tion fromall master controllers, allowing
operators to monitor the entire system
continuously, issue control commands
when necessary, and opti mi ze
deployment of field personnel as
needed for operations and traffic
security. Centralized information
collection supports statistical analysis
and historical files for subsequent
strategic evaluation. A remote control
center backs up the main control
center for optimum security.
There is already some amount of
research and resources being dedicated
to this area. The Center of Excellence in
Urban Transport (COEUT) set up in IIT-
Madras comprises people from
various disciplines and is working
closely with the ministry on research in
ITS. The center works with various private
firms who are developing innovative
solutions for better transport. However,
their prime challenge is the lack of
systematic data collection. Collection
of real-time traffic information on
highway segments and surface street
networks is critical for the success of a
ITS or ITMS system. As mentioned
above, data could be collected from
videos, vehicle detectors, probe vehicles
(automatic vehicle identifiers and
automatic vehicle locators) or GPS.
Most developed countries use inductive
loop detectors (ILD) for applications like
vehicle detection, incident detection,
automatic traffic surveillance, real-time
traffic adaptive signal control, and data
for traveler, commercial and emergency
information services, mainly because it
can collect data without any need for
public participation. However, the loop
detectors designed for the developed
countries are designed assuming lane
discipline and homogeneous traffic
which is absent in India. Also, the vast
range of vehicular types (bicycle, two
wheeler, three wheeler, light motor
vehicle, heavy motor vehicle) that need
to be identified for accurate traffic data
collection is a major challenge for the
existing ILDsystems.
The COUET at IIT-Madras has
developed a new type of loop detector
suitable for Indian traffic conditions.
The principal components of an
inductive loop detector system include
one or more turns of insulated loopwire
wound in a shallow slot sawed in the
pavement, a lead-in cable that runs
from the curbside pull box to the
controller cabinet, and a detector
electronics unit housed in the controller
cabinet. When a vehicle passes over
the loop or stops within the loop, it
Underground
electrical wire
System
Computer
electromagnetic
field
electrical
meter
Induction-loop Traffic Sensors
68 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
decreases the inductance of the loop.
The change in inductance helps in
identifying various parameters such as
vehicle speed and vehicle length,
which also helps in processing the
current traffic speed and the traffic
count in the specific area. It can also
sense vehicles of different sizes (for
example, it can identify a bus from a
bicycle) as they go through the
roadways. The data can be used for
creating a traffic data centre where all
traffic data can be archived and shared
among the transportation researchers
across India.
However, intelligent traffic manage-
ment systems will be set up for failure
despite the availability of technology
and availability of data. Many cities
have invested in a number of advanced
traffic management systems which can
be deemed to have failed to deliver the
expected benefits due to the failure, not
of the technology elements, but because
of the failure of the institutional element.
Success requires strong backup in
terms of policy, legislation, regulation
and relevant sector coordination and
commonaction.
Practical Applications
The Delhi police has a budget
allocation of ` 82 crore of for funding
the Intelligent Traffic Management
System. The project will approximately
cover 220 kilometers of urban major
roads with around 240 signal intersec-
tions. The main components include a
traffic control and management centre,
a disaster recovery centre, an incident
detection system on expressways and
adaptive signal control of at-grade
intersections. It will also involve a CCTV
camera system, traffic information
system with variable message signs,
adaptive speed control on national
highways, speed and red light violation
cameras and a parking management
system. However, despite the ambitious
plans, previous tender requests failed
to find a suitable bidder.
A similar scheme has also been
implemented in Bangalore, where the
State government has promised to
spend Rs 79 crore to help Bangalore
police improve traffic management. In
Bangalore, the operation is run from
the dedicated Traffic Management
Centre, a technology centre at the heart
of Bangalore's police where a team
remotely manages the city's traffic.
Nearly 120 cameras at different
junctions are remotely monitored. Out
of 300 traffic signals in Bangalore, 163
have already been connected to the
traffic management centre. Of these,
120 are vehicle activated, meaning that
if there is a four second period where
no vehicles pass through, the signal
automatically turns to red.
As part of the Mumbai City Mobility
Management project, Traficon has
been awarded a contract for installing
nearly 700 vehicle presence detectors
at Mumbai's various busy roadjunctions
controlledby trafficsignals. By detecting
both waiting and approaching vehicles,
these intelligent 'all-in-one' cameras will
be used for optimization of traffic signal
timings and to cut down waiting time at
traffic lights. Based on the information
coming fromthese surveillance devices
and Telvent's in-road magnetic loop
detectors in-situ sensors, Mumbai's
Adaptive Traffic Control System (ATCS)
by Telvent alters traffic signal cycles in
real time to respond to changing traffic
conditions. Once fully operational,
ATCS is expected to cut down waiting
time at traffic signals by almost half.
For the city of Chennai, the decision
touse Traficon's integratedvideosensor
technology was taken after a competi-
tive bidding mid 2010. Today up to 100
TrafiCam sensors are installed and
operational to detect waiting vehicles
at multiple intersections across the city.
KSRTC (Karnataka State Road
Transport Corporation) will soon be
implementing the intelligent transport
system (ITS) for Mysore city under GEF
(Global Environment Fund) SUTP (Sus-
Involves a complex array of layers to define an overall system. Technology only
forms part of the overall system. Two principle components form a typical
system, namely the technology layer and the institutional layer. Information is
collected, processed and disseminated within the traffic management system.
This information could be commands to roadside traffic controllers from a
central computer to change the green times based on optimal traffic flow, or it
could be the disseminationof existing traffic conditions via a radio broadcast.
The technology components include:
- Road side devices such as CCTV cameras, linked traffic controllers,
variable message signs, used to control, monitor and manage traffic,
- Telecommunications networks including fibre-optic, copper lines and
wireless media, used to link the road-side devices to a central operations
centre, and
- Traffic management computers in a central operations centre, which
analyze, process, record and disseminate traffic management information
as well as control roadside devices.
The institutional components include:
- People to operate the systems and to provide a public interface to the
system, and co-ordinate traffic management and systems related activities,
- Operational procedures, and standards which include maintenance
processes, incident management protocols and responses, and
- Traffic engineering inputs to the system, including planning, analysis and
design of individual traffic management components and the coordination
withthe overarching transport planning processes
Technology
Institutional
Components of an Intelligent Traffic Management System
Urban Engineering Traffic Management
STA Flooring (Sanjay
Tekale Associates)
tainable Urban Transport Programme),
the initiative by World Bank. The overall
scope of implementation will consist of
design, development, testing, installa-
tion, commissioning, training, opera-
tions, and management of facilities, for
a period of three years by the winning
bidder. The project plan covers 500
buses, 80 bus stops, and 10 bus
terminals. It will have several compo-
nents including vehicle tracking system,
central control station, passenger
information management system,
communication sub system, travel
demand management, incident and
emergency management system,
operational and maintenance specifica-
tion and fleet management system.
Coretechnologiesincludegeographical
positioning system (GPS), electronic
display systems, and information &
communication technologies. The cost
of the project is ` 19.13 crores that
covers the capital costs and three
years' operating costs with a project
contingency of 5%. There are further
projects in the pipeline across India
such as implementation of ITS in
Indore, Pune, etc.
AccordingtotheCentrefor Develop-
ment of Advanced Greater Hyderabad
will have a master plan for Intelligent
Transport System (ITS) soon. The study
will cover the Outer Ring Road (ORR)
with the main focus on the Inner Ring
Road (IRR) and integration of traffic
departments. TheITSismeant tosupport
optimisation of traffic flow, reduce
environmental impact on the transpor-
tation sector, reduce road accidents
and promote efficiency in traffic and
transportation operation and manage
ment. The study of ITS master plan will
be undertaken in two phases and com-
pleted in18 months by January 2013.
Again, while the above initiatives
show immense promise, we need to
develop standards of roads and
customize traffic control devices to
Indian conditions and mixed traffic
conditions and need to update our
legislation. Such modern practices of
traffic management and case studies
of their implementation in the developed
countries should figure as an important
part in the curriculum of police
academies and schools. Modern tools
and systems of enforcement are not
available to traffic police authorities
except in major metropolitan cities. In
all, India has started taking baby steps
in implementation of intelligent traffic
management systems and an integrated
transport management system but the
country still has a long way ahead.
Publisher's Note
PictureSource
www.auto.howstuffworks.com
www.indiatransportportal.com
www.in.reuters.com
70 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Urban Engineering Traffic Management
A Charming Shipping Container Home
n industrial home namely, Maison
AContainer Lille has been built in
France by spreading out and stacking
shippingcontainers. Patrick Partouche,
the designer of the daring 3-bedroom
home, used 8 shipping containers that
were assembled to erect the structure
injust 3 days, in2010.
The windows have been cut out
from the container ends, while the
cargo doors can be kept open or
closed to render shade or privacy, or
to protect from storms. With sparkling
cherry-red exterior and dazzling white
interior walls, the 240 sq m building
has a car garage, storage space,
kitchen, dining space and living area
organized in an open floor layout, said a
report on the project on popular online
blog Inhabitat.
Red columns and metal finishes
highlight the interiors, while the windows
are argon-filled and smeared with low
e-coating for enhanced efficiency. The
roof forms a shade-screen to allow air
flow and prevent overheating. It is a
protective cover rather than a water
shedding component. In the first floor,
some floor parts have been removed to
provide double-height for the ground
floor. Metal walkways over the area
lead to the bedrooms, bathroom and
office room. Parts removed from the
containers have been creatively used
to make furniture and to decorate
the interiors, further added the report
inthe blog.
Igloo Tiles
72 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Sustainable Infrastructure
that at present accounts for more than
a quarter of China's GDP.
The masterplan proposed by SOM
reflects a new model of compact,
environmentally enhanced urban design
plan that concentrates walkable,
compact densities around transit
stations, while still preserving existing
agriculture and green space. It cleverly
leverages the use of the economic and
lifestyle assets of the Beijing-Tianjin
corridor by centering the new environ-
mentally friendly district along the high-
speed-rail line linking the national
capital to the port city of Tianjin.
The design involves 17.6 million
square meters of mixed-use develop-
ment with half the 1,473-hectare site
allocated to open space and nature.
The Beijing Bohai Innovation City
kidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
(SOM), one of the leading archi-
Stecture, interior design, enginee-
ringandurban-planningfirms inthe world,
emerged as the winner of the master
plan for Beijing Bohai Rim Advanced
Business Park competition held jointly
by Beijing Tongzhou District Taihu High
EndHeadquartersConstructionManage-
ment Committee and Beijing Xinghu
Investment and Development Co. Ltd.
The Beijing Bohai Innovation City is
part of China's commitment to transit-
based, environmentally sensitive planning
focusing on rapid development of
satellite cities along Chinese high
speed rail corridors. The city also aims
to serve as the primary headquarters
location for advanced industries in the
rapidly growing Bohai Rim, a region
masterplan revolves around a central
business district organized around a
high speed train station and five
distinct neighborhoods that offers
diverse housing, education, shopping
and work destinations.
The plan allows the residents to use
multi-modal transportation network
highlighted by the city's close proximity
to the existing capital airport and a
potential new international airport
south of Beijing. By linking high-speed
rail with metro lines and providing
alternative modes of public transport
such as bus rapid transit, local streetcars
and a state-of-the-art electric car fleet,
it is expected that 80 percent of the
city's personal transportation can be
achieved by transit, walking and
bicycling. The pedestrian and bicycle
friendly street designs should also help
the residents to connect to neighboring
workplaces, schools and cultural ameni-
ties along greenstreets and corridors.
SOM's winning design scheme is
built upon landscape design firm
Turenscape's proposed central wetland
park that uses functional environmental
systems to filter and clean storm water
before returning it to adjoining rivers.
The design also sets specific and
aggressive goals for water, energy,
waste, renewable energy and building
designefficiency.
Picturesource: SOM
MB Report
The Beijing Bohai
Innovation City
URC Infotec Pvt.Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 76
T
he world is changing, the economy is changing, and
the architectural practice is changing. Designing
energy- and resource-efficient buildings, in many
locations, is no longer optional, but mandatory. While
owners have always sought designs that are cost-effective
to operate and that will command premium lease values,
research shows that green buildings (for example,
LEED-certified) are more likely to deliver on these
criteria. A 2008 report from McGraw Hill Construction finds
a 13.6 percent decrease in operating costs from green
building and a 10.9 percent increase in building values
as reported by architects, engineering firms, contractors,
and owners over the past three years. (McGraw Hill
Sustainable Design Analysis and
Building Information Modeling
Manideep Saha
Head, AEC & Geospatial, Autodesk India
Construction September 19, 2008) More pressing is the
growing number of local and national regulations that
mandate targets for energy and resource efficiency as
well as carbon emission reductions in new and renovated
buildings. These government initiatives are certainly put
in place to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
slow our impact on climate change, but they are also
instituted to reduce dependence on unpredictable
markets for oil as an energy source and, most recently, to
help stimulate the global economy.
Sustainable Design in Practice
Design decisions made early in the process can deliver
Urban Engineering BIM
http://www.urbanbydesign.org
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 77
significant results when it comes to the efficient use of the
vital resources. Employing sustainable analysis tools
helps architects and engineers to make better informed
decisions earlier in the design process and enables them
to have a greater impact on the efficiency and performance
of a building design. Historically, analysis softwares were
complex and required special training-making them
unsuitable for infrequent users such as architects or
designers. Sustainable analysis tools, such as Autodesk
Ecotect Analysis helps users to become proficiently faster
by providing access to immense stores of data and the
ability to more quickly iterate for optimal sustainable
designs.
Designing and delivering more sustainable projects can
be complex. It requires close coordination across different
project stages, from design through construction and
operation. Many firms are looking for the best way to
integrate building information modeling (BIM) technology
with sustainable design and analysis tools. BIM is core to
Autodesk's sustainable design approach for building
performance analysis and simulation.
Analyzing a Building Design
BIM enables architects and engineers to use digital
design information to analyze and understand how their
projects perform before they are built. Developing and
evaluating multiple alternatives at the same time enables
easy comparison and informs better sustainable design
decisions.
A computable Autodesk Revit Architecture design
model is devised for sustainability analyses-even during
early conceptual design. As soon as the layout of a
building' s walls, windows, roofs, floors, and interior
partitions (elements that define a building's thermal zones)
are established, the information employed to create a
Revi t model can be used to perform anal yses.
Performing these analyses in a CAD workflow is a fairly
difficult undertaking as the CAD model has to be exported
and carefully massaged to work with analysis programs.
Using the Autodesk Ecotect Analysis to analyze early
building designs emerging from a Revit-based BIM
process can simplify the analysis process.
Whole Building Energy, Water and Carbon Analysis
The Autodesk Green Building Studio web-based
service enables faster, more accurate whole-building
energy, water, and carbon emission analyses and helps
architects-the majority of which are not specially trained
in any of these analyses-to evaluate the carbon footprint
of a Revit-based building design with greater ease.
Built specifically for architects and using green building
extensible markup language for easy data exchange
across the Internet, the web-based service was one of the
first engineering analysis tools to deliver easy-to-use
i nteroperabi l i ty between bui l di ng desi gns and
sophisticated energy analysis software programs such
as DOE-2.
The link between the Revit platform and the Green
Building Studio web service is facilitated through a plug-
in that enables registered users to access the service
directly from their Revit Architecture design environment.
Inline Energy Analysis
The Autodesk Green Building Studio web-based service
enables architects and other users to perform faster
analyses of a Revit-based building design, from within
their own design environment, directly over the Internet.
This helps streamline the entire analysis process and
enables architects to get faster feedback on their design
alternatives-making green design more efficient and cost-
effective.
Based on the building's size, type, and location (which
drives electricity and water usage costs), the web-based
service determines the appropriate material, construction,
Figure 1: The Autodesk Green Building Studio web-based service enables faster,
whole-building energy, water, and carbon emission analyses of a Revit-based
building design. The building location (being defined here) drives the resulting
electricity and water usage costs.
Figure 2: The link between the Revit platform and the Autodesk Green Building
Studio web-based service is facilitated through a plug-in that enables registered
users to access the service directly from their Autodesk Revit Architecture design
environment.
Urban Engineering BIM
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 78
system, and equipment defaults by using regional
bui l di ng standards and codes to make i ntel l i gent
assumptions. Using simple drop-down menus, architects
can quickly change any of these settings to define specific
aspects of their design; a different building orientation, a
lower U-value window glazing, or a 4-pipe fan coil HVAC
system.
The service uses precise hourly weather data, as well as
hi stori cal rai n data, that are accurate to wi thi n 20
kilometers of the given building site. It also uses emission
data for electric power plants across the United States
and includes the broad range of variables needed to
assess carbon neutrality.
Analysis Results
Usually, within minutes the service calculates a building's
carbon emissions and the user is able to view the output
in a web browser, including the estimated energy and
cost summaries as well as the building's carbon neutral
potential. Users can then explore design alternatives by
updating the settings used by the service and rerunning
the analysis, or by revising the building model itself in the
Revit-based application and then rerunning the analysis.
The output also summarizes the water usage and costs,
and electricity and fuel costs; calculates an ENERGY STAR
score; estimates photovoltaic and wind energy potential;
calculates points toward LEED daylighting credit; and
estimates natural ventilation potential. Unlike most
analysis output, the Autodesk Green Building Studio
report is easier to understand-giving architects and other
users actionable information they need to help make
greener design decisions.
Detailed Environmental Performance
The desktop tools in Autodesk Ecotect Analysis provide
a wide range of functions and simulations, helping
archi tects and other users to understand how
environmental factors will impact building operation and
performance in the early design phase.
Working with the Environment
To mitigate a building's impact on the environment, it is
important to first understand how the environment will
impact the building. Built specifically by architects and
focused on the building design process, Autodesk Ecotect
Analysis is an environmental analysis tool that enables
Figure 3: Architects and other users can explore design alternatives by updating
the settings used by the Autodesk Green Building Studio web-based service and
rerunning the analysis, or revising the building model itself in the Revit-based
application and then rerunning the analysis.
Figure 4: The Autodesk Revit-based software application user views the output of
the analyses in a web browser, including the estimated energy and carbon
emission summaries (shown left) and a detailed LEED water efficiency guide
(shown below).
Urban Engineering BIM
Tekla India Pvt.Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 80
designers to simulate the performance of their building
projects right from the earliest stages of conceptual
design. Autodesk Ecotect Analysis combines a wide array
of analysis functions-including shadows, shading, solar,
lighting, thermal, ventilation, and acoustics-with a highly
visual and interactive display that presents analytical
results directly within the context of the building model.
access, and visual impact.
Revit-based design models can be exported to gbXML
format and imported directly into Autodesk Ecotect
Analysis for simulation and analysis throughout the design
process. At the onset of the design process, very early
stage Autodesk Revit Architecture massing models can
be used in combination with site analysis functionality in
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis to help determine the optimal
location, shape, and orientation of a building design-
based on fundamental environmental factors such as
daylight, overshadowing, solar access, and visual impact.
As the conceptual design evolves, whole-building energy,
water and carbon analysis can be conducted using the
integrated access to Autodesk Green Building Studio in
order to benchmark its energy use and recommend areas
of potential savings. Once these fundamental design
parameters have been established, Autodesk Ecotect
Analysis can be used again to rearrange rooms and zones,
to size and shape individual apertures, to design custom
shading devices, or to choose specific materials-based
on environmental factors such as daylight availability,
glare protection, outside views, and acoustic comfort.
Visual Feedback
Perhaps the most unique aspect of the software is its visual
and interactive display of the analysis results. The inability
of the designer to easily interpret the results of analyses is
often the biggest failing of building performance analysis
software. Autodesk Ecotect Analysis provides actionable
feedback to the designer in the form of text-based reports
Figure 5: Early stage Autodesk Revit Architecture models can be analyzed with
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis to help determine the optimal location, shape, and
orientation of a building design-based on basic environmental factors such as the
overshadowing of a particular building (highlighted in red) shown here.
Figure 6: Autodesk Ecotect Analysis can also be used for detailed design analysis. For example, the
visibility analysis displayed here shows the amount and quality of views to the outside mapped over the
floor area of an office.
This visual feedback enables the software to
communi cate compl ex concepts and
extensive datasets more effectively and helps
designers quickly engage with multifaceted
performance issues-at a time when the design
is sufficiently "plastic" and can be easily
changed.
Analyzing a Design in the Context of BIM
Revit-based design models can be exported
to gbXML format and imported directly into
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis for simulation and
analysis throughout the design process. At
the onset of the design process, very early
stage Autodesk Revit Architecture massing
models can be used in combination with site
analysis functionality in Autodesk Ecotect
Anal ysi s to hel p determi ne the opti mal
location, shape, and orientation of a building
design-based on fundamental environmental
factors such as daylight, overshadowing, solar
Urban Engineering BIM
Savcor India Pvt.Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 82
as well as visual displays. These visual displays are more
than just charts and graphs. The analysis results are
presented directly within the context of the model display:
shadow animations resulting from shadow casting
analysis; surface-mapped information such as incident
solar radiation; and spatial volumetric renderings such
as daylight or thermal comfort distribution in a room.
This type of visual feedback lets designers more easily
understand and interact with analysis data, often in real
time. For instance, a designer can rotate a
view of surface-mapped solar radiation
looking for variations over each facade, or
watch an animated sequence of solar rays to
see how sunlight interacts with a specially
designed light shelf at different times of the
year.
Ongoing Building Performance Analysis
During conceptual design, Autodesk Ecotect
Figure 7: Using Autodesk Ecotect Analysis, architects can see the results of their
analysis displayed in the context of a building model, such as the surface-mapped
results of this solar radiation analysis.
Analysis and the Autodesk Revit Architecture model can
be used for a variety of early analysis. For example, the
designer can perform overshadowing, solar access, and
wind-flow analyses to iterate on a form, and orientation
that maximizes building performance without impinging
on the rights-to-light of neighboring structures.
As the design progresses and the elements that define a
building's thermal zones are established (the layout of
the walls, windows, roofs, floors, and interior partitions),
the Revit model can be used for room-based calculations
such as average daylight factors, reverberation times, and
portions of the floor area with direct views outside.
Eventually the Revit model can be used for more detailed
analysis-such as shading, lighting, and acoustic analysis.
For example, the designer can use Autodesk Ecotect
Analysis in conjunction with a shading louver design
modeled in Autodesk Revit Architecture to simulate how
the design will work under different conditions throughout
the year. Or the architect can use Autodesk Ecotect
Analysis to help assess the acoustic comfort of a Revit-
Figure 8: Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software also displays analysis results using spatial volumetric
renderings, such as this analysis of the visual impact of a building within an urban site.
based design, and then adjust the location
of a sound source or adjust the internal wall
layout or the geometry of sound reflectors for
optimal comfort.
Summary
The consistent, computable data that comes
from Autodesk Revit Architecture combined
with the breadth of performance analysis and
meaningful feedback of Autodesk Ecotect
Analysis work in combination to help reduce
the cost and time to perform energy modeling
and anal ysi s. The feedback from these
analyses helps architects and other users to
optimize the energy efficiency of their designs
and work toward carbon neutrality earlier in
the design process-a key ingredient not only
for i ncorporati ng energy effi ci ency i nto
standard building design practices but also
for mitigating the carbon footprint of our built
environment.
Urban Engineering BIM
Neocrete Technologies Pvt.
Ltd
84 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Communication Feature
he construction industry in India
is chronically plagued with
Tissues such as limited visibility of
remote sites, higher probability of
budget and time overrun, inability to
track men and material at both
procurement and usage and above
all, opaqueness of the financial
performance of each project. URC
Construction Pvt Ltd, established 56
years ago at Erode, was no exception
to this trend.
Hence, in 2002 the company
searched for a cure through an IT
solution; but a complete andintegrated
solution with a clear understanding of
construction industry and its challenges
was not available in the market. The IT
solutions that were available at that
time came with promises of full filling
the requirements of URC only by
customization during the time of
implementation. However, the company
was wary of the idea of building non-
existing core modules in the form of
customization during implementation
and/or bridging two or more disparate
systems at the time of generating key
MISreports.
Thus, URC formed a team to build
an ERP system that would exclusively
be a solution to the construction
industry. Using advanced IT technolo-
gies, the team with convergence of
experts from construction core,
business operations and IT developed
TM
an ERP namely URCIMS that linked
all departments, sites and employees

at all levels. In 2008 the team was
spun off to form a newcompany called
URCInfotec Pvt. Ltd(URCI). Since then
the product is rolled out to NCC
(formerl y known as Nagarjuna
Construction Company), Hyderabad
TM
URCIMS En-Route to a Systematic Future
C. Devarajan
CMD - URC Infotec Pvt Ltd.
Communication Feature
85 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
and few other construction companies.
Because the product was developed
by the very same people who were
involved in day-to-day operations in
construction core, special focus was
given to areas where it would matter a
lot to any construction company. For
example, the management shall decide
to create or not to create budget at
company and/or site level and set the
level of budgetary controls in operations.
Even budget shall be revised as a
whole or only select few items as and
when required. The flexible options of
using and tracking revisions of budget
have enabled the management and
users to maximize the benefit of
budget controls at sites.
TM
Similarly, URCIMS helps to
collect and track the output of each
machine/tool. Apart from collecting
the usage data of plant, machinery
and formworks, the output data shall
be analysed specific to construction
activities. Hence, the utilization,
expendituresandoutput of equipments
in each activity shall be pared against
the overall performance of the site.
Additionally, the ability of the
system to collect, link, track and
analyze data at activity level has
given the management to perform
site wise profitability analysis online
any time. Also, the ability to set the
granularity of control of operations
has given the management the
control to take corrective actions. The
data from modules not only from
back operations such as inventory,
procurement, HR and Finance &
Accounts but also from execution,
monitoring, plant & machinery, billing
and optionally planning and tendering
is fully integrated. Hence, the
software package is readily available
to meet the needs of most of the
construction operations without
muchof customization.
CMDtestimonial
To har ness t he gr eat est
opportunity in building infrastructure in
our country with trillions of dollars
infused by the Indian government, we
in the construction industry should
become systematic companies. Hence,
a good product for operational
management, process controlling and
system orientation is the need of the
TM
hour. After implementing URCIMS in
URC, NCC and other companies, I
believe it is the system that will take
your company to grow multi fold in the
coming decade
For further details:
URC Infotec Private Limited
Mob.: +91 9865653530
E-mail: sales@urcinfotec.com
Web: www.urcims.com,
www.urcinfotec.com
Communication Feature
86 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
lthough distance measurement
is done from ages, Survey
Engineering is not a very old A
science. It was started in 1511 with the
invention of the compass, followed by
invention of Chain in 1620. Theodolite
was invented in 1720 and until 1990 its
growth was slow. Progress in Survey
Engineering has been considerable in
last 20 years and the Scope of Surveying
has also increased greatly.
Let us have a quick look at Major IT
Implementations which are used in
Modern Surveying. However, the old
instruments like Chain are still being
used. Depending on scope of projects
different new techniques, instruments
and technologies are being used in
ModernSurvey Engineering Projects.
Survey Engineers started using
Computers like the way other people
started using it in different fields. Initially
CAD (AutoCAD, Micro Station) was
introduced to prepare Survey Drawings.
Then for back office Automation, tools
like Word, Excel were used. Internet
contributed majorly in speeding up the
Survey work.
Till EDM was invented there was no
direct connection between Survey
instruments and computers. Then
started the era where noting down the
point information became old style.
Now, once the survey is done all the
information is stored in the instrument
and it is directly downloaded to a
computer. Total Station is one instrument
which is widely used in modern survey
engineering. Total stations were
avai l abl e from 1990, and the
technological boom has considerably
increased both the accuracy and
precisioninSurvey Engineering.
Scope and application of Survey
engineering has also increased
considerably. Following Technologies
are being used in Modern Survey
Engineering Projects:
Total Station: The total station is an
electronic theodolite (transit) integrated
with an electronic distance meter
(EDM) to read slope distances from
the instrument to a particular point.
GPS: The Global Positioning
System (GPS) is a space-based
satellite navigation system that
provides location and time information
in all weather conditions, anywhere on
or near the Earth, where there is an
unobstructed line of sight to four or
more GPSsatellites.
DGPS: Differential Global Positioning
System is an enhancement to Global
Positioning System that provides
improved location accuracy, from the
15-meter nominal GPS accuracy to
about 10 cm in case of the best
implementations.
Remote Sensing: Remote sensing
is the acquisition of information about
an object or phenomenon, without
making physical contact with the
object. In modern usage, the term
generally refers to the use of aerial
sensor technologies to detect and
classify objects onEarth.
Photogrammetry: Photogrammetry
is the practice of determining the
geometric properties of objects from
photographic images.
LIDAR: Light Detection and Ranging
i s an opt i cal remot e sensi ng
technology that can measure the
distance to, or other properties of a
target by illuminating the target with
light, oftenusing pulses from a laser.
Aworldwidenetwork of observatories
uses LIDAR's to measure the distance
to reflectors placed on the moon,
allowing the moon's position to be
measured with mm precision. You can
make out how the Precision of Survey
has increased withIT Implementations.
When a large-scale project requires
survey-grade spatial data, LIDAR has
proven to be the fastest and most
accurate technology for mapping and
modeling.
There are software's designed to do
computation like Contouring, Earthwork,
Interpolation, Section Generation which
are specific to Survey Engineering.
With advent of technology, Geo
Browsers are also made available and
Google Earth is the most popular
among them. Using Google Earth and
related software's, for small scale
requirements results can be derived
evenwithout doing the actual Survey.
As any other industry Survey
Engineering has fully reaped benefits of
IT improvements and the work that
used to take lot of time otherwise are
being done quickly and accurately.
Scope of Survey Engineering also has
grownLeaps and Bounds withthe aid of
IT. The toping on the Ice is that all these
IT Solutions are becoming more
affordable day by day.
'IT' Providing an Impetus for the Surveying Industry
For further details:
Esurveying Softech (India) Pvt. Ltd
Ph: +91-80-23491717,
E-mail: info@esurveying.net
Web: www.esurveying.net
Kota Krishna Kamath
Managing Director,
Esurveying Softech (India) Pvt Ltd
Mr.Kota Krishna Kamath, Managing
Director of ESurveying Softech (India) Pvt Ltd,
has more than 16 years' experience in software
product development for both domestic and
overseas market. He has architected many
products in the areas of Office Automation,
Taxation and Survey Engineering. India's
highest selling Payroll product, 'Saral PayPack'
and TDS Package, 'Saral TDS' were initially
developed under Mr.Kamath's guidance. He is
also the brain behind immensely popular
survey related software like 'ESurvey CAD' and
'ESurvey Lisps'.
Metal Tech Constructions Pvt.Ltd
Communication Feature
88 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
uilding Information Modelling
(BIM) is the process of
modelling and communicating B
the structure of a building in detail to
benefit the entire building lifecycle.
BuildingInformationModellingfacilitates
the exchange and visualization of
building information in digital 3D
format between all project disciplines
to ensure integrated project delivery
(IPD). The acronym BIM is also used
for the terms Building Information
Model and Building Information
management. This enables the
highest level of constructability and
production control. Centralizing model
and non-model based data into the 3D
model allows for more collaborative
and integrated project management
and delivery from conceptual design
to construction.
Tekla Structures BIM software
provide an accurate, dynamic, and
data-rich 3D environment that can be
shared by contractors, structural
engineers, steel detailers and
fabricators, as well as concrete
detailers and manufacturers
Majority of the Reinforced Concrete
projects are still done in 2D CAD &
most of them ask whether 3D BIM
can be adopted for Reinforced
Concrete projects. The answer is yes
&it is happening. In the drawing based
workflow once the drawings are
freezed for construction from the
Clients or Consultants, the Contractor
needs to prepare the detailed rebar
drawings with the bar bending
schedule. Even consultants issue the
separate drawings for MEP, Post
tensioning etc., where co-ordination
between different groups like Design
detailing, Cost estimation, Quantity
management, Resource planning,
Scheduling, Sub Contractor Co-
ordination & Site Execution is a big
challenge.
In the Building Information
Modelling workflow, Tekla Structures
effectively integrates into any best-of-
breed software driven collaborative
workflow, which is the key to minimize
errors and maximize efficiency, resulting
in high profitability and on-time project
completion.
The working concept of Tekla
structures Bui l di ng Informati on
Modelling for Reinforced Concrete is,
a 3D parametric model based
approach wherein the deliverables like
Drawings (General arrangement,
Foundation, Slab, Beam, Shear wall,
Column schedules etc.,) along with
Bar bending schedules, Material
takeoff (Bill of Materials), Scheduling,
Architectural & MEP information can
be handled. This BIMmodel efficiently
handles any changes in the related
deliverables.
Model based workflow has huge
leverage in streamlining the whole
value chain. The detailed BIM model
has a huge potential to reduce errors &
wastages in all stages starting from
Benefits of BIM Technology in
Reinforced Concrete Industry
Nawa Engineers & Consultants Pvt.
Ltd
Communication Feature
90 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
conceptual design to actual site
execution.
When one optimizes only a part of
the process, like drawing production,
benefits are limited. Whereas if we
look to optimize the entire value chain
that includes suppliers, vendors and
subcontractors, the leverage of
accurate model data is enormous.
The cost Impact of an error during any
point of process will be multiplied
once when (error) is accepted to the
next stage of the process. The model
based design & detailing workflow
prevents most of these errors.
The data from these BIM model
can be further maximized through the
use of this information in the field.
Traditional construction methods lose
t he accuracy of Model when
implemented in the field. Valuable
time and accuracy can be lost by
manual l y scal i ng di st ances,
calculating angles from plans, turning
angles with Theodolites, and pulling
tapes to measure distances.
To connect the inherent accuracy
of a fully coordinated BIMwith the final
bui l di ng product, thi s detai l ed
information available can be used by
construction professionals to automate
the layout, erection and construction
of their projects.
For further details:
Tekla India
Ph: +91-22-61387777, +91-80-65461546,
E-mail: info.india@tekla.com
Web: www.tekla.com
Universal Construction Machinery &
Equipment Ltd
92 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Concrete Benefits
including initial construction, rehabilita-
tion, maintenance, and salvage value.
Traditionally, LCCAs have ignored
the possibility of future changes in
relative prices of building materials by
assuming that the real prices of all
construction inputs remain fixed i.e. a
standard inflation rate is used for all
building materials. MIT researchers
reviewed the data on real price changes
of four basic construction materials -
concrete, asphalt, steel, and lumber
and found that the assumption of
constant real costs is seriously
inconsistent with historical experience.
Ignoring that experience can lead to
serious cost overruns. To avoid such
overruns, the study suggests the use of
material-specific escalation rates. The
paper forecasts real asphalt prices
rising by 95%largely due to oil prices
and real concrete prices dropping by
20% over the next 50 years. It sees steel
and lumber prices falling a respective
28% and 44% in the same period. In
other words, researchers found that
the actual total life-cycle costs of using
asphalt could be much higher than the
espite being one of the oldest
materials on earth and the
Dworld's most consumed man-
made material, scientists are only now
beginning to decipher the behavior of
concrete at an atomic level. The
Concrete Sustainability Hub at MIT,
whose work is being funded under a
$10-million, five-year grant from the
Portland Cement Association and Ready
MixedConcreteResearchandEducation
Foundation, believes that understanding
microstructure in concrete will yield new
waystomanipulatethebuildingmaterial.
The MIT's Concrete Sustainability
Hub is already creating controversy
through its recent report on life-cycle
cost analysis (LCCA) titled "The Effects
of Inflation and Its Volatility on the
Choice of Construction Alternatives"
wherein it suggests that life-cycle costs
of investments in roads, buildings and
other infrastructureshoulduseescalation
rates indexed to a material's historical
inflation rate rather than to a fixed,
general inflation rate. Economists use
life-cycle cost analyses to help calculate
the total lifetime costs of a project,
costs that would be projected by life-
cycle cost analyses that fail to consider
the impact of inflation and price
volatility. What's more, the disparity
between the life-cycle costs between
concrete and asphalt shifts dramatically
in favor of concrete when the life-cycle
cost analysis accounts for inflation.
However, the National Asphalt
Pavement Association (NAPA) has
responded by stating that applying a
material-specific discount rate is not
accepted as valid by the economics
profession. Also, using historical price
inflation data to predict future prices is
an unsupported methodology. Standard
economic practices caution against
trying to forecast future price trends for
inflation or highly volatile commodities,
such as oil, over periods of time longer
thansixmonths. Beyondtheseeconomic
flaws, the Concrete Sustainability Hub's
report ignores innovations in asphalt
engineering already being used to
reduce project costs, such as the use
of warm-mix asphalt and reclaimed
asphalt pavement.
Concrete VS Asphalt
*Magnified view of concrete
with nanoscale crystal
seeds, Scale 960:1
(bei 12 cm in width)
Battle for the Future Choice
of Construction Material
*Picture Courtesy: www.basf.com
DCS Trading & Services
Pvt.Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 94
Mechanisms of Deterioration
of Reinforced Concrete Structures
Dr. Manu Santhanam
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras
D
urability of hydraulic-cement concrete is defined
as its ability to resist weathering action, chemical
attack, abrasi on, or any other process of
deterioration (ACI). Durable concrete will retain its original
form, quality, and serviceability when exposed to its
environment.
Concrete is an inherently durable material. Reinforced
concrete structures are expected to be maintenance-free
during their service lives. However, there is evidence of
premature deteri orati on of modern structures. The
resultant costs to the economy reach 3 - 5% of GNP in
some countries (and up to 50% of construction budgets).
This occurs because existing knowledge not adequately
applied.
As shown in Figure 1, durability of concrete depends on
two primary factors - the concrete system, and the service
environment. The concrete can be further subdivided into
the materials and the process, while deterioration in
service conditions can be through physical or chemical
means.
Concrete has to function in different types of environments,
some of which are aggressive or degrading to the concrete
quality. Typical aggressive environments are: Seawater
(or close to sea), Polluted soils (due to industrial or
agricultural effluents), Freezing conditions, to name a few.
Design of concrete for these environments has to take
into consideration the alterations that cement paste (or
concrete) may undergo upon i nteracti on wi th the
environment.
The common durability problems in concrete are:
- Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete
- Sulphate and other chemical attack
- Alkali aggregate reaction (more of a material problem
than environmental)
- Freezing and thawing damage
- Carbonation
Concrete characteristics affecting performance
Porosity and permeability
Durability of concrete is related to its performance in the
service environment. Concrete is subjected to a host of
durability problems, which typically result in:
- Progressive loss of mass from the surface
- Volume changes, which can be of three types: (1) both
paste and aggregate expand, (2) the paste expands,
while the aggregate is inert, or (3) only the aggregate
expands.
Water i s common to al l the durabi l i ty probl ems i n
concrete. The presence of water, or its involvement in the
reactions is necessary for the problems to occur. Thus,
the durability of concrete is intrinsically related to its water-
tightness, or permeability.
Figure 1. Constituents of concrete durability
Concrete Durability
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 95
Permeability of concrete is a function of the permeability
of the cement paste, of the aggregate, and of the
interfacial transition zone. The permeability of these
components is in turn related to the porosity. Paste
capillary porosity is typically 30 - 40%, while normal
aggregates have a porosity of 2 - 3% (and rarely greater
than 8 - 10%). The transition zone is highly porous due to
the presence of flaws such as microcracks and bleed-
channels.
Figure 2. Porosity and permeability: A is highly porous compared to B, but
probably less permeable due to the poor interconnectivity of pores
Mix characteristics - w/c and presence of admixtures
Both porosity and permeability increase with an increase
in the water to cement ratio. The permeability also
depends on the degree and nature of curing, and the
presence of mineral admixtures, which can act as fillers
densifying the transition zone. Additionally, the pozzolanic
reacti on of mi neral admi xtures contri butes to the
resistance of concrete. Chemical admixtures such as
corrosion inhibitors and air entraining chemicals enhance
the performance of concrete during corrosion and
freezing, respectively.
Type of cement and aggregate
Blended cements perform better (combined benefits of
pozzolanic reaction and reduced permeability) in all
environments. Special cements such as Type V (sulphate
resistant) and Sulpersulphated cement are good for
sulphate resistance.
As far as aggregates are concerned, low density material
is susceptible to freezing damage. The bond with cement
paste will govern the quality of interfacial zone. Some
aggregates have better bond than others.
Presence of cracks
Cracks in concrete could be structural or non-structural
(thermal effects, shrinkage etc.). Most often, the non-
structural cracks occur as a result of poor material
selection, lack of adequate quality control, etc. There is
no use having HPC between cracks, since cracks will serve
as channels for the ingress of water and other chemicals.
Good concreting practice is the only way to minimize
unwanted cracking.
Importance of the cover zone
The importance of a good concrete cover for reinforcing
steel cannot be overemphasized. The cover concrete is
primarily responsible for its response to the service
environment.
Sulphate attack on concrete
Sulphate attack is the deterioration of concrete by means
of reactions between sulphate ions and hydrated cement
products. Generally, sulphate attack is divided into two
categories: External and Internal. External sulphate attack
is when the source of sulphate ions is external to the
concrete, such as when it is from ground water or seawater.
Na
2
SO
4
, MgSO
4
, CaSO
4
and (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
are some
detrimental sulphate sources that are primarily found in
ground water contaminated with industrial effluents and
agricultural products. Internal sulphate attack, on the
other hand, occurs when a late release of sulphates within
concrete takes place. In this case, the formation of
ettringite occurs after the concrete has hardened, and
this results in distress.
Sodium sulfate (N ) and magnesium sulfate (M ) can react
with CH to produce gypsum (C H
2
), sodium hydroxide
(NH) and magnesium hydroxide (MH, or brucite). It is not
ful l y understood i f gypsum formati on causes any
volumetric expansion. The formation of gypsum, however,
is reported to render the structure soft, which leads to a
decrease in strength of the structure.
The formation of gypsum is closely linked to the formation
of other products of sulfate attack, as gypsum can combine
with other hydration products to produce ettringite. This
phenomenon is called ettringite corrosion. The formation
of ettri ngi te i s sai d to be expansi ve, al though the
mechanism of expansion is still debated by researchers.
Numerous theories have been postulated to explain the
expansion due to ettringite formation: (1) crystal growth,
either by topochemical (when the products form at the
reactant sites itself) mechanism, where ettringite crystals
grow on the surface of aluminate particles, or by through-
solution mechanism; (2) swelling due to imbibition of
water, because of the high surface area of ettringite.
The damaging effects on the C-S-H gel are only due to
the action of magnesium sulfates.
The MH and the silica hydrate (SHy) formed in this reaction
further react to produce magnesium silicate hydrate (M-
S-H), which is reported to be non - cementitious, and
leads to complete disinitegration. The phenomenon of
progressive reduction of the C/S ratio within the C-S-H
gel is called decalcification. This process does not
actually begin until the pH drops to very low values (<10).
Concrete Durability
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 96
The conversion to M-S-H is a very advanced stage of
deterioration. The M-S-H and gypsum formed from the
above reactions are frequently observed to be deposited
i n bands paral l el to the exposed surface. The
decomposition of the C-S-H gel into a non-cementitious
M-S-H can be achieved only by M . The decomposition
by the M doesn't stop with the formation of M-S-H but
continues further. The action of M renders a low pH to the
Figure 1. Cement mortar in sodium sulphate solution showing deposition of
ettringite (E) in the cracked surface zones; the dark region represents decalcified
C-S-H
pore solution. Hence the C-S-H releases some CH into
the solution in order to stabilize itself at a higher pH. But
since there is M in the surrounding environment, the
deterioration cycle repeats itself beginning with the
gypsum corrosion.
Some scanning electron micrographs that depict the
attack of cement mortars by sodium and magnesium
sulphate solutions are presented below in Figures 1 - 6.
Figure 2. Large deposit of gypsum formed in cement mortar in sodium sulphate
solution
Figure 3. Layer of gypsum surrounding sand grain in cement mortar stored in
sodium sulphate solution, suggesting a conversion of CH to gypsum; small
deposits of ettringite are also visible
Figure 4. Layers of M-S-H and gypsum on the surface of concrete subjected to
magnesium sulphate attack
Concrete Durability
United Steel & Structurals Pvt. Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 98
Figure 5. Formation of a surface double-layer of brucite(B) and gypsum(G) in a
cement mortar stored in magnesium sulphate solution
Figure 6. M-S-H and gypsum in a highly deteriorated surface zone of a cement
mortar stored in magnesium sulphate solution
Protection from sulphate attack
" Use of low C
3
A cements: The philosophy of prescribing
low C
3
A cement to improve resistance to sulphate attack
hinges on the need to minimize ettringite formation after
the concrete hardens. When the C
3
A content is low, most
ettringite will be formed in the plastic state. The use of
very low C
3
A content, however, is not good in the case of
attack by chlorides. C
3
A can bind the chlorides that
penetrate into concrete, thus reducing the free chloride
content that can cause corrosion. Thus, a moderate C
3
A
content should be prescribed in such cases. Lowering of
C
3
S might also help, since this would reduce the amount
of CH that forms.
- The best protection against sulphate attack is to have
a low w/c in concrete. Blended cements, that lead to a
consumption of CH, need not be good in cases of
magnesium sulphate attack.
- Use of high alumina cement: HAC is good for sulphate
resistance if the conversion of its hydration product
does not occur.
- Supersul phated cement: In thi s cement, al l the
available aluminates are converted to ettringite during
hydration. Thus, there are no excess aluminates
present to react with external sulphate ions.
Sea water attack
Sulphate attack can also take place in seawater. However,
the mechanism may be altered due to the presence of a
high concentration of chlorides. Typically, seawater attack
is characterized by the formation of higher amounts of
brucite compared to groundwater attack. In addition to
the chemical reactions involved in sulphate attack,
physical deterioration of the concrete may also occur due
to cycles of drying and wetting. The tidal zones in
concrete structures are especi al l y suscepti bl e to
alternate drying and wetting, which may lead to the
crystallization of salts in the surface pores, and the
development of expansive pressures that may cause
spalling. The action of waves can further aggravate the
surface concrete.
Acid attack
Attack by sulfuric acid occurs most commonly in sewers,
where a lot of sulphide gases exist owing to the large
degree of microbial action. Sulfuric acid creates an acidic
environment in the concrete, in which the primary cement
phases (C-S-H, ettringite) are extremely unstable. Gypsum
formation occurs when sulfuric acid reacts with CH. The
loss of integrity and softening of the structure occur as a
result of gypsum formation and destabilization of C-S-H.
Carbonation
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the pores of concrete and
reacts with calcium hydroxide; as a result, the alkalinity
(pH) of the concrete is reduced. Reduction of pH causes
the passivity of reinforcing steel (protective layer) to be
destroyed.
Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF)
Under certain initial storage or curing conditions, such as
Concrete Durability
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 99
for steam-cured concrete that is subjected to high
temperatures, the ettringite that forms in the process of
cement hydration gets destroyed. The formation of
ettringite in the early stages may also not occur if there is
a late release of sulfates. The reformation of ettringite in
hardened concrete in the presence of moisture leads to
the generation of expansive pressures, and cracking of
concrete. This is called delayed or secondary or late
ettringite formation.
Most researchers believe that three elements are essential
for DEF to occur: presence of microcracks, late sulfate
release, and exposure to water. If cracks are present in
concrete, DEF causes the deposition of ettringite in the
cracks. The late-released sulfates, or the sulfates from the
deteriorated ettringite, go into the structure of C-S-H.
These are released later by moisture, which carries them
to the aluminate phases, resulting in the formation of
ettringite. This ettringite often effectively masquerades
as ASR, since it forms in extremely small crystals.
DEF is more of a problem with modern cements, since
the clinker SO3 levels have increased dramatically over
the years, and the use of sulfur fuels has also grown. Thus,
it is all the more essential nowadays to restrict the
temperature rise in concrete, not only from steam curing
but also from the use of rapid hardening cements. Most
European countries have adopted standards restricting
concrete temperatures.
Alkali aggregate reaction
Many si l i ceous i gneous (opal , chal cedony) and
sedimentary rocks (chert) possess a glassy or amorphous
texture. In alkaline environments the silica structure can
get dissolved from these aggregates. The resultant
reaction between silica and alkalis results in the formation
of a gel that is expansive. This phenomenon is called the
al kal i -si l i ca reacti on. Strai ned quartz present i n
metamorphic rocks may also be susceptible to damage
by alkali-silica reaction (ASR).
The alkalis may come from the cement, chemical and
mineral admixtures, impurities in aggregate or water. The
reaction itself needs the presence of moisture.
SiO
2
+ KOH (in the presence of moisture) Alkali silica
gel (no definite composition)
The first step in this reaction happened on the surface of
the aggregate, where the Si-O bonds are dissolved by
OH-. Thus, the silica becomes available to combine with
the alkalis to form alkali-silica gel.
The alkali silica gel formed from the above reaction could
also contain some Ca
2+
. The ratio of Ca
2+
to the alkalis
(Na
+
or K
+
) in the gel determines its expansive nature.
Usually, the higher the Ca
2+
, the lesser expansive the gel.
If the alkali hydroxide concentration falls below 0.3N, the
reaction tends to slow down and stop. The rate of reaction
cannot be determined from the amount of gel forming,
since it does not have a distinct composition.
The amount of expansion in ASR depends on the type of
aggregate. For some aggregates, a pessimum type
relation is observed between the % expansion and the %
of reactive aggregate, while for others, the % expansion
increases consistently with an increasing proportion of
reactive aggregate. The decrease of expansion beyond
a certain limit occurs because when there is too much
reactive silica, the gel can form at very early stages when
the concrete is still in the plastic state. At high alkali
contents, the gel that forms has got a low viscosity, and is
thus not able to generate high expansive pressures. In
the case of aggregate size, when the size is too small, the
reaction occurs in the plastic state of concrete, and thus
does not lead to any expansion. On the other hand, for
very large aggregates, the surface area to volume ratio
becomes too small for the reaction surface to be a
significant factor.
Mechanism of expansion
Various theories have been proposed to account for the
expansion that occurs as a result of ASR. These are:
- Absorption (swelling) theory proposed by Vivian: The
imbibition of pore water and the resultant swelling of
the alkali-silica gel causes expansion. The aggregate
grows outward and puts the paste in tension.
- Osmotic pressure theory proposed by Hansen: The
alkali-silica gel acts as a semi-permeable membrane
that allows only an inward diffusion of OH
-
, Na
+
, K
+
,
and Ca
2+
from the pores to the aggregate surface.
Thus the aggregate exerts osmotic pressure against
the surrounding paste. Lea modified this theory and
stated that there is actually a preferential diffusion of
some species - Na
+
, K
+
- over others such as Ca
2+
.
Manifestation of ASR
ASR is a very slow reaction and may take many years to
show up at the surface of the concrete and get detected.
Cracking due to ASR generally shows up as a map pattern
on the surface. Irregular small cracks form at the surface.
These are unsightly, but are rarely the cause of a structural
collapse. However, expansion associated with ASR can
cause misalignments.
Surface aggregates can often pop out of the concrete
due to expansion. The alkali-silica gel can ooze out to the
Concrete Durability
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 100
surface and get carbonated if wet. The resultant hard
white gel that forms resembles carbonated calcium
hydroxide.
Microstructurally, reaction rims are often visible on the
surface of reactive aggregates due to a slow dissolution
of the silica. However, the rim could also be due to
weathering, Certain ASR reactive aggregates even do
not form rims.
Protection against ASR
Due to circumstances, it is not possible to change an
aggregate source locally even if prior knowledge about
the reactivity of the aggregate is available. Thus, other
methods have to be adopted in order to prevent ASR.
The primary measures for protection are:
- Use of low alkali cement (< 0.6% equivalent Na
2
O).
- Preventing access of moisture.
- Using coatings (such as silane, which allows water
vapour to go out of concrete, but does not permit
water to come in) or waterproofing agents.
- Use of chemical admixtures such as Lithium salts
(LiNO
3
, LiOH, etc.) or alkyl alkoxy silanes, which bind
the reactive silica into a non-expansive product.
- Use of mineral admixtures such as silica fume. Mineral
admixtures can act in two ways: (1) by reducing the
penetration of water, and (2) by binding the alkalis
within the unhydrated glass. The alkali silica gel that
forms in mineral admixtures is also high in Ca
2+
, and is
thus not very expansive.
Freezing and thawing related damage
The damage due to freezing and thawing (F/T) is a physical
problem, unlike the chemical issues that were discussed
earlier. F/T can cause three types of failures:
- Paste failure: This is related to the failure of the paste.
Parallel cracks form in the paste and proceed inward
from the places where concrete first becomes highly
saturated with water. Sometimes, scaling of the top
surface can occur. Scaling is exacerbated when
deicing salts are used.
- Aggregate failure - D-cracking: This relates to the
failure of the paste when it is subjected to expansive
stressed by the aggregate. It shows up as parallel
cracks proceeding inward from the point of saturation.
The pattern of cracki ng on a j oi nted concrete
pavement or slab appears like the letter D, as shown
in the figure below.
- Aggregate failure - popout: Popouts are caused when
porous aggregates on the surface of concrete are
Figure 7. D-cracking in a concrete pavement slab
subjected to expansion on freezing. A part or the whole
of the aggregate pi ece cracks and pops out.
Sometimes, a mortar flake can also pop off as a result
of the expansion of an underlying aggregate.
Mechanism of freezing and thawing
Water expands by 9 - 10% upon freezing. Thus, the critical
saturation of a pore in concrete is about 90%. It must be
understood that freezing point in small pores is depressed
to a large extent. In fact, in some of the small pores in
concrete, freezing does not occur until temperatures as
low as - 40
o
C. Also, the presence of other ions in the pore
solution also depresses the freezing point. If the concrete
remains frozen through its lifetime, then not much of a
problem occurs. The deterioration occurs only if there are
successive cycles of freezing and thawing.
The expansion and damage associated with F/T is
explained using various mechanisms. Let us first consider
the case of paste failure (see Figure 8).
Figure 8. Movement of water inside capillaries
Concrete Durability
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The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 102
Water in the large pores near the surface of the concrete
is the first to freeze. The freezing of concrete proceeds in
a front parallel to the surface. The expansion of water in
the large pores on freezing drives out the unfrozen water
into the paste. The travel of water through the paste
generates a hydraulic pressure. The longer the path of
flow of water, the higher the pressure generated. If the
flow path is longer than a critical distance (0.2 mm for
concrete) then failure occurs.
The use of air entraining agents is the best remedy for
paste failure. Air bubbles serve as closely spaced
reservoirs into which the unfrozen water can migrate. The
spacing between air bubbles should be smaller than twice
the critical distance (0.2 mm) for the air entrainment to be
really effective. Thus, it is not just the amount of air
entrained, but also the dispersion of air that is important.
The larger the coarse aggregate size, the lower is the air
entrainment required.
When high strength concrete with low w/c is used, the
pore size can be so small that freezing does not even
occur at service temperatures. Thus, air entrainment is
sometimes not necessary in such cases. The use of
mineral admixtures, which act as pore refiners, can thus
be beneficial. However, mineral admixtures tend to
increase the scaling problem in concrete.
In the case of aggregate failure, the type of failure is
dictated by the porosity of the aggregate. If aggregate
porosi ty i f very hi gh, then the expansi ve stresses
generated by the aggregate are not critical. In other
words, the expansion is accommodated by the aggregate
elastically. Popouts are caused by aggregates that have
a moderately high porosity. Such low-density aggregates
(cherts are especially susceptible) are subjected to high
internal pressures due to expansion. The problem gets
worse when the aggregate size is large. The remedy is to
screen the concrete aggregate for low-density elements.
In the case of D-cracking, the aggregate porosity is not
high. Thus, and expansion of the water in the aggregate
causes the unfrozen water to move into the surrounding
paste, resulting in hydraulic pressures. Air entrainment of
the paste can help in this case to a certain extent.
Corrosion of reinforcing steel
The corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is a problem
of mammoth proportions. It is estimated that 5% of a
developed nation's GDP is utilized for repair of corrosion-
related damage. The yearly cost of repairs for reinforced
concrete bridge decks in the US alone is estimated to be
$ 50 - 200 million.
Corrosion is an electrochemical problem. The overall
mechanism can be broken up into the anode reaction
and the cathode reaction, as shown in Figure 9. An
electrical current flows through the aqueous medium
Figure 9. Reactions of corrosion
Figure 10. Current flow during corrosion process
opposite to the direction of flow of the electrons (see Figure
10). In addition to the electron current, there is also an
ionic current. The flow of current resembles a battery cell.
This system is thus known as a 'galvanic cell' and the
process is also known as 'galvanic corrosion'.
The ferrous and hydroxyl ions combine to form the rust
products.
2 Fe
2+
+ 4 OH
-
2 Fe(OH)2 (greenish rust)
The greenish rust, upon further reactions with O
2
and OH
-
, can form Fe
2
O
3
(red rust) and Fe
3
O
4
(black rust). The rust
often accumulates at places other than the reaction sites.
Likelihood of occurrence of corrosion
Anodic sites can be created on steel due to a multitude of
reasons:
- Compositional variances on the steel surface
- Presence of dust/dirt etc. partially on the steel surface
- Presence of local differences in applied stress
- Microstructural variations in the steel: (1) The ferrite
phase is more active than the cementite phase, (2)
Grain boundary atoms are more active compared to
the bulk
- Strained zones produced during cold working of
Concrete Durability
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 103
metals may be more active
- Presence of stress concentrations
- Differences in oxygen concentration at different sites
on the steel: generally, the site with a lower oxygen
concentration becomes anodic
Figure 11. Rust formation and delamination of concrete
Figure 12. Relative volumes of corrosion products
Manifestation of corrosion
- Formation of rust causes expansion and cracking
(some forms of rust are 6 - 7 times the volume of
undamaged steel) - see Figures 11 and 12.
- Loss of sectional area of rebar - reduction in load
carrying ability
Factors controlling the rate of corrosion
The following are the principal factors that control the
rate of corrosion:
- Availability of dissolved oxygen and moisture at the
cathode: In order for the cathodic reaction to occur,
both oxygen and moisture are necessary. Due to the
concrete cover, both these elements have to reach
the steel surface by diffusion. This slow diffusion
produces a significant reduction in the potential
difference between the anodic and cathodic areas.
This phenomenon is called 'concentration polarization'.
- Resistivity of the medium (concrete and its pore
solution): The flow of ions has to occur through the
medium of concrete and the pore solution. Thus, the
resistivity of the concrete can have a significant bearing
upon the easy flow of ions.
- Passivation of steel: In an alkaline environment, the
surface atoms of the steel get oxidized to form an thin
oxide layer (thickness of about 10 nm). This film is
stable at the highly alkaline environment of concrete.
The stability of the film is enhanced when the steel
contains a large amount of alloys. This phenomenon
of the formation of a protective layer around the steel
is called 'passivation', and is made possible by the
high concentration of OH
-
in the concrete pore solution.
The level of OH
-
required to maintain passivation is
not a constant value, but depends on the presence of
other ions, especially Cl
-
. The ratio of OH
-
to Cl
-
is very
important. Depassivation can occur by a number of
mechanisms: (1) Consumption of OH
-
by carbonation
and other reactions; when the pH falls below 11.5, the
film is no longer stable; (2) Presence of a high
concentration of Cl
-
: In addition to lowering the pH
due to ionic balance with OH
-
, Cl
-
can react with oxide
films of Fe(OH)
2
(that have not been converted to the
Figure 13. Some factors governing the rate of corrosion
stable oxide film because of lack of availability of
oxygen) to form iron chlorides. This results in pitting
corrosion. A threshold concentration of Cl
-
has to be
exceeded before corrosion can take place, and this
concentration is a function of the OH
-
concentration or
pH. Limits on Cl
-
concentration have been stipulated
in various codes.
Figure 14 shows the rate of occurrence of corrosion. As
shown in the figure, the initiation stage lasts until the
depassivation of steel. Beyond this stage, the propagation
of corrosion occurs at an almost constant rate. Finally, the
corrosion process enters an acceleration stage where the
rate is high.
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Protection mechanisms against corrosion
- Galvanization: this process involves the plating or steel
with Zinc. Zn, having a higher electrochemical potential
compared to Fe, becomes the sacrificial anode, and
Fe is protected as the cathode.
- Cathodic protection: An external voltage or current is
Figure 14. Rate of corrosion
suppl i ed to the steel to keep i t cathodi c and
preventing oxidation from occurring.
- Use of stainless steel (very high Cr): Produces a stable
passivating film.
- Use of epoxy coated steel.
- Use of corrosion inhibitors (see chapter on Chemical
Admixtures).
- Adequate depth of cover.
- Good quality concrete with low permeability.
Summary
Good concrete performance in aggressive environments
can only come about with the combined action of a
number of factors:
- Proper mix design
- Reduction of cracking
- Optimum cover thickness
- Adequate compaction and curing
- Quality of construction
- Correct maintenance
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Corrosion of Steel in Concrete
& Assessment Techniques
The corrosion cell
To demonstrate the pri nci pl es of el ectrochemi cal
corrosion, let us consider the simple "Daniel-cell". This
consists of zinc immersed in ZnSO
4
solution and copper
immersed in a CuSO
4
solution. The two electrodes are
connected to a variable resistor R, voltmeter V, and
ammeter A (Fig, 1). The potential difference (emf) between
the two electrodes when no current is flowing is 1.1 V. If a
small current is allowed to flow through the external resistor
(I1 in Fig. 2), the measured potential difference falls below
1.1 V because both electrodes polarise, Zn to b and Cu to
e (Fig. 2). As the resistance is decreased, the current
increases and the potential difference decreases until,
when the system is short-circuited (the resistance is very
small), maximum current flows and the potential difference
is almost zero (I
max
). The Zn anode polarises along the line
abc and the Cu cathode along the line def. The full
polarisation of Zn in volts is given by c-a and for Cu by f-d.
The anodic reaction in the "Daniel-cell" is:
Zn Zn
2+
+ 2e-
where Zn corrodes and goes into solution and the cathodic
reaction is:
Cu
2+
+ 2e- Cu
where copper is deposited from the CuSO
4
solution.
In the case of steel in oxygenated water, the simplified
anodic reaction is:
Fe Fe
2+
+ 2e-
George Sergi, Ph.D
Technical Director, Vector Corrosion Technologies
Iron atoms undergo oxidation (electron loss) to form F
++
ions which pass into solution. The excess free electrons
left in the metal are consumed, converting oxygen and
water to hydroxyl ions in a process of reduction (electron
addition) according to the following cathodic reaction:
O
2
+ H
2
O + 2e- 20H -
Both the anodic and cathodic reactions occur at adjacent
Figure 1 Polarised copper-zinc cell (Daniel-cell)
Concrete is a porous material whose pores contain an electrolyte made up primarily of sodium and potassium hydroxides.
1
Steel
reinforcement is normally protected in such an electrolyte owing to the formation of a dense and uniform passive oxide film.
2
Carbonation of the concrete (neutralisation of the alkali constituents by CO
2
gas from the atmosphere), or infestation of the
concrete with salt from seawater or from deicing agents leads to the breakdown of the protective oxide film and to corrosion of the
steel.
3,4
Corrosion of steel in concrete is an electrochemical process whereby anodic and cathodic reactions occur simultaneously
on the surface of the steel resulting in the dissolution of the metal at the anodic sites.
5
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sites simultaneously on the surface of the steel (Fig. 3). As
was the case with the "Daniel..cell", the nodic and cathodic
reactions of steel in water can be represented in a
polarization diagram (known as an "Evans" diagram), as
shown in Fig. 4. The intersection point of the two lines
corresponds to the electrode potential at which the rates
of the anodic and cathodic reactions are equal and is
termed the corrosion potential, (Ecorr), the value that steel
adopts when corroding freely. The magnitude of the
anodic and cathodic reactions is represented by the
number of electrons flowing per second between the
anodic and cathodic sites on a unit area of the metal
surface and is a measure of the corrosion rate, Icorr. It is
often referred to as the corrosion current density and
expressed in electrical units (amps/m2 of steel area or
more commonly, mA/m2 ). It is the current at the equivalent
Figure 2 Polarisation diagram for copper-zinc cell
Figure 3 Mechanism of corrosion in oxygenated water
point of intersection in Figure 4. Faraday' s laws of
electrolysis may be used to obtain corrosion rates in more
familiar terms (average rates of mass loss per unit area)
and these values may be simply converted to average
rates of loss of thickness of metal from knowledge of the
density of the steel.
Figure 4 Evans diagram for iron corroding in oxygenated water
Factors affecting corrosion rates
Both Icorr and Ecorr can vary depending on the degree of
polarization of either the anodic or the cathodic reactions.
When polarisation occurs mostly at the anodes, (i.e. the
anodic process is for some reason hindered) it is said
that the corrosion reaction is anodically controlled.
Similarly, if the cathodic reaction is polarised, the corrosion
reaction is said to be cathodically controlled. Since the
operation of a corrosion cell depends on three processes
occurring in series, viz. the anodic reaction, the cathodic
reaction and the flow of currents through the intervening
electrolyte and metal the overall corrosion rate is not only
governed by the anodic and cathodic reactions but also
by the magnitude of the resistance of the electrolyte which
can hi nder i oni c conducti on. Thi s i s represented
graphically in Figure 5.
Corrosion of steel in concrete When steel is immersed in
an al kal i ne sol uti on such as sodi um or potassi um
hydroxide, its surface becomes coated with an adherent,
insoluble oxide film (-Fe2O3) which is stable over a
range of potentials. Its polarisation curve is modified to
that shown in Figure 6 and shows that the corrosion rate
over intermediate potentials becomes very small.6 Such
a situation is termed passivity, one of the states in which
the metal can thermodynamically exist at variable pH
levels of the electrolyte as shown by a simplified Pourbaix
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diagram for steel (Fig. 7). The pore electrolyte of concrete
is primarily a mixture of sodium and potassium hydroxides
and as such, the embedded steel attains passivity. The
condition is usually characterised by a value of Ecorr
higher than about -250mV (measured relative to a
standard copper/ copper sulphate reference electrode-
CSE scale).
When carbonation of the concrete occurs, whereby the
pH of the pore electrolyte becomes neutral, passivity can
Figure 5 Effect of resistance of the electrolyte on the corrosion rate of the
reinforcement
Figure 6 Evans diagram for passive iron in oxygenated alkaline solution
no longer be thermodynamically stable and the steel
corrodes as it would in an equivalent neutral solution (Fig.
4). The rate of steel corrosion in carbonated concrete is
subject to anodic resistance control.78, It therefore
depends critically on the moisture content of the concrete
since this is primarily what determines the electrolytic
resistivity of the material. The corrosion potential of the
steel in this condition is typically in the range -450 to -
600mV (CSE scale) when corrosion is occurring.
Figure 7 Pourbaix diagram for steel
The other main cause of corrosion of reinforcing steel is
the presence of chloride salts in the concrete. In sufficient
concentrations, they can undermine the passive film of
the steel locally and bring about pitting corrosion. This is
illustrated by a modified Pourbaix diagram (Fig. 8) and
by a series of polarisation scans of steel in concrete
contaminated with chloride (Fig. 9). It is evident from
Figure 9 that the corrosion potential becomes more
negative and the corrosion rate increases as the chloride
concentration increases.
Figure 8 Modified Pourbaix diagram for steel in solutions contaminated with
chloride
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Figure 9 Evans diagram for steel undergoing pitting corrosion in chloride
contaminated concrete
Durability assessment and corrosion detection of steel
reinforcement
There are a few obvious and simple techniques that should
be carried out initially in order to obtain an overall picture
of the condition of the reinforced structure. A good visual
survey i s probabl y the most i mportant step i n the
assessment. It is essential to visit the site and look for tell-
tale signs such as cracking of the concrete, rust staining,
delamination but perhaps more importantly, signs of water
retention, inadequate drainage and, particularly in flat
surfaces such as car parks, formation of paddles. Edges
and crevices should be studied carefully. An assessment
of possible environmental factors such as exposure of
structure to direct rainfall, sun and wind should be made.
Then, key regions that may require detailed investigation
can be selected.
Chloride and carbonation survey
As was discussed earlier, both carbonation and chloride
infestation can lead to corrosion of the reinforcement. If
chl ori des are suspected, dust sampl es shoul d be
collected from selected nodes on a grid at increasing
depths into the concrete. This can be done simply with
the use of a drill. A concentration gradient of chloride
would suggest that the source was external (deicing salts,
seawater) whereas a fairly constant concentration may
suggest that the chlorides were added to the concrete at
the mixing stage. The depth of carbonation (neutralisation
of concrete alkalinity by acidic gasses such as CO
2
) can
be determined by spraying phenolphthalein indicator
either on freshly broken concrete or on drilled powder at
increasing depths.
Potential mapping
I t was shown above that the potenti al of steel
reinforcement can give a good indication of its condition.
Potenti al mappi ng i s used, therefore, as a maj or
i nvesti gati ve techni que for the detecti on of steel
reinforcement corrosion. The set-up for carrying out a
potential map is simple and it involves a few easy steps.
First of all, electrical continuity of the reinforcement is
checked by measuring the resistance between two points
where the steel has been exposed. A resistance of less
than 1 would normally signify continuity of the steel.
The potential on the steel is then measured relative to a
Figure 10 Simple potential mapping set-up
Figure 11 Potential map of concrete section showing several areas of low potential / high corrosion activity
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standard reference electrode (normally copper/copper
sulphate or silver/silver chloride) by resting the reference
electrode on the appropriate position on the surface of
the concrete as shown in Figure 10. A potential map can
then be constructed (Fi gure 11) whi ch can show
equipotential contours on the surface of the concrete.
Regions of high corrosion activity can normally be
identified as they show characteristically low potentials.
It is generally assumed that the probability of corrosion of
the steel rei nforcement i ncreases as the potenti al
diminishes. There is, however, a lot of uncertainty in the
middle range of potentials (-200 to -350mV). The problem
arises primarily from the way the potential of the steel
reinforcement is determined in practice. Figure 12 shows
di agrammati cal l y the current di stri buti on around a
corroding site (the anode) through the surrounding
concrete to the adjacent cathode regions. These constant
current flux lines, give rise to equipotential lines distributed
through the concrete as shown in Figure 12. In a region
above the anode the "apparent" potential is Ea (Fig. 12)
and at some distance away at the cathode it is Ec. The
value of Ea is normally less (more -ve) than that of Ec so
local corrosion sites can be identified. It can be seen,
however, that the potential measured on the surface is
not necessarily that of the anode. This "surface" potential
is influenced by parameters such as the concrete cover
depth and the resistivity of the concrete which can alter
the constant current flux lines and subsequently the
equipotential lines. Wetting of the concrete will inevitably
reduce the resistivity of the concrete and therefore change
significantly the potential characteristics.
Figure 12 Current and potential distribution in concrete near anodic corrosion
A further complication which gives rise to a common
misunderstanding, is the fact that steel embedded in
submerged or waterl ogged structures can exhi bi t
potentials which are more negative than -0.35 V (CSE
scale) whilst suffering negligible corrosion. This is caused
by the inability of oxygen to penetrate the cover depth in
sufficient quantities which leads to the polarisation of the
cathodic reaction as shown in Figure 13. Provided the
condition of the concrete is taken into account, potential
mapping, when used on its own, can provide a reasonable
assessment of the corrosion activity of the reinforcement
at the time of the survey. It cannot, however, provide
information on the rate or extent of corrosion.
Figure 13 Evans diagram for passive steel in uncontaminated concrete containing
different concentrations of oxygen
Resistivity measurements
As was shown earlier (see for example Fig. 5), the
resistance of the cover concrete can have a significant
effect on the corrosion rate of the reinforcement. The rate
of corrosion at the anode is dependent on the ease with
which ions can pass through the concrete pore electrolyte
between the cathode and anode. Hence a large potential
gradient between the anode and cathode associated with
a low concrete resistivity will normally signify a high
corrosion rate of the reinforcement.
The 4-point Wenner technique, developed from its use in
geotechnical surveying, is a technique that can measure
the resi sti vi ty of concrete. I t i nvol ves passi ng an
al ternati ng current between the outer pai r of four
equispaced probes in contact with the concrete surface,
as shown in Figure 14. The resistivity of the concrete can
be calculated from the measured voltage between the
inner probes from:
Where, a, is the spacing between the probes.
The resistivity of the concrete will normally be affected by
many factors including moisture and salt content of the
concrete, mix proportions, water /.cement ratio, type of
cement replacement etc. As a general rule, if the resistivity
of the concrete is lower than 10,000 cm, the corrosion
rate of the reinforcement which is suspected from a
potential mapping survey to be corroding, is likely to be
high. Higher resistivity values would normally signify a
lower corrosion risk.
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In theory, it should be possible to estimate fairly accurately
with the use of computer modelling the corrosion current
of steel reinforcement from a combination of potential
mapping and resistivity measurements. In practice, there
are, however, limitations as to the accuracy of the obtained
potential values, as was shown earlier, and of the resistivity
values owing to the inhomogeneity of concrete. Increasing
the spacing between the probes will diminish the effects
of l ocal i sed non homogenei ty but there i s a l i mi t
determined by the concrete cover depth as the highly
conductive steel provides an easy path for the input
current. Furthermore, resistivity on the surface layer of the
concrete is different to that of the bulk owing to curing
effects, differential wetting or drying and particularly
carbonation of the surface layer. It is common practice to
drill shallow holes at the positions where the probes will
be located so that these surface effects are minimised.
Linear polarisation techniques
The actual corrosion rate of a section of steel reinforcement
can be determined by linear polarisation. The technique
essentially involves shifting the corrosion potential of a
known area of steel reinforcement in either the positive or
negative direction with the use of a potentiostat and
measuring the current that flows between the steel and
an external auxiliary electrode placed in close proximity
to the steel and in contact with the concrete via the
potentiostat. This can be done in single steps of potential
shifts or by scanning the potential over a range of typically
20mV with respect to the corrosion potential.
8
The
increase in current at such a small shift in potential is
essentially linear and the gradient of the current- potential
plot gives the polarisation resistance, Rp, which can be
related to the corrosion rate by the Stern and Geary
equation:
where a and c are the anodic and cathodic Tafel
slopes respectively.The slopes can be determined
experimentally but they are normally assumed to be about
120 mV/decade so that the above equation is simplified
to: R
p
= 26 / Icorr
As the corrosion rate can vary by several orders of
magnitude such an assumption is acceptable and will
only introduce comparatively small errors in the calculated
corrosion rates. Laboratory work has shown that corrosion
rates of steel in concrete calculated in this way are in
good agreement with weight loss determinations of the
same steel.9 The biggest limitation of this technique is
the inherent difficulty of applying it to large structures
where the steel rei nforcement cage i s el ectri cal l y
connected and the true area of the steel being polarised
duri ng the test i s di ffi cul t to establ i sh. Recent
developments10 have attempted to concentrate the
polarisation over a small calculated area of the steel
rei nforcement wi th the use of a speci al anode
arrangement (Figure 15) but problems are always likely
to exist because of variations in the concrete cover depths,
the geometry of the structure and the distribution of the
steel reinforcement bars.
Figure 15 Arrangement of insitu linear polarisation device
Final assessment
A combination of the assessment techniques described
above, should give a fair indication of the present
condition of the reinforcement. They do not, however, show
how the corrosion varies with the change of environmental
conditions. That information can be obtained by frequent
visits to the site or by continuous monitoring with the use
of embeddable reference electrodes and other probes.
Neither do they reveal the extent of the corrosion and the
length of time that corrosion had been occurring. Figure
16 describes the different stages of the corrosion process.
There is a virtually corrosion-free period before initiation
occurs (a), followed by a period of corrosion propagation
(a-b) before the reinforced structure totally loses its
serviceability. A survey of the kind described earlier can
Figure 16 Stages of structural element deterioration related to reinforcement
corrosion
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easily detect whether you lie either before or after point a
of the graph. Determining exactly where you are on the
propagation stage is much more difficult and would require
exposure of the reinforcement and a detailed structural
assessment.
If the correct choice of assessment techniques is made,
the limitations of the techniques employed are well
understood and the results are interpreted wisely, it is
possible to determine whether the structure is sound or
whether some remedial measures are required. The
assessment shoul d al so assi st i n the choi ce of
rehabilitation techniques but that is practically a different
discipline.
References
1. Barneyback R. S. & Diamond S, "Expression and analysis of
pore fluid from hardened cement pastes and mortars", Cem.
&Concr. Res. 11, 1981, 279-285.
2. Arup H "The mechanisms of the protection of steel by concrete",
Crane A. P. (ed), 'Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete
Construction', Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 151-157, 1983.
3. Gonzalez A., Algaba S. & Andrade C. 'Corrosion of reinforcing
bars in carbonated concrete" Br. Corros. J.,15, 1980, 135-139.
4. Hausmann D. A "Steel corrosion in concrete" Mater. Prot. 6,
1967, 19-23.
5. Burstein Q.T. "Passivity and localised corrosion" Shreir L. L.,
Jarman R. A. & Burstein G.T, (eds), 'Corrosion', 3rd edn., 1994,
1.118-1.150.
6. Page C. L. & Tteadaway K. W. J. "Aspects of the electrochemistry
of steel in concrete, Nature, 297, 1982, 109-116.
7. Glass G. K., Page C. L. & Short N. R. "Factors affecting the
corrosion rate of steel in carbonated mortars" Corros. Sci., 32,
1991, 1283-1294.
8. Sergi G., Lattey S. & Page C.L. "Influence of surface treatments
on corrosion rates of steel in carbonated concrete" Page C. L.,
Treadaway K. W. J. & Bamforth P. B. (eds), 'Corrosion of
Reinforcement in Concrete Construction', SCI / Elsevier, London,
1990, 409-419.
9. Andrade C. & Gonzalez J. A. "Quantitative measurements of
corrosion rate of reinforcing steels embedded in concrete using
polarization resistance measurements", Werkstoffe und Korrosion
29, 1978, 515-519.
10. Rodriguez J., Ortega L. M., Garcia A. M., Johansson L. & Petterson
K. "On-site corrosion measurements in concrete structures"
Construction Repair, Nov./Dec, 1995, 27-30
Corrosion Reinforcing Steel
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Recent Developments in Mitigation
of Rebar Corrosion in Concrete
M N Ramesh, CEO
Savcor India Private Limited
C
orrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is a
widespread and enormously costly problem
worl dwi de. Numerous concrete structures
including bridge decks and substructures, parking
garages, balconies and others are deteriorating as a result
of reinforcing steel corrosion. Virtually any reinforced
concrete structure is susceptible to the ravages of
corrosion if subjected to a conducive environment. The
corrosi on process that takes pl ace i n concrete i s
electrochemical in nature, very similar to a battery.
Electrochemical corrosion is a phenomenon accompanied
by a flow of electrons between cathodic and anodic areas
on a metal surface. In concrete the electro-chemical
corrosion reactions are most often triggered when three
factors- chloride, oxygen and moisture-meet at the
reinforcing steel surface. A sort of natural battery develops
within the reinforced concrete structure, generating a low-
Fig.1 Cracking due to corrosion of reinforcement
level internal electrical current. The points where this
current leaves the metal surface and enters the concrete
electrolyte are called anodes. The current leaving the
concrete and returning to the steel does so at the cathodes.
Corrosion or oxidation (rust) occurs only at anodes. When
corrosion of reinforcing steel occurs, the rust products
occupy more volume than the original steel, causing
tensile forces in the concrete.
Since concrete is relatively weak in tension, cracks soon
develop as shown in Figure 1, exposing the steel to even
more chlorides, oxygen and moisture-and the corrosion
process accelerates. As corrosion continues, delamination-
separations within the concrete and parallel to the surface
of the concrete occur. Delamination is usually located at,
or near, the level of reinforcing steel. Eventually concrete
chunks break away or spall off. Visual signs of corrosion-
induced damage on many types of reinforced concrete
structures are becoming more and more prevalent. In many
parts of the country one can hardly drive across a bridge
or enter a building that doesn't have some degree of
corrosion damage!
The rate of concrete deterioration at any given time is
dependent on many factors including corrosion rate,
reinforcing steel concentration, concrete properties, cover
and the environment, to name a few. Once corrosion has
begun there is one thing for certain-it will only get worse
and it will do so at an ever-increasing rate (see fig.2) .
Ultimately, if corrosion is allowed to continue, structural
integrity can be compromised due to loss of section of the
reinforcing steel and/or loss of bond between the steel
and the concrete, and replacement may be the only
solution. In order to mitigate or control a corrosion problem
(provide low future maintenance and long term protection)
specific information is needed for any given structure.
Fortunately, proven technology and scientific methods are
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Fig 2. Time dependent rebar corrosion based on various factors
available to evaluate corrosion of reinforcing steel (and
other embedded metals) and associated damage on
reinforced concrete structures. These techniques are
designed to determine the extent of damage, define the
corrosion state of steel in undamaged areas, evaluate the
cause, or causes, of corrosion, and determine the potential
for the steel to corrode in the future resulting in further
damage. It is only after this information is obtained through
a detailed corrosion condition evaluation that a suitable
repair and protection specification can be developed for
a corrosion-plagued structure. It is important to point out
that concrete; itself can deteriorate, regardless of the
condition of embedded reinforcement. Examples of this
include freeze/thaw damage, sulphate attack and alkali-
silica reactions. Various concrete tests are therefore often
conducted as part of an overall evaluation. Although there
are similarities between corrosion of conventionally
reinforced concrete structures and prestressed concrete
structures, this paper deals with conventionally reinforced
concrete structures only, particularly with respect to the
applicability of Electro-chemical protection techniques
that are developed recently in the area of corrosion
engineering.
Electro chemical method of rectifying carbonation:
Thi s method i s a recent devel opment i n concrete
restoration. This addresses the root cause of carbonation
and not its symptoms. Hence, this is a permanent solution.
The principle of the solution is driving an alkaline solution
into the carbonated concrete by an electro chemical
process. It comprises of installing an external anode kept
inside an alkaline electrolyte solution on the surface of the
concrete. This solution can either be sodium carbonate or
sodium bicarbonate. A direct current rectifier with its
positive terminal connected to external anode and its
negative terminal is connected to the reinforcing steel
making it cathode. Upon switching on the system the
alkaline solution will move inside concrete cover and will
reach the reinforcing steel making the entire section and
around the reinforcing steel alkaline. Thus, this process
corrects the carbonation by realkalining the concrete, and
forming hydroxyl ions around the steel. The schematic
details of the process are illustrated in the sketch below:
Electro-chemical remedial measures for Chloride
Contaminated Concrete:
The problem associated with the chloride contaminated
concrete is pitting corrosion of rebars. The traditional
methods, to remedy the problem, has been isolating the
rebars from the concrete and replacing the removed
concrete by a new material free from chloride such as
polymer-modified mortar or micro concrete. This method
however suffers the impracticability of removing concrete
behind the bars and reinstating the same with new
material, if a very large extent of concrete is affected by
Fig 3. Realkalisation setup for correcting corbonation of concrete Fig.2. Setup for desalination or chloride extraction of concrete
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chlorides. In order to overcome the above problem the
recent development in the area of remediation to the
chloride attacked concrete is "desalination" and "cathodic
protection". These methods being electro chemical in
nature address the root cause of the problem and not the
symptoms. Electrochemical Chloride Extraction The
Electro Chemical Chloride Extraction (ECE), extract
chloride ions from contaminated concrete and is used to
reduce chloride concentration near steel reinforcement to
a level below the corrosion threshold. Hydroxyl ions are
also generated at the reinforcement, which allows the
passive oxide layer on the steel to be reformed after
treatment. An externally placed anode in the electrolytic
solution is connected to the positive pole and the
reinforcing steel is connected to the negative pole of the
rectifier. When the system is powered, all the negatively
charged chloride ions will be repelled by the cathode, i.e.
steel, and are forced migrate towards the anode which is
place outside the concrete. These ions will be neutralized
by the anode thereby extracting all the chloride ions from
the concrete. This method is also known as Desalination
Process. The schematic of the process setup is illustrated
in fig 2 This method is recommended for the concrete
structures whi ch are l ocated i n the chl ori de l aden
atmosphere. After the process is completed, further
diffusion of chloride ions in to the concrete should be
prevented by providing appropriately selected protective
barrier concrete surface coatings.
Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP)
Impressed current cathodic protection is achieved by
driving a low voltage direct current from a relatively inert
anode material, through the concrete to the reinforcing
steel. Figure 3 shows the basic layout required for
impressed current cathodic protection systems. Direct
current of sufficient magnitude and polarity is applied, so
as to oppose the natural flow of current resulting from the
electrochemical corrosion process. The direct current is
supplied by an external power source, most often a CP
rectifier. Recently, the use of solar power has received
attention and further research is going on for its adaptation
i n actual structures. Impressed Current Cathodi c
protection is a widely used and effective method of
corrosion control. Many people, engineers included, think
cathodic protection is so complicated and expensive that
it has no practical use in the concrete rehabilitation
industry. It is also believed that CP doesn't work or that it is
unreliable in the long term. The fact is ICCP is not so
complicated, is often the most cost-effective technique,
and has practical application on reinforced concrete
structures and that it most definitely works. Of course,
performance of ICCP systems, like all other corrosion
protection systems, is directly dependent on sound
specifications, proper installation, and monitoring and
maintenance. With ICCP, one cannot simply install it and
forget it. Good long term performance of all ICCP systems
requires good monitoring and maintenance procedures,
often due to this fact is discounted as a corrosion protection
system. Every corrosion protection system requires
Fig 3. Schematic of impressed current cathodic protection of reinforcement in
concrete
periodic inspection and maintenance. Impressed Current
Cathodic protection has been successfully used to protect
pi pel i nes, shi p hul l s, off shore oi l pl atforms, heat
exchangers, underground tanks, and many other facilities
exposed to a corrosive environment for many decades. Its
first application to steel in concrete was only in 1973. Since
then, many r c structures are protected with ICCP.
Recognizing that the corrosion process generates electric
currents, Impressed Current Cathodic protection supplies
a source of external current to counteract the corrosion
current. Hence, corrosion stops, or at least is greatly
minimized.
After an intensive research in the areas of corrosion of steel
in concrete, cathodic protection evolved as the only
technique which could positively arrest corrosion of steel
in existing concrete structures. In fact, cathodic protection
is the only rehabilitation technique that had proven to stop
corrosion in chloride affected concrete regardless of its
concentration in concrete. It should be noted, however,
that ICCP is not always needed nor is suitable on all
structures.
To select and design a proper repair and protection
scheme it is imperative that the causes of the distress are
properly diagnosed, fully understood, and the extent of
damage is determined Hence the first step is to have a
concrete and corrosion condition survey conducted in
order to define the cause and extent of the problem.
Electrical continuity of the reinforcing steel to be protected
is also a primary factor in considering ICCP. A closed
electrical circuit (unbroken electrical path) between all
Concrete Corrosion Reinforcing Steel
Machines & Engineering Company
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 122
reinforcing steel is required in order for the ICCP system to
function properly. Electrical continuity testing can be done
during the condition survey. The chloride concentration in
the concrete throughout the structure is also important. If
sufficient chlorides are present at the reinforcing steel depth
i n many areas of the structure, ICCP may be the
economically viable alternative Based on the results of the
condition survey determination is made on the type of
repair and protection method to use. One advantage of
ICCP is that removal of sound concrete is not required,
thus a considerable cost savings may be realized. It may
be a viable alternative to removing two or three inches of
concrete over a large area in order to prevent future
corrosion. Cathodic protection is usually most cost effective
when long term performance is desired.
Galvanic, or sacrificial anode, cathodic protection is based
on the principles of dissimilar metal corrosion and the
relative position of as shown in Table.1. No external power
source is needed with this type of system and much less
maintenance is required. Such systems also provide
protective current primarily to areas on the steel surface
which need it the most. However, the relatively high
resistivity of concrete results in driving low voltage
provided by such systems would be inadequate for
cathodic protection of steel in concrete especially in the
splash zones of marines rc structures subjected to drying
and wetting cycles. Sacrificial anodes can be used to
mitigate corrosion in certain circumstances especially for
patch repair, specifically, if corrosion activity is low. In case
that pitting corrosion has not initiated or propagated but
in a situation prone to active corrosion, such as splash
zone, a full active impressed current system is the only
technically sound and cost effective option of corrosion
mitigation However, if the chloride content is relatively low,
or if the chlorides are generally located only in isolated
areas of the structure, sacrificial anode system may be
most appropriate. Basically sacrificial anode may enhance
the repair work but in most cases does not deliver the
protection in accordance to CP standards. So in theory it
can't be called as CP. In any real corrosion problem
si tuati on where pi tti ng corrosi on has i ni ti ated and
propagated, high current density, may be around 20mA/
m2 of steel surface, is required to bring the potential of
rebars to certain level at which corrosion is arrested. This
cannot be delivered by sacrificial anodes.
Galvanized rebars
The zinc on galvanized reinforcing steel functions as a
sacrificial anode much the same way as zinc in a sacrificial
anode system does. In this case, the steel is protected by
the zinc from the day the rebar is galvanized. However,
once all the zinc is consumed, the base steel will be
susceptible to corrosion in the same way as plain
reinforcing steel.
Summary
Reinforcing steel corrosion causes extensive damage to
concrete structures. Various NDT methods are successfully
employed to carryout condition survey to evaluate
corrosion of reinforcing steel and the associated damage
on reinforced concrete structures. These tools help in
determining the extent of damage, define the corrosion
state of steel in undamaged areas, evaluate the causes of
corrosion and determine the potential for the steel to
corrode in the future resulting in further damage.
The recent development in the electro-chemical methods
are aimed at addressing the cause of the problem there
by ensuring a long-lasting solution to the corrosion
problem. Cathodic protection is a widely used and effective
method of corrosion control for reinforced concrete
structures. Cathodic protection supplies a source of
external current to counteract the corrosion current. Hence,
corrosion stops or minimizes to a greatly low level.
Almost any atmospherically exposed reinforced concrete
structure or structural members of almost any geometry
can be catholically protected. However, existing structures
must be considered individually with regard to the need
for the applicability of CP. Not all structures are good
candidates for CP, but ICCP is the only system that can
truly retard or mitigate corrosion in the harshest of the
environment.
References:
- Atef Cheaitani, M N Ramesh- Corrosion prevention
considerations to achieve a 100 year design life for reinforced
concrete structures in marine environments, NCCI
Seminar,2010
- Atef Cheaitani, M N Ramesh- Maintaining infrastructure - the
latest development in the repair and maintenance of reinforced
concrete structures, Asian Conference on ecstasy in concrete
2010, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
- Ali Sohanghpurwala and William T. Scannell -' Repair and
protection of Concrete Exposed to Seawater
Element
Electrode Potential
Magnesium
Electrode P-2.38
Aluminium
-1.67
Zinc
-0.78
Chromuim
-0.58
Iron/Steel
-0.44
Nickel
-0.25
Tin
-0.14
Hydrogen
0.00
Platinum
+1.2
Gold
+1.80
Table 1: specific metals in the galvanic series
Concrete Corrosion Reinforcing Steel
Action Construction Equipment Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 124
Repair Principles for Corrosion Damaged
Reinforced Concrete Structures
MG Alexander and JR Mackechnie
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town
C
orrosion is the inevitable process that occurs when
refined metals return to their more stable combined
forms as oxides, carbonates and sulphides. The
corrosion process may be defined as the surface wastage
that occurs when metal s are exposed to reacti ve
environments. Costs associated with corrosion damage
and control can be substantial, being as much as 3.5% of
the GNP of some industrial countries.
Reinforced concrete structures have not been immune to
the ravages of corrosion despite the protection that
concrete provides to embedded steel. Reasons for the
increasing incidence of corrosion damage to reinforced
concrete structures include the use of deicing salts and
calcium chloride set-accelerators, increased construction
in aggressive environments, fast-track construction
practices, changing cement composition resulting in finer
grinding and lower cement contents, lower cover depths
and poor construction practice including inadequate
supervision.
Reinforcement corrosion is particularly pernicious in that
damage may occur rapidly and repairs are invariably
expensive. Furthermore by the time visible corrosion
damage is noticed, structural integrity may already be
compromised. There is currently considerable debate
about the merits of the various systems for the repair of
reinforcement corrosion. This monograph attempts to
clarify some of the important issues by drawing on
i nternati onal experi ence as wel l as l ocal fi ndi ngs.
Ultimately the effectiveness of repair systems should be
measured in terms of cost, risk of failure and long-term
performance. As such no single system is appropriate for
all repairs but will depend on the type of structure, service
conditions, level of deterioration and financial constraints
of the project.
This monograph focuses on repair principles rather than
dealing with issues of detail that have been competently
published by others. Repair options can only be rationally
compared when the corrosion process and its influence
on concrete are fully understood. The document also
focuses on South African conditions and experiences,
derived from almost ten years of research on concrete
durability and repairs at the University of Cape Town.
Corrosion Fundamentals
Steel reinforcing bars will corrode freely when exposed to
moisture and oxygen under ambient conditions. When
steel is embedded in concrete however the high alkalinity
(pH of 12.5 or higher) stifles corrosion by the formation of
a passive ferric oxide film on the steel surface. The ferric
oxi de l ayer forms a dense, i mpenetrabl e fi l m that
suppresses further corrosion by limiting the movement of
cations and anions near the steel surface. This passive
ferric oxide film on embedded reinforcement may be
disrupted by a reduction in the alkalinity of the concrete
(pri nci pal l y by carbonati on) or by the presence of
aggressi ve i ons such as chl ori des and sul phates.
Depassivation of the steel occurs as follows:
- in carbonated concrete, insufficient hydroxyl ions are
available to repair pits in the passive film
- in salt contaminated concrete, chloride ions break
down the passive layer at localized pits and encourage
metallic dissolution
Once depassivating conditions exist in concrete either
by a reduction in alkalinity (pH <10.5) or by the presence
of sufficient chloride ions (termed the corrosion threshold
value), corrosion may occur. For corrosion to occur at a
significant rate the following conditions are required:
- a reactive metal that will oxidise anodically to form
soluble ions
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- a reducible metal that provides the cathodic reactant
(typically hydroxyl ions)
- an electrolyte that allows ionic movement between
the material and environment
I t i s i mportant to note that the establ i shment of
depassivating conditions at the steel (i.e. carbonation or
chlorides) is not necessarily indicative of a high probability
of corrosion damage since other factors (e.g. oxygen
availability, moisture content) will largely determine the
rate of corrosion. A schematic diagram of the corrosion
process of steel in con crete is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Schematic of corrosion of steel in concrete
Four states of corrosion may be defined for reinforced
concrete depending on environmental conditions1:
- Passive state where minute levels of corrosion are
needed to sustain the ferric oxide film (typical of
embedded reinforcement in sound, alkaline and
uncontaminated concrete).
- Pitting corrosion causing local breakdown of the
passive film, usually due to the presence of chloride
ions. Adjacent steel acts as the cathode, being
considerably larger in area than the anode (typical of
steel embedded in chloride contaminated concrete).
- General corrosion due to an overall loss of passivity
that results in multiple pits along the steel surface
(typical of steel in carbonated concrete or concrete
containing high chloride concentrations).
- Active, low potential corrosion that occurs slowly when
insufficient oxygen is available to sustain the passive
film despite the high alkalinity of the concrete (typical
of reinforcement embedded in concrete underwater).
Clearly only pitting and general corrosion represent a
threat to the reinforcement and their severity will depend
on a number of internal and external factors which need
to be assessed when doing a corrosion survey. Internal
factors include concrete microstructure, cover depth and
moisture condition. External influences such as stray
currents and microbial activity may introduce a new
di mensi on i nto the corrosi on system, but are not
considered here.
The nature of steel corrosion in concrete depends on local
conditions at the surface of the bar. High resistivity
concrete with relatively deep covers tends to favour micro-
cell corrosion where anode and cathode are close together
and cause l ocal i zed pi tti ng. Conducti ve concrete
contaminated with salt is often able to sustain more widely
spaced anode and cathode sites, termed macro-cell
corrosion.
Corrosion Damage
Once the passive layer on the reinforcing steel has been
disrupted and corrosion is activated, the chemical
reactions are similar whether the corrosion was initiated
by chloride attack or by carbonation. Steel dissolves into
solution and gives up electrons at the anode.
Anodic reaction: Fe Fe
2+
+ 2e
-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)
The excess electrons are used up at the cathodic site
where water and oxygen are reduced to hydroxyl ions.
Cathodic reaction: 2e
-
+ H
2
O + O
2
2(OH)
-
. . . . . . . . (2)
These two reactions are necessary for electrochemical
corrosion to proceed. Little distress would be caused to
the surrounding concrete however if steel merely dissolved
into the pore water without further oxidation. Several more
oxidation stages occur which form expansive corrosion
products or rust capable of causing cracking and spalling
of the surrounding concrete. The oxidation stages may
be described as follows:
Fe
2+
+ 2(OH)Fe(OH)
2
Ferrous hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . (3)
4Fe(OH)
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O 4Fe(OH)
3
Ferric hydroxide . . .
................... . (4)
2Fe(OH)
3
Fe
2
O
3
.H
2
O + 2H
2
O Hydrated ferric oxide . .
................... . (5)
The expansion associated with rust is mostly due to
hydrated oxides that may swell up to ten times the original
volume of the steel. The type of corrosion product formed
at the steel depends on environmental con ditions:
- red or brown rust forms under hi gh oxygen
concentrations, forming flakey rust which is relatively
soft and easy to dislodge from the rebar
- black rust forms under low oxygen concentrations,
forming a relatively dense and hard layer that may be
difficult to remove from the parent steel
Two major consequences of reinforcement corrosion are
Corrosion Repair & Rehabilitation
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commonly observed, cracking and spalling of the cover
concrete as a result of expansion of the corrosion product,
and a reduction of cross-sectional area of the rebar by
pitting (usually only a problem in prestressed con crete
structures). Manifestations of corrosion depend on a
number of influences that include:
- geometry of the element (large diameter bars at low
covers allow easy spalling)
- cover depths (deep cover may prevent full oxidation
of corrosion product)
- moi sture condi ti on (conducti ve el ectrol ytes
encourage well-defined macro-cells)
- age of structure (rust stains progress to cracking and
spalling)
- rebar spacing (closely spaced bars in walls and slabs
encourage delaminations)
- crack distribution (cracks may provide low resistance
paths to the reinforcement)
- service stresses (corrosion may be accelerated in
highly stressed zones)
The loss of serviceability of corroded reinforced concrete
structures may be described by a three phase damage
Figure 2: Three-phase corrosion damage model
model shown in Figure 2 2.
The different phases are defined as follows:
- An initiation period, before corrosion is activated by
either carbonation or chloride attack, during which
negligible concrete deterioration occurs.
- A propagati on peri od i n whi ch acti ve corrosi on
commences and cracking of the cover concrete
occurs due to the formation of expansive corrosion
products at the steel surface.
- An acceleration period of damage where corrosion
increases due to easy access of oxygen and water
through cracks in the cover concrete, resulting in
spalling of concrete.
Unfortunately most reinforced concrete structures that
exhibit cracking and spalling have gone beyond the point
where simple, cost-effective measures can be taken to
restore durability. Condition surveys are therefore an
important strategy to identify and quantify the state of
corrosion of a structure timeously.
Condition Surveys
A detailed corrosion or condition survey is vital in order to
identify the exact cause and extent of deterioration, before
repair options are considered. Various diagnostic sheets
are given in the Appendix for guidance during condition
surveys.
a) Visual assessment
Corrosion damage may be identified and defined using a
systematic visual survey. Classification of visual evidence
of deterioration must be done objectively, following clear
guidelines that define damage in terms of appearance,
location and cause. Defects may be defined in terms of
cracks (caused by corrosion, temperature, shrinkage or
fatigue), joint deficiencies (joint spalls, upward movement,
l ateral movement, seal damage) surface damage
(abrasion, rust stains, delaminations, popouts, spalls),
changes in member shape (curling, deflection, settlement,
deformati on) and textural features (bl ow hol es,
honeycombing, sand pockets, segregation).
Visual assessment of deterioration can provide useful
information when done in a rational, systematic manner
but the data may come too late for cost-effective repairs.
Rebar corrosion damage is often only fully manifest at the
surface after significant deterioration has occurred. Early
evidence of distress can sometimes be detected by an
experienced engineer before major distress takes place.
b) Delamination survey
A hammer survey or chain drag is a simple method of
locating areas of delamination in concrete. Hollow
sounding areas can be marked up on the concrete or
recorded directly in a survey form. Delamination surveys
often under-estimate the full extent of internal cracking
and should not be considered as definitive. Radar and
ultrasonic instruments may provide a more sophisticated
approach to locating areas of delamination, particularly
at greater depths.
c) Cover surveys
Cover surveys are routinely done to locate the position
and depth of reinforcement within a concrete structure.
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Covermeters use an alternating magnetic field to locate
steel and any other magnetic material in concrete (note
that austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic). Cover
measurements may be unreliable when:
- rebar is at deep covers (e.g. covers greater than 80
mm)
- measuring regions of closely spaced bars
- measuring differing bar types and sizes (unless
specifically calibrated) o other magnetic material is
nearby (e.g. window frames, wire ties, bolts) To ensure
rel i abl e cover depths from a survey, di rect
measurements of rebar depths should be made by
exposing a limited number of bars. Calibration can
then be made for site specific conditions such as rebar
type, concrete and environmental influences.
d) Chloride testing
The presence of sufficient chloride at the surface of
reinforcement is able to depassivate steel and allow
corrosion to occur. Chlorides exist in concrete as both
bound and free ions but only free chlorides directly affect
corrosi on. Measuri ng free chl ori des accuratel y i s
extremely difficult and water-soluble chloride tests are
unreliable, being strongly affected by the method of
sample preparation. Further, bound chlorides may be
released into solution under carbonating conditions or
by dissolution, making all chlorides in concrete potentially
corrosi ve. Chl ori des are therefore most commonl y
determi ned as aci d sol ubl e or total chl ori des i n
accordance with BS 1881 3.
Chloride sampling and determination in concrete is
illustrated in Figure 3 and is usually done in the following
manner:
- concrete samples are extracted as either core or
drilled powder samples
Figure 3: Chloride content determination and typical chloride profile
- depth increments are chosen depending on the cover
to steel and the likely level of chloride contamination
(increments are typically between 5 and 25 mm)
- dry powder samples are digested in concentrated
nitric acid to release all chlorides
- chl ori des are anal ysed usi ng a col ori metri c or
potentiometric titration
- chloride contents are generally expressed as a
percentage by mass of cement
- chloride profiles may be drawn such that chloride
concentrations may be interpolated or extrapolated
for any depth (see Figure 3)
- future chloride levels can be estimated from Fick's
second law of diffusion
Table 1: Qualitative risk of corrosion based on chloride levels
Chloride content by mass of
cement (%)
< 0.4
0.4 - 1.0
> 1.0
Probability of corrosion
Low
Moderate
High
The corrosion threshold depends on several factors
including concrete quality, cover depth, and saturation
level of the concrete. The probability of corrosion may be
assessed from the following qualitative rating shown in
Table 1 for acid-soluble chloride contents.
Limitations of chloride testing of concrete are as
follows:
- presence of chl ori des i n aggregates may gi ve
misleading results
- chloride contents in cracks and defects cannot be
accurately determined
Figure 4: Schematic of the carbonation process
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- sl ag concretes may be di ffi cul t to anal yse wi th
colorimetric titration methods
- relatively large samples are required to allow for the
presence of aggregates
e) Carbonation depth
Carbonati on depth i s measured by sprayi ng fresh
concrete with a phenolphthalein indicator solution (1%
by mass in ethanol/water solution). Phenolphthalein
remains clear where concrete is carbonated but turns
pink/purple where concrete is still strongly alkaline (pH
> 9.0). Carbonation moves through concrete as a distinct
front and reduces the natural alkalinity of concrete from a
pH in excess of 12.5 to approximately 8.3, with a pH level
of 10.5 being sufficiently low to depassivate steel. The
progress of the carbonation front is shown in Figure 4.
Environmental conditions most favourable for carbonation
(i.e. 50 - 65 % R.H.) are usually too dry to allow rapid steel
corrosion that normally requires humidity levels above
80% R.H. Structures exposed to fluctuations in moisture
conditions of the cover concrete, such as may occur during
rainy spells, are however vulnerable to carbonation-
induced corrosion.
Limitations to carbonation testing are as follows:
- phenolphthalein changes colour at pH 9.0 whereas
steel depassivation occurs at a pH of approximately
10.5, hence the corrosion risk is slightly under-
estimated
- some concretes are dark (e.g. slag concretes) and a
distinct colour change is difficult to discern visually
- phenophthalein may bleach at very high pH levels
(e.g. after electrochemical realkalization)
- testing must be done on freshly exposed concrete
surfaces before atmospheric carbonation occurs
f) Rebar potentials
Chloride-induced corrosion of steel is associated with
anodi c and cathodi c areas al ong the rebar wi th
consequent changes in electropoten tial of the steel. It is
possible to measure these rebar potentials at different
points and plot the results in the form of a 'potential map'.
Measurement of rebar potentials may determine the
thermodynamic risk of corrosion but cannot evaluate the
Rebar potential (-mV Cu/CuSO
4
)
< 200
200-350
>350
Qualitative risk of corrosion
Low
Uncertain
High
Table 2: Qualitative risk of chloride-induced corrosion
4
kinetics of the reaction. Rebar poten tials are normally
determined in accordance with ASTM C876 using a
copper/copper sulphate reference electrode connected
to a handheld voltmeter 4. The qualitative risk of corrosion
based on rebar potentials is shown in Table 2. Note that
the technique is not recommended for car-bonation-
induced corrosion where clearly defined anodic regions
are absent.
The procedure for undertaking a rebar potential survey is
as follows:
- mark up a grid pattern in the area of measurement
(not more than 500 mm centres)
- make an electrical connection to clean steel by coring
or breaking out concrete
- check the steel is electrically continuous over the
survey area using a multimeter
- wet the concrete surface with tap water if the concrete
appears to be dry
- take and record readings either manually or using a
data logger
- check data on site to correlate with visual signs of
corrosion
- Rebar potential measurements are relatively quick to
perform but have the following limitations:
- interpretation of results must be done with caution
(preferably by a specialist)
- rebar potentials from carbonated concrete are difficult
to interpret (the reading is a mixed potential of anodic
and cathodic sites)
- del ami nati ons may di srupt the potenti al fi el d
producing false readings
- environmental effects will influence potentials (e.g.
temperature and humidity)
- rebar potentials cannot be directly correlated with
corrosion rates
- stray currents may affect measured potentials
Absolute values are often of lesser importance than
differences in rebar potential measured on a structure. A
shift of several hundred millivolts over a short distance of
300-500 mm often indicates a high risk of corrosion.
g) Resistivity
Concrete resistivity controls the rate at which steel
corrodes in concrete once favourable conditions for
corrosion exist. Resistivity is dependent on the moisture
condition of the concrete, on the permeability and
i nterconnecti vi ty of the pore structure, and on the
concentration of ionic species in the pore water of concrete
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such that:
- poor quality, saturated concrete has low resistivity (e.g.
less than 10 kOhm.cm)
- high quality, dry concrete has high resistivity (e.g.
greater than 25 kOhm.cm)
Measurement of resistivity is done with a simple in situ
Wenner probe connected to a portable resistivity meter.
The outer two probes send an alternating current through
the concrete while the inner two probes measure the
potential difference in the concrete. Once the concrete
resistivity is known a rough assessment of likely corrosion
rates can be made as shown in Table 3. This assessment
assumes conditions are favourable for corrosion.
Resistivity measurements are simple to perform on site
but have several limitations:
- measurements are affected by carbonation and
wetting fronts
- surface conductive layers and rebar directly below
the probe should be avoided
- readings may be unstable in concretes with high
contact resistance at the surface
Table 4: Qualitative assessment of site corrosion rates
Corrosion rate
(? A/cm
2
)
> 10
1.0 - 10
0.2 - 1.0
< 0.2
Qualitative assessment of corrosion rate
High
Moderate
Low
Passive
h) Corrosion rate measurements
Corrosion rate measurements are the only reliable method
of measuring actual corrosion activity in reinforced
concrete. A number of sophisticated corrosion monitoring
systems are avai l abl e, based pri mari l y on l i near
pol ari zati on resi stance (LPR) pri nci pl es. These
techniques require considerable expertise to operate
reliably. Corrosion rate measurements on field structures
are most commonly done using galvanostatic LPR
techniques with a guard-ring type sensor to confine the
area of steel under test. Experience indicates that
corrosion rates fluctuate significantly in response to
environmental and material influences and single readings
are generally unreliable. Table 4 shows a qualitative guide
for the assessment of corrosion rates of site structures 5.
Epair Strategies
Numerous repai r opti ons are avai l abl e and new
technologies continue to make an impact in the field of
concrete repairs. The suitability and cost-effectiveness of
repairs depends on the level of deterioration and specific
conditions of the structure.
a) Patch repairs
Before patch repairs are considered it is important that
the distinction between chloride- and carbonation-
induced corrosion is appreciated. As a general rule
chloride-induced corrosion is far more pernicious and
difficult to treat than carbonation-induced corrosion. This
often di ctates a compl etel y di fferent approach to
repairing damage due to the two types of corrosion.
Carbonation-induced corrosion causes general corrosion
with multiple pitting along the reinforcement. Carbonated
concrete tends to have fai rl y hi gh resi sti vi ty that
discourages macro-cell formation and allows moderate
corrosion rates. Steel exposed to corrosive conditions will
therefore show signs of corrosion that can be easily
identified (e.g. surface stains, cracking or spalling of
concrete). Repairs are generally successful provided all
of the corroded reinforcement is treated.
Chloride-induced corrosion is characterized by pitting
corrosion with distinct anode and cathode sites. The
presence of high salt concentrations in the cover concrete
means that macro-cell corrosion is possible with relatively
large cathodic areas driving localized intense anodes.
High corrosion rates can be sustained under such
Figure 5: Formation of incipient anodes after patch repairs
Resistivity (kOhmcm)
< 12
12-20
>20
Likely corrosion rate given corrosive
conditions
High
Moderate
Low
Table 3: Likely corrosion rate based on concrete resistivity
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conditions resulting in severe pitting of the reinforcement
and damage of the surrounding con crete. Much of the
reinforcement may be exposed to corrosive conditions
without showing any signs of corrosion, this is particularly
noticeable when corroded structures are demolished.
Localized patch repairs of areas of corrosion damage are
popular due to their low cost and temporary aesthetic
relief. This form of repair has limited success against
chloride-induced corrosion as the surrounding concrete
may be chloride-contaminated and the reinforcement is
therefore still susceptible to corrosion. The patched area
of new repair material often causes the formation of
incipient anodes adjacent to the repairs as shown in
Figure 5. These new corrosion sites not only affect the
structure but often also undermine the repair leading to
accelerated patch failures in as little as two years.
Consequently, it is necessary to remove all chloride-
contami nated concrete from the vi ci ni ty of the
reinforcement.
Complete removal of chloride-contaminated concrete,
where it is possible should successfully halt corrosion by
restoring passivating conditions to the reinforcement.
Mechanical removal of cover concrete is usually done
with pneumatic hammer, hydrojetting or milling machines.
This form of repair is most successful when treating areas
of l ocal i zed l ow cover, before si gni fi cant chl ori de
penetration has occurred. If repairs are only considered
once corrosion damage is fairly widespread it will be
expensi ve to mechani cal l y remove chl ori de-
contaminated concrete from depths well beyond the
reinforcement.
Patch repairs consist of the following activities that are
briefly described below:-
- removal of cracked and delaminated concrete to fully
expose the corroded reinforcement
- cl eani ng of corroded rei nforcement and the
application of a protective coating to the steel surface
(e.g. anti-corrosion epoxy coating or zinc-rich primer
coat)
- application of repair mortar or micro-concrete to
replace the damaged concrete
- possible coating or sealant applied to the entire
concrete surface to reduce moisture levels in the
concrete
b) Coating systems
A variety of coating and penetrant systems are available
that are claimed to be beneficial in repairs of concrete
structures. Barrier systems attempt to seal the surface
thereby stifling corrosion by restricting oxygen flow to the
cathode. In large concrete structures, corrosion control is
theoretically unlikely due to the presence of oxygen
already in the system. In practice barrier systems are
generally ineffective due to the presence of defects in the
new coating during application and further damage
during service. Such an approach is more likely to promote
the formati on of di fferenti al aerati on cel l s further
exacerbating the potential for corrosion.
The application of a hydrophobic coating (sometimes
referred to as penetrant pore-liners) may be used to reduce
the moi sture content of concrete and thereby
electrolytically stifle the corrosion reaction. The drying
action works on the principle that surface capillaries
become lined with a hydrophobic coating that repels water
mol ecul es duri ng wetti ng but al l ows water vapour
movement out of the concrete, to facilitate drying.
Hydrophobic coatings using silanes and siloxanes are
gen erally most effective on uncontaminated concrete,
free from cracks and surface defects. The feasibility of
such an approach is questionable for marine structures
where high ambient humidity, capillary suction effects and
presence of high salt concentrations all interfere with
drying.
Figure 6: Sorptivity results from bridge cores
The long-term effectiveness of hydrophobic systems
applied to new construction is not known but local studies
suggest reasonable performance over 10-15 years service.
The Storms River bridge was coated with a silane system
in 1985 and concrete cores were extracted from several
parts of the structure in 1996 for analysis 6. The effect of
the hydrophobic coating on absorption was determined
by sorptivity testing at increasing depth increments into
the concrete. Sorptivity results are shown in Figure 6 for
arch and column concrete. The sharp increase in sorptivity
at depths between 0.5 and 3 mm may be ascribed to the
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Table 5: Likely performance of migrating corrosion inhibitors in concrete
Likely
inhibition
Good
Moderate
Poor
Corrosive
conditions
Mildly corrosive,
low chlorides or
carbonation
Moderate levels of
chloride at rebar
(i.e. <1%)
High chloride levels
at rebar (i.e. > 1%)
Concrete
conditions
Dense concrete
with good cover
depths (> 50 mm)
Moderate quality
concrete, some
cracking
Cracked, damaged
concrete, low
cover to rebar
Severity of
corrosion
Limited corrosion
with minor pitting
of steel
Moderate
corrosion with
some pitting
Entrenched
corrosion with
deep pitting
presence of the silane in the concrete near-surface zone.
c) Migrating corrosion inhibitors
A corrosion inhibitor is defined as a chemical substance
that reduces the corrosion of metals without a reduction
in the concentration of corrosive agents. Corrosion
inhibitors work by reducing the rate of the anodic and/or
cathodic reactions thereby suppressing the overall
corrosion rate. The effectiveness of migrating corrosion
inhibitors is generally controlled by environmental,
material and structural factors, shown in Table 5
7
.
Migrating corrosion inhibitors are generally organic-based
materials that move through unsaturated concrete by
vapour diffusion. Organic corrosion inhibitors such as
amino-alcohols are believed to suppress corrosion by
primarily being adsorbed onto the steel surface thereby
displacing corrosive ions such as chlorides. The adsorbed
organic layer inhibits corrosion by interfering with anodic
dissolution of iron while simultaneously disrupting the
reduction of oxygen at the cathode.
When assessing the suitability of repairs with migrating
corrosion inhibitors, two important issues must first be
considered:
- the likely penetration of the material into the concrete
needs to be determined
- the severity of the corrosive environment at the
reinforcement must be quantified
Migrating corrosion inhibitors are designed to move fairly
rapidly through partially saturated concretes that allow
vapour diffusion. Penetration has however been found to
be poor in near-saturated concretes typically found in
parti al l y submerged mari ne structures. Thi s poor
penetrati on performance may be ascri bed to hi gh
moisture and salt levels that prevent significant vapour
diffusion through the concrete. It is critical therefore that
satisfactory penetration of corrosion inhibitors is checked
before undertaking full-scale repairs.
The performance of migrating corrosion inhibitors in
control l i ng chl ori de-i nduced corrosi on i s l argel y
dependent on chloride levels at the reinforcement. Work
done by Rylands indicates that effective inhibition is not
possi bl e at chl ori de l evel s above 1.0% at the
reinforcement 8. This can be seen in Figure 7 where ribbed
steel bars embedded at 25 mm in a grade 40 portland
cement concrete were subjected to wetting and drying
cycles with a salt solution for a period of 18 months.
Concrete blocks were either controls (CON) or contained
organic corrosion inhibitor, either admixed during casting
(ADM) or coated after 30 cycles (CTG). The chloride
content at the level of the reinforcement was approaching
2% at the time of application of the migrating corrosion
inhibitor and resulted in poor inhibition. Better inhibition
is possible if treatment is done earlier when chloride
contents are lower.
The effectiveness of migrating corrosion inhibitors appears
to be enhanced when used i n combi nati on wi th
hydrophobic coatings to reduce moisture levels in
concrete. This has been noted in both laboratory trials
and field monitoring of repairs. Such an approach has
also been found to be effective in the repair of carbonation-
induced corrosion damage.
d) Electrochemical techniques
Corrosi on of rei nforcement i n concrete i s an
electrochemical process that occurs when embedded
steel is depassivated by a reduction in concrete alkalinity
or the presence of corrosive ions such as chlorides. Two
repair techniques, electrochemical chloride removal and
realkalization, attempt to restore passivating conditions
by the temporary application of a strong electric field to
the cover concrete region.
Realkalization is the process of restoring the original
alkalinity of carbonated concrete in a non-destructive
manner. The electrochemical treatment consists of Figure 7: Corrosion rate measurements with time for grade 40 concrete
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pl aci ng an anode system and sodi um carbonate
electrolyte on the concrete surface and applying a high
current density (typically 1 A/m2). The electrical field
generates hydroxyl ions at the reinforcement and draws
alkalis into the concrete. Alkaline conditions may be
restored in the concrete in as little as one to two weeks
using the system.
Electrochemical chloride removal (ECR) is a more time-
consuming and complex technique and its suitability
needs to be carefully assessed. Chloride removal is
i nduced by appl yi ng a di rect current between the
reinforcement and an electrode that is placed temporarily
onto the outside of the concrete. The impressed current
creates an electric field in the concrete that causes
negatively charged ions to migrate from the reinforcement
to the external anode. The technique decreases the
potential of the reinforcement, increases the hydroxyl ion
concentration and decreases the chloride concentration
around the steel thereby restoring passivating conditions.
Figure 8 shows the basic principles of ECR.
The effectiveness of ECR depends on several factors that
include the following:-
- extent of chloride contamination in concrete
- structural configuration including depth and spacing
of reinforcement
- applied current density and time of application
- pore solution conductivity and resistance of cover
concrete
- presence of cracks, del ami nati ons and defects
causing uneven chloride removal
Figure 8: Schematic illustration of electrochemical chloride removal technique
Figure 9: Chloride profiles before and after ECR treatment for 8 weeks
ECR typically takes 4-12 weeks to run at current densities
within the normal range of 1-2 A/m2. Results from ECR
trials performed in the laboratory are shown in Figure 9
and indicate that complete extraction may take longer
than 8 weeks at a current density of 1 A/m2 9. In some cir
cumstances chlorides beyond the reinforcement may be
forced deeper into the concrete during the process. There
is a risk that chlorides left in the concrete may diffuse
back to the reinforcement and cause further corrosion
with time.
The feasibility of using ECR depends on several factors
such as:-
- the presence of major cracking, delaminations and
defects that will require repair before ECR
- large variations in reinforcement cover that will cause
differential chloride extraction and possible short-
circuiting
- reactive aggregates requires special precautions to
avoid possible alkali silica reaction; lithium salts
should be used in these cases
- prestressed concrete structures may be susceptible
to hydrogen embri ttl ement after ECR; speci al
precautions are needed to eliminate this risk
- temporary power supplies of significant capacity are
required during application of ECR
e) Cathodic protection systems
Cathodic protection systems (CP) have an excellent track
record in corrosion control of steel and reinforced concrete
structures. The principle of CP is that the electrical
potenti al of the steel rei nforcement i s arti fi ci al l y
decreased by providing an additional anode system at
the concrete surface. An external current is required
between anode and cathode that diminishes the corrosion
rate along embedded reinforcement. The current may be
produced either by a sacrificial anode system or using an
impressed current from an external power source.
Sacrificial anode systems consist of metals higher than
steel in the electrochemical series (e.g. zinc). The external
anode corrodes preferentially to the steel and supplies
electrons to the cathodic steel surface. Sacrificial anode
Corrosion Repair & Rehabilitation
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systems are most effective in submerged structures where
the concrete i s wet and resi sti vi ty i s l ow. Warm
temperatures are also generally required for sacrificial
CP systems (i.e. above 200C).
CP systems more commonly use an external electrical
power source to supply electrons from anode to cathode.
The anode is placed near the surface and is connected to
the reinforcement through a transformer rectifier that
supplies the impressed current (see Figure 10). Anodes
may be conductive overlays, titanium mesh within a
sprayed concrete overlay, discrete anodes or conductive
paint systems. Anode systems are usually designed for a
minimum service life of 20 years but may last in excess of
50 years.
Before CP repairs are undertaken several factors need
to be considered:
- reinforcement must be electrically continuous
- concrete cover must be uniformly conductive and free
of delaminations
- alkali reactive aggregates and prestressing steel need
special treatment
- power must be available to drive the impressed
current in the structure
CP repair of concrete structures requires a thorough
corrosion survey by a specialist and the design needs to
be undertaken by a corrosion expert. Reliable CP systems
are ful l y control l ed and moni tored by a seri es of
embedded sensors i n order to ensure opti mum
performance. This is essential since under or over-
protection of the reinforcement may be potentially harmful
to the structure or the CP system. Continuous monitoring
of CP systems is usually done remotely by modem and
the power consumption during operation is extremely
small.
The first major CP repair of a reinforced concrete structure
in South Africa was done at the Simonstown Jetty in 1996
10. The structure was almost 80 years old and in an
extremely poor condition with widespread chloride-
corrosion damage. Several previous patch repairs had
failed and the concrete was contaminated with chlorides
making conventional repairs unfeasible. An impressed
current CP system was installed with metallic ribbon
anodes protected within a sprayed concrete overlay. The
structure has been restored to full serviceability and
should require no further repairs for at least 40-50 years.
f) Demolition/reconstruction
Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is often so
advanced that demolition and reconstruction becomes
viable. This option should only be considered as a last
resort since the total cost (capital costs plus loss of service
and temporary works) is usually well in excess of repairs
costs. Corrosion damage is also generally confined to
near-surface regions and engineers often over-estimate
the extent of damage to corrosion-dam-aged structures.
Recent demolition of several bridge-decks along the Cape
coast revealed that actual corrosion damage was less
than anticipated.
Demolition and reconstruction is often preferred by
engineers who have limited repair experience or lack
confidence in new repair systems. It is crucial nevertheless
that lessons are learnt from the old structure when
designing the replacement. Guidance about ensuring
durabl e rei nforced concrete structures i s gi ven i n
Monographs 1 and 2.
Economics of Repairs
Repairs of reinforced concrete structures damaged by
corrosion have often proved to be unsuccessful with further
damage occurring after repair. Reasons for the poor
performance of repairs include:-
- lack of understanding of deterioration processes
- inadequate investigation and testing prior to repairs
- inadequate funds to undertake satisfactory repairs
- ineffective or inappropriate repairs being specified
- poor supervision and implementation of repairs on site
Repairs are not generally anticipated by owners and funds
for repairs are nearly always extremely limited. Economics
l argel y di ctate the ti mi ng and scal e of repai rs but
unfortunately only short-term costs are often considered.
Whilst corrosion damage is to some degree unique to
each structure some basic tenets hold for most cases.
- Performance of the concrete structure pri or to
Figure 10: Typical cathodic protectipon layout
Corrosion Repair & Rehabilitation
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treatment often dictates the likely performance after
repair. Structures with high levels of damage and rapid
rates of deterioration require more substantial repair
than those less seriously affected.
- The timing of treatment is crucial since corrosion rates
and damage increase with time. A structure that has
been neglected and allowed to reach an advanced
level of damage will not respond to 'quick-fix' solutions.
Conversely a structure that is repaired early enough
may be restored to full serviceability relatively cheaply.
- The effectiveness of treatments in retarding corrosion
is not equal and may range from highly effective to
detrimental (e.g. cathodic protec tion versus patch
repairs)
considered, a practical example is given in the Appendix.
Closure
The notion that reinforced concrete structures require no
maintenance or repair during their service life is gradually
being dispelled. It has been said that owners will have to
pay for durability at some point in the life of a structure.
Inadequate designs with excessive cost-cutting will
merely transfer the savings in capital costs to much more
expensive repairs at a later stage. While accountants may
encourage some deferment of capi tal costs i nto
maintenance, experience suggests that investments in
the form of design and construction for durability bring
better rewards than allowing for maintenance. Despite
this evidence, economic imperatives that attempt to
maximise short-term profits, often impact detrimentally
on the durabi l i ty and servi ce l i fe of i nfrastructural
developments.
Repair of reinforced concrete structures needs to be
undertaken in a rational manner to guarantee success.
An increasing number of repair options are available that
must be considered in terms of cost, technical feasibility
and reliability. Engineers need to understand all the
relevant material, structural and environmental issues
associated with concrete repairs in order to make
intelligent choices.
High quality repairs require a thorough investigation into
the causes of deteri orati on, appropri ate repai r
specifications and competent execution of the repair work.
This can only be done when structural investigations are
carried out by independent experts, specifications are
drawn up by engineers with specialist repair expertise
and repairs are undertaken by competent contractors.
Appendix 1:
Repair example
A 60-year old bridge structure is in need of major repairs
arising from widespread corrosion damage. The bridge
spans a tidal estuary with direct exposure to seawater
splash and spray action. Concrete is heavily contaminated
with salt and chloride levels at the reinforcement are
around 1.0% by mass of cement. Damage in the form of
cracking, spalling and delaminations are widespread
over much of the structure and are the result of chloride-
induced corrosion. Urgent repairs are essential to restore
full serviceability to the bridge.
Rough estimates of service life of the various options are
based on recent experience in South Africa and specialist
publications13,14,15. Whilst the projected performance
of the various repairs is a subjective assessment, the
figures serve to illustrate the many issues that need to be
considered when costing repairs.
Importantly, repairs costs need to be compared in a
rational way by comparing life-cycle costs of the structure.
Scott showed that when life-cycle costs are compared, a
maintenance-free structural design is cheaper than
cutting initial costs and deferring some money for repair
and mai ntenance at a l ater date (data shown i n
Table 6)
11
.
Strohmeier showed that repair costs escalate dramatically
as deterioration proceeds and that repairs should be
done as soon as distress is noted 12. This research helped
quantify what many engineers had long realized; that
durability-based designs are cost-effective in the long-
term and that delays in repairs cause an exponential
increase in costs.
Engineers considering repair of concrete structures do
not have the freedom to change either the original design
or the timing of the repairs. Repairs therefore need to be
considered on the merits, logistics, costs and risks of the
many opti ons that are avai l abl e to rehabi l i tate the
structure. To illustrate some of the issues that need to be
Option
Original
design
Repairs/
main-
tenance
Relative
costs
1
60 MPa 30%
fly ash 55
mm cover
None
1.0
2
60 MPa 30%
fly ash 30
mm cover
Surface
treatment at
10-year
intervals
2.0
3
60 MPa 30%
fly ash 40
mm cover
Patch repairs
after 20 and
35 years
2.3
4
60 MPa 30%
fly ash 40
mm cover
Cathodic
protection
after 20 after
20
3.0
5
60 MPa
100%PC 75
mm cover
Patch repairs
after 15, 25
and 35 years
3.5
Table 6: Total life cycle costs of typical beam members exposed to marine
environment
Notes on repair options:-
Option 1. Durability design for maintenance free 40 year service life
Option2. Based on anticipated life of surface treatment
Options 3-5. Based on the likely stage at which spalling damage becomes
excessive
Option 5. Design required by SABS 0100:1992
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For the purposes of costing the repair options, the
following assumptions are made:-
- unescalated 2001 costs are used due to uncertainties
about future discount, inflation and tax rates
- site establishment costs are fixed at R 250 000 for
each repair option
- total area of concrete under repair is 2000 m2
- unit rates for repair include allowance for labour,
materials, access and supervision
- repairs are focused on chloride-induced corrosion
damage only
A The following repair options are considered for the
bridge. A Localized repairs of corrosion-damaged
areas with only cosmetic con sequences. Assuming
15% of the structure requires patching and that
concrete is only broken back to the reinforcement, a
unit rate of R250/m
2
is used. Given the limited nature
of the repairs and the likelihood of incipient anode
formation an effective life of 8 years is con sidered
possible.
B More extensive mechanical break-outs and patching
are done with all corroded reinforcement being
exposed, cleaned and a good quality repair material
used for patching. Approximately 30% of the structure
is treated at a unit rate of R280/m
2
. Despite the effort
made to repair the structure, corrosive conditions still
exist at the reinforcement and further corrosion
damage limits the effective life to 12 years before more
repairs must be considered.
C Conventi onal corrosi on repai rs are done but a
migrating corrosion inhibitor is applied to the repaired
concrete surface together with a hydrophobic coating
(silane/siloxane). Mechanical breakout is limited to
damaged areas of concrete and not all corrosion on
reinforcement is removed resulting in a unit rate of
R300/m
2
. This includes the cost of the migrating
corrosion inhibitor and coating at R40/m
2
. The chloride
level at the reinforcement (1.0%) is at the upper level
for corrosion inhibitor performance resulting in an
effective service life of only 15 years.
D Electrochemical chloride extraction is applied to the
concrete to remove chloride from around the steel.
The cost of the system is approximately R750/m
2
for a
six week application and includes repair to damaged
concrete. Unfortunately not all the chloride is removed
from the concrete resulting in an effective service life
of 25 years.
E Cathodic protection is applied to the structure to
protect the embedded reinforcement. The cost of the
system is R900/m
2
at installation and a nominal
maintenance and monitoring fee of R5000 per year.
The anode system is designed to last 50 years thereby
dictating the effective life of the system.
Present value costs for the various options are shown in
Table A1. From these findings it is clear that initial repair
costs and total repair costs over 40 years vary significantly.
Timing
Initial
20 years
40 years
Option A
0.75
2.25
3.75
Option B
0.81
2.43
3.24
Option C
0.85
1.70
2.49
Option D
1.75
1.75
3.50
Option E
2.05
2.15
2.25
Table A1: Total present value costs (million rands)
Item
Structure
name
Location
Environment
History
Date
inspected
Surface
condition
Early
cracking
Concrete
quality
Rebar cover
Structural
effects
Surface
damage
Staining
Cracking
Rebar
Condition
Carbonation
Delamination
Previous
repairs
Example
Background data
Identification, reference number
Physical address or location
Severity and type of exposure
Age, design data, repairs
Date
Original condition
Honeycombing, bleeding, voids, popouts
Plastic settlement or plastic shrinkage
Surface hardness, density, voids, colour
Covermeter survey, mechanical breakout
Overloading, dynamic effects, structural cracking
Present Condition
Abrasion, chemical attack, spalling, leaching
Rebar corrosion, AAR gel, effloresence, salts
Width, pattern, location, causes of cracking
Visual examination of bar, rust and pitting damage
Indicator test on cores or mechanical breakouts
Size, frequency, severity of delamination
Integrity of repairs, signs of damage near repair
locations
Observa-
tion
APPENDIX 2: Diagnostic sheets
Table A2: Checklist for investigation of structural deterioration
Option A is most cost-effective when only short-term costs
are considered but most expensive in the longer-term.
For a structure that only has to last another 20 years, option
C may be preferable whereas for 40 years further service,
option E is most economical for the hypothetical example.
Corrosion Repair & Rehabilitation
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 138
References
- Arup, H., 'The mechanisms of the protection of steel by concrete',
Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete construction, SCI, 1985.
- Miyagawa, T., 'Durability design and repair of concrete structures:
chloride corrosion of reinforcing and alkali aggregate reaction',
Magazine of Concrete Research, 43(156), 1991, pp 155-170.
- British Standards Institute, 'Chloride content determination for
concrete', BS 1881 Part 124, 1988.
- American Society for Testing and Materials, 'Standard test
method for half-cell potential measurement of reinforcement in
concrete', ASTM C876, Philadelphia, 1991.
- Broomfield, J.P., 'Corrosion of steel in concrete: appraisal and
repair', Chapman and Hall, 1997.
- Hoppe, G.E. and Varkevisser, J., 'Long term monitoring of the
effectiveness of the silane impregnation of a concrete arch bridge
to inhibit further effects of alkali aggregate reaction', FIP
Symposium: The Concrete Way to Development, CSSA, 1997,
pp 777-786.
- Mackechnie, J.R., Alexander, M.G. and Rylands, T., 'Performance
of Ferrogard corrosion inhibitor in chloride environments',
Unpublished report, University of Cape Town, 2000.
Type of
corrosion
Chloride-
induced
Carbonation-
induced
Stray current
Chemical
induced
Secondary
forms
Artificially
induced
Environment or
causative conditions
Marine environments Industrial
chemicals Admixed chlorides
(older structures)
Unsaturated concrete Polluted
environments Low cover depths
to steel
DC power supplies Railway
systems Heavy industries,
smelters
High sulphate groundwaters
Fertilizer factories Industrial
plants Sewage treatment works
Primary cracking due to alkali
aggregate reaction, delayed
ettringite formation, structural
cracking
Bimetallic corrosion Partial
sealing of concrete High
temperatures (>2000 C) Patch
repairs of corrosion
Significant features of
deterioration
Rapid and severe corrosion
Distinct anode & cathode
regions Corrosion damage
may affect structural integrity
General corrosion along rebar
Moderate corrosion rates
except when wet & dry faces
are close Corrosion damage
generally only affects
aesthetics
General corrosion of rebar
exposed to moist conditions
Corrosion not confined to
low cover depths Large crack
widths possible
Corrosion generally
associated with near saturated
conditions Concrete
deterioration occurring
together with corrosion
Corrosion localized in regions
where cracks intersect rebar
Other forms of distress
evident in concrete (i.e. AAR
gel deposits)
Generally very localized
intense corrosion due to well
defined anode/cathode
regions
Table A3: Conditions and features of different forms of reinforcement corrosion
Type of
deteriora-
tion
Reinforcement
corrosion
Alkali
aggregate
reaction
Shrinkage/
creep
Chemical
attack
Softwater
attack
Fire damage
Structural
overload
Visual evidence /
associated factors
Rust stains, cracking along
reinforcement, spalling of
cover concrete, delamination
of cover concrete
Expansive map cracking,
restrained cracking following
reinforcement, white silica
gel at cracks
Characteristic cracking,
excessive displacements,
time dependent movements,
exposure to drying conditions
Surface attack, salt deposits
on surface, expansive internal
reactions causing cracking,
exposure to aggressive waters
Surface leaching of
concrete, exposed
aggregate, exposure to
moving waters in conduits
Surface discolouration,
concrete spalling, thermal
cracking, buckling, loss of
strength, microcracking
Major cracking in areas of
high stress, localized
crushing, excessive
deformations and deflections
Confirmatory testing
Cover depth of rebar
Carbonation & chloride
testing Exploratory coring
Electrochemical testing
Core analysis for gel and
rimming of aggregates
Petrographic analysis
Aggregate testing
Concrete core analysis
Loading and structural
analysis Aggregate and binder
analysis
Chemical analysis of
concrete Core examination
for depth of attack and
internal distress
Chemical analysis of water
Core examination for
leaching damage
Core examination for colour
variations, steel condition
Petrographic analysis
Specialist techniques
Loading and structural
analysis Core testing for
compressive strength and
elastic modulus
Table A4: Diagnostic sheet for concrete deterioration (all forms)
- Mackechnie, J.R., Alexander, M.G. and Rylands, T., 'Laboratory
trials with an organic corrosion inhibitor', 14th Int. Corrosion
Congress, Cape Town, 1999, CD-ROM.
- Mackechnie, J.R. and Le Maire, H.R.A., 'Electrochemical
extraction of chlorides from OPC and fly ash concrete', Concrete
Beton, 82, 1996, pp 9-17.
- Stevenson, C.E., Unpublished MSc thesis in progress, University
of Cape Town, 2001.
- Alexander, M.G. and Scott, A., 'Designing reinforced concrete
structures for durability and economy in marine environments',
SAICE Journal, 41(4), 1999, pp 15-21.
- Strohmeier, J.H. and Alexander, M.G., 'Deterioration, repair and
maintenance of reinforced concrete structures in the Cape
Peninsula', Concrete Beton, 81, 1996, pp 14-21.
- Mackechnie, J.R., 'Observations from case studies of marine
concrete structures', SAICE Journal, 40(4), 1998, pp 29-32.
- Addis, B.J. and Basson, J.J., 'Diagnosing and repairing the
surface of reinforced concrete damaged by corrosion of
reinforcement', Portland Cement Institute, Midrand, 1989.
- Standards Australia, 'Guide to concrete repair and protection',
ACRA, Homebush, 1996.
Corrosion Repair & Rehabilitation
Speedcrafts Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 140
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
Repair and Rehabilitation of Corrosion
Damaged Concrete Structures
P. Srinivasan
Principal Scientist, ACTEL, CSIR- Structural Engineering
Research Centre , CSIR Campus, Taramani
C
orrosi on of steel rei nforcement i n concrete
structures is a techno-economic problem for
several reasons. Technically (i) it poses challenges
in research and development to discover methods and
materials either to control or prevent corrosion (ii) inspite
of considerable research work world-wide, it is now well
recognised that corrosion in plain carbon steel can only
be controlled and a total prevention is nearly an impossible
task (iii) corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is peculiar
in the sense that the corrosion product, because of its
volume growth, causes cracking to the concrete. This
physical effect together with sectional loss of reinforcing
bars affect the load carrying capacity, serviceability, and
the service life of a structure (iv) rehabilitation of corrosion
damaged structures is often cumbersome requiring high
techni cal experti se and competence. Thi s paper
highlights the materials and techniques for the repair and
rehabilitation of corrosion damaged concrete structures.
Few case studies are also presented.
Steel is passive under high alkalinity environment, and
therefore corrosion will not occur. Then, there are two ways
to initiate the onset of corrosion. One is by the penetration
of carbon dioxide from the environment into the cover
concrete and the other is the penetration of water
containing dissolved salts through the concrete cover or
through a concrete crack. In the first case, the alkalinity of
the concrete surrounding the steel could be reduced by
carbon dioxide which reacts with calcium hydroxide in
cement paste to form cal ci um carbonate (cal l ed
carbonation of concrete) and further to form carbonic acid
with the pore solution. The reduction of calcium hydroxide
leads to a low pH value. This creates an environment for
the corrosion of steel to take place. In the case of chloride
diffusion, the alkalinity of concrete is not reduced, but when
the chloride ion concentration is high enough, reaching a
certai n rati o wi th the hydroxyl i ons (Cl /OH), the
deapssivation of steel takes place and corrosion of steel
may start.
The required treatments for restoring the protective
environment for steel depend on the extent and cause of
the corrosion damage:
Carbonation-induced corrosion damage. Under such
conditions, carbonated concrete should be removed and
new concrete should be installed, re-passivation is
provided by the new repair mortar or concrete.
Chl ori de-i nduced corrosi on damage. Under such
conditions, if chloride has penetrated to the level beyond
the steel reinforcements, removal of chloride around steel
bars does not guarantee re-passivation as chloride ions
may diffuse back from the deeper part of the concrete to
the new concrete cover. This is the so-called redistribution
of chloride after the repair. In this case, the repaired
concrete will become cathodic and the rebar will be the
anode. The corrosion will occur in the bars immediately.
Other factors may influence the re-passivation of steel, for
instance, coating of the steel reinforcements, and the
application of membranes or sealers to limit the moisture
content. In most cases, the strategy of repair is either a
comprehensive or a partial repair of the concrete member.
These strategies are common in the rehabilitation of
concrete and they depend on the structural system,
external environmental factors, and the degree of structural
degradation.
Steps in executing repair
There are several regular steps in the repair of all structures
exposed to corrosion.
- The fi rst step i s to strengthen the structure by
performing structural analysis and designing a suitable
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 141
location for the temporary support.
- The second step is to remove the cracked and
delaminated concrete. It is important to clean the
concrete surface and also the steel bars by removing
rust. After rust is removed by brush or sand blasting,
the steel bars should be painted with epoxy coaling or
replaced; additional steel rods shall be added if
necessary. Then new concrete can be poured.
- The final step is to coat the concrete member with
concrete surface coating as external protection. These
steps will be explained in detail in the following
sections.
Materials
The materials adopted for repair of corrosion damaged
structures are described below:
Polymer Concrete
Three to four fold increase in strength up to 140 N/sq mm
has been obtai ned usi ng pol ymer i n concrete.
Corresponding increase in tensile strength of concrete is
also achieved by polymer impregnation. The durability of
polymer impregnated concrete is substantially increased
when exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. This has been the
strong reason for its application in cold regions, and against
corrosive salts and acids. These properties can be fully
utilised in repairs and renovation of old structures
damaged due to heavy wear and tear and by corrosion
due to mari ne atmosphere. The devel opment of
techniques for such applications is in progress. Materials
(monomers and polymers) used for the impregnation are
Styrene, Polypropeleyne, Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) and
Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA).
Epoxy Grouts, Mortars and Coatings
Epoxy resin is a product of Epichlorohydrin and Bisphenol
with or without additives such as plasticisers and dilutants.
To get a cured epoxy resin product, a hardener (usually an
amine) is blended with the epoxy resin at ambient
temperature. The resin mortar may be obtained by adding
fillers, such as, coarse sand or calcined bauxite grit. They
develop excellent strength and adhesive properties, and
are resistant to many chemicals. They have good chemical
and physical stability; they harden rapidly and resist water
penetration. In all, they provide a toughness that couples
durability with crack resistance.
Latex Modified Concrete
The third group of materials which can be used for repair
Materials
Portland Cement Mortar
Portland Cement Concrete
Microsilica Modified
Portland Cement Concrete
Latex Modified Portland
Cement Concrete
Polymer Modified Portland
Cement Mortar with
Non-sag Filler
Magnesium Phosphate
Cement Concrete
Preplaced- Aggregate
Concrete
Epoxy Mortar
Methylmethacrylate (MMA)
Concrete
Shotcrete
Ingredients
Binder
Portland cement
Portland cement
Portland cement
Portland cement
Portland cement
MagnesiumPhosphate
cement
Portland cement
Epoxy resin
Acrylic resin
Portland cement
Additive
Micro- silica
Non-Sag fillers
Pozzolans
Pozzolans
Admixture
Water reducer
Air-entr
Water reducer
Air-entr
HRWR Air-entr
Latex SBR
Acrylic latex
Fluidifier
Water reducer
acceler latex
Application Requirements
Thickness Limitation
in/cm
Curing
Wet 7 days
Wet 7 days
Wet 7 days
Wet 3 days
Sheet 45 min-
2 days
Wet 7 days
-4 hrs.- 2 days
1 hr.- 6 hr.
Wet 7 days
Installation Tempera-
ture 0F/0C
Table- 1 Repair and Overlay Materials
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 142
purposes are the latex or acrylic-modified mortars. These
are conventional patching mixes to which is added a
synthetic latex. These additives actually give a mortar
greater internal strength. For this reason they are usually
preferred where strength or heavy loading is an important
factor, for example, on bridge decks or for factory floors
subject to heavy wheel loads. Both compressive and
tensile strength are improved, while flexibility of the patch,
a major factor influencing its durability, is increased
substantially. Resistance to alkalies and dilute acids is
good; the concrete has low water absorption properties
and freeze-thaw stability is improved over a conventional
patch. Bond strength of the latex modified mortar is said
to be greater than the shear strength of the old concrete.
Table- 1 gives the summary of the repair and overlay
materials with the properties.
Structure Strengthening
One of the most dangerous and important first steps
necessary for the repair is selecting the temporary support,
which depends on the following:
- evaluating the state of the whole structure
- determining how to transfer loads in the building and
its distribution
- determining the volume of repair that will be done
- determining the type of concrete member that will be
repaired
- the repair process must be carried out by a structural
engineer with a high degree of experience who has the
capability to perform the structure
Removal of damaged concrete
There are several ways to remove the part of the concrete
that has cracks on its surface and shows the effects of
steel corrosi on. These methods of removi ng the
delaminated concrete depend on the ability of the
contractor, specifications, the cost of breaking, and the
whole state of the structure. The selection of the breaker
methods is based on the cause of corrosion; if it is due to
carbonation or chlorides, then one must also consider
whether cathodic protection will be performed in the future.
In this situation, the breaking work would take place on the
falling concrete cover; it would be cleaned and all the
del ami nated concrete and cracked concrete parts
removed. Then, high-strength, nonshrinking mortar would
be poured.
If the corrosion in steel reinforcement is a result of chloride
propagati on i nto concrete, most speci fi cati ons
Drying
Shrink - age
Moderate
Low
Low
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Very low
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Compressive Strength
Coeff. of thermal
Expansion
Equal to substrate
Equal to substrate
Equal to substrate
Compat w/substrate
Compat w/substrate
Equal to substrate
Equal to substrate
(1.5-5) *concr.
(1.5-5) *concr.
Equal to substrate
1 HR
0
0
0
0
0
1 Day 3 Day 28 Day
Elastic Modulus
psi/Mpa
Permeability
(Con-
crete=10)
9
9
6
5
5
9
10
1
1
6
Freeze Thaw
Resis- Tance
Good
Good
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Non-Sag
Quality
Moderate
NA
Good
NA
Excellent
Low
NA
Moderate
NA
NA
Exo-
Therm
Low
Low
Low
Low
Moderate
High
Low
High
High
Low
Com-
ments
ACI 30
4R - 23
ACI 503.4
Vapor may
Cause
Problems
inConfined
areas
ACI 506
R - 90
Table- 1 ( Contd.,)
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 143
recommend removing about 25 mm behind the steel and
making sure that the concrete on the steel has no traces of
chlorides after the repair process. The difference between
good and bad repair procedures is shown in Fig. 1.
The di fference i n the procedure of breaki ng the
delaminated concrete is due to the difference in the causes
of corrosion. Therefore, a careful study to assess the state
of the structure and the causes of corrosion is very important
to get high quality after the repair process. The evaluation
process is the same as illness diagnosis. It is necessary
and important to remove concrete for a distance greater
than the volume required for removal of defective concrete
so that proper steel can be reached. This will be important
later in the repair process. Several methods are commonly
used for breaking and removing the defective concrete
and these are explained next.
Manual Method
One of the simplest and easiest methods is to use a
hammer and chisel to remove defective concrete. This is
considered one of the most inexpensive ways, but it is too
slow compared with mechanical methods. However,
mechanical methods produce high noise and vibration,
have special requirements, and need trained labor. Using
the manual method makes it difficult to spare concrete
behind the steel. Any worker can manually break the
concrete, but it is necessary to choose workers who have
done repair work before as they must be sensitive in
breaking the concrete to avoid causing cracks to the
adjacent concrete members.
Pneumatic Hammer Methods
These hammers work using compressed air; they weigh
between 10 and 45 kg. If they are used on the roof or walls,
their weight will be about 20 kg. They need an attached
small power unit to do the job, but in large areas may
require a separate, bigger air compressor. This machine
requires proper training for the worker that uses it. The use
of pneumatic hammers is more economical when a small,
rather than large, area is to be removed.
Performance rates are about 0.025-0.25 m3 per hour using
hammers weighing 10-45 kg, respectively.
Water Jet
This method has been commonly used since it was
introduced to the market in the 1970s. It relies on the
existence of water at the work site and on the removal of a
suitable depth of concrete in a large area. It removes
fragmented concrete, cleans steel bars, and removes part
of the concrete behind the steel bars, as shown in Fig. 2
The water jet is used manually by an experienced worker
who has previously dealt with the hose, which is pushing
water under high pressure Very high safety precautions
need to be applied to the worker who uses it and the site
around it.
Grinding Machine
This is used to remove concrete cover in the case of large,
flat surfaces. The grinding machine is usually used after
the water gun or the pneumatic hammer to obtain final
concrete breakdown around and under the steel
reinforcement. Therefore, one must take into account
whether the thickness of the concrete cover is equal. The
rate of removal of the concrete by this machine is very fast.
Clean concrete surfaces and steel reinforcements
This phase removes any remaining broken concrete with
a process of cleaning. At the same time, the process of
assessing the steel and cleaning up and removing
corrosion takes place.
Concrete
The stage of preparing a surface by pouring the new
concrete is one of the most important stages of the repair
process. Before application of the primer coating, which
provides the bond between the existing old concrete and
the new concrete for repair, the concrete surface must be
well prepared, and this takes place according to the
materials used. The concrete surface must be clean and
not contain any oils, broken concrete, soil, or lubricants.
The surface must be cleaned completely through sand
blasting, water, or manually using brushes. This stage is
very important and very necessary, regardless of the type
of material used to bond the new concrete with the old.
Clean Steel Reinforcement Bars
After removal of the concrete covers and cleaning the
surface, the next step is to evaluate the steel reinforcement
by measuring steel diameter. If the cross-sectional area of
the steel bars is found to have a reduction equal to or more
than 20%, additional reinforcing steel bars must be added.
Before pouring new concrete, one must be sure that the
Good Repair Wrong Repair
Fig.1
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 144
development length between the new bars and the old
steel bars is enough, as shown in Fig. 3 It is usually
preferable to link the steel by drilling new holes in the
concrete and connecting the additional steel on concrete
by putting the steel bars in the drilled hole filled with epoxy.
However, in most cases the steel bars are completely
corroded and need to be replaced.In the case of beams
and slabs that need to add additional steel reinforcement
bars, it is preferable to connect the steel bars with concrete
by drilling new holes in the concrete and making the bond
of the steel bars in the holes by using adhesive epoxies.
For beam repairs, the additional steel bars are fixed in a
column that supports this beam. In the case of slabs, the
steel bars are fixed in the sides of the beam that is
supporting the slab, as shown in Fig. 3
Dry Pack
Dry pack is a mortar mixture with a very low water-cement
ratio, applicable for small area of repair. It is normally placed
by hand. Materials commonly used in drypack are Portland
Cement, sand, and water. Other types of Portland cement
can also be used.
Pre-placed Aggregate Concrete
This essentially involves first placing the coarse aggregate
in the forms, and thereafter filling the voids by pumping in
cement grout (sanded or unsanded). This has been found
to be suitable on areas where accessibility is a problem.
Joint Sealers
Joint sealers are very important in concrete structures as
every concrete structure has joints (or cracks). Joint sealers
should ensure the structural integrity and serviceability. In
addition, they should serve as protection against ingress
of harmful liquids, gases, or other undesirable substances
which would impair the quality of concrete.
Jacketing
Jacketing is the process of fastening a durable material
over concrete and filling the caving with a grout that
provides needed performance characteristics. The
materials used for jacket are metals, rubber, plastics, and
concrete. This restores structural values, protects the
reinforcement from exposure to the harmful elements and
improves the appearance of the original concrete.
Jacketing materials may also be secured to concrete by
means of bolts, screws, nails, or adhesives; by bond with
the existing concrete; or by gravity. The method of securing
employed, will depend upon the exposure, the material
Fig. 2 Concrete Surface after removing with water jet
Fig. 3 Installing additional steel
The techniques for the replacement of the cover concrete/
damaged concrete are given below.
Shortcrete or Gunite
Shotcrete or Gunite is mortar or concrete conveyed
through a pressure hose and applied pneumatically at
high velocity onto a surface. This material has found wide
applications in several major repair works as it can be
applied on vertical, horizontal or overhead surfaces, with
the area to be repai red bei ng ei ther rei nforced or
unreinforced. For the purpose of design, gunite may be
considered as good quality concrete of grade M.20.
Shotcrete mixed with steel fibres can also be used.
Fig. 5 Use of concrete collars for strengthening concrete compression member
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
Robbins Tunneling &
Trenchless Technology (I) Pvt.
Ltd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 148
used and the positioning of the jacketing material. Fibre
glass reinforced plastics, ferrocement, and other hard
materials such as polypropylene can be used for jacketing.
A few examples of guniting, jacketing, and strengthening
are schematically shown in Figs. 4-7 respectively.
Cathodic Protection
As discussed, the corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
is an electrochemical process. Cathodic protection is a
technique by which the electrical potential of the steel is
increased to a level at which corrosion can not take place.
It is widely used for both steel and concrete offshore
structures, while on land it has been used for the protection
of pipelines and similar structures. It has been used on a
limited scale, for concrete structures as discussed below.
Two different methods are employed, an impressed current
and the use of sacrificial anodes. In the first the structure
is connected to the negative terminal of a DC power source,
ideally using an anode which does not corrode. In the
second the reinforcement is connected to anodes with a
more negative corrosion potential than steel, such as zinc
or aluminium. The current is reversed and corrosion now
takes place at the anode, which is gradually used up. In
both cases, electrical continuity of the reinforcement is
required. Fig. 8 shows the schematic setup for the cathodic
protection.
Use of FRP Wrapping
The growing interest in FRP systems for strengthening and
retrofitting can be attributed to many factors. Although
the fibers and resins used in such systems are relatively
expensive compared with traditional strengthening
materials like concrete and steel, labor and equipment
costs to install FRP systems are often lower. Fiber-
reinforced polymer systems can also be used in areas with
limited access, where traditional techniques would be very
impractical-for example, a slab shielded by pipe and
conduit. These systems can have lower life-cycle costs
than conventional strengthening techniques because the
FRP system is less prone to corrosion.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) can serve as an alternative
to the use of steel sheets. The use of FRP has a wide range
of advantages and offers an alternative to the steel used in
the strengthening process. There are different types of
FRPs; the famous type is carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
(CFRP), which is most commonly used as appropriate in
practical applications and because of its unique properties
in terms of resistance and the resistance with time, as well
as resistance to stress.
Corrosion Inhibitors
It has been shown that certain admixtures can be used to
inhibit corrosion of the reinforcement in the presence of
chlorides8. One that shows promise is calcium nitrite. When
corrosion takes place in untreated concrete, the ferrous
ions at the anode pass into solution and, in a secondary
reaction, are converted to rust. With the calcium nitrite,
Fig. 6 Beam strengthening with steel plates
Fig. 7 Replacement of concrete using pressurized forms
Other Methods
Other techni ques empl oyed on repai r of corroded
concrete structures include removal of chloride ions,
cathodic protection, use of Fibre reinforced Polymer
Wraps, corrosion inhibitors and concrete coatings. The
details are given below
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 149
ferric ions are formed which are insoluble and hence stay
on the surface of the reinforcement, preventing further
corrosion. The addition of calcium nitrite extends the time
to corrosion initiation The corrosion rate, once corrosion is
initiated, is less with calcium nitrite.
Corrosion inhibitors can be classified based on their action
and their chemistry and function:
Di fferent types of coati ngs are avai l abl e such as
chlorinated rubber coating, vinyl coatings, epoxy coatings,
acryl i c based, pol yurethane, etc. Seal ers are an
i ntermedi ate appl i cati on between penetrants and
coatings. They protect concrete by blocking the pores.
Sealers are more viscous than penetrants and generally
form a thin film on the surface of concrete.The effectiveness
of surface treatment materials in preventing the ingress of
aggressive ions depends on the penetrability of the
material to provide protection of the concrete matrix.
Various organic polymers are used as sealers and coatings.
The most widely used penetrating materials tend to be
siliceous, which line the pores of concrete forming silicone
resins and thus provide protection through water repellent
properties. Silane/siloxane primer with aliphatic- acrylic
top coat gi ves good protecti on. CECRI al so have
developed and implemented concrete coatings.
Case-studies
Many corrosion-affected structures were investigated by
the author at SERC for the its condition assessment through
NDT & PDT and repair measures were formulated to
increase its service life. One of the structure is the prill
tower for the manufacture of urea and the age more than
30 years ( Fig.9) The structure is a RCC shaft and the
thickness is 230 mm. Since the structure was constructed
in marine environment, a coating was provided on the
surface right from its construction. After the detailed
investigation it was found that the carbonation depth was
only 12 mm and chloride content in the concrete was within
allowable limits. The reinforcements are found to be in
very good condition. The test results have proved the
efficiency of concrete coating.
The other structure is a 30 year old RCC water tank
constructed in Bangalore (Fig. 10) and was affected by
Fig. 8 Schematic diagram of CP including modern link and remote monitoring
Anodic inhibitors
Cathodic inhibitors
Ambiodic inhibitors
Suppressing the anodic corrosion reaction
Suppressing the cathodic reaction
Suppressing both anodes and cathodes
Inorganic inhibitors
Organic inhibitors
Vapour phase or
volatile inhibitors
nitrites, phosphates and other inorganic
chemicals
amines and other organic chemicals
a subgroup of the organic
inhibitors (generally Amino alcohols) that
have a high vapour pressure
By their action:
By their chemistry and function:
Coating to Concrete
Surface treatment materials are often used to protect
concrete from deterioration due to reinforcement corrosion.
These materials are classified as Penetrants, Coatings,
and Sealers.
Penetrants are low viscosity liquids designed to penetrate
into concrete and line its pores. They protect concrete by
forming a hydrophobic layer and thus repel moisture, but
they facilitate the evaporation of water vapor and other
gases from the interior of the concrete mass. Coatings
provide protection to concrete by forming a thick,
protective film on the surface. However, due to minimal
breathability, these materials may contribute to concrete
deterioration.
Fig. 9 Prill Tower ( RCC Shaft- 30
Years Old)
Fig. 10 Water Tank repaired and coated
with Concrete coating
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 150
corrosion. After detailed investigation, remedial measures
were formul ated. The repai r measures consi st of
strengthening and finally a concrete surface coating was
provided. It was found that after seven years of exposure,
the carbonation depth was almost nil.
Conclusions
Since corrosion is a complicated problem, the cause has
to be diagnosed and proper material and technique has
to be adopted. The cost of repair will vary with the type of
technique being adopted. Repairing of a corroded
damaged structure requires skilled personnel. The
repaired structure has to be monitored periodically for their
performance.
References
- Page C.L, Treadway, KWJ and Bamforth PB (Editors) - Corrosion
of reinforcement in concrete; Society of Chemical Industry;
Elsevier Applied Science, May 1990.
- IS 13620 -1993, "Specification for fusion bonded epoxy coated
reinforcing bars".
- British Standards institution, BS6744: 1986, "Austenitic Stainless
Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Concrete".
- British Standards institution, BSEN-10088-1:1995, "Stainless
Steels, Part 1 - List of Stainless Steels".
- Mani, K., and Srinivasan, P., "Service life of structures in corrosive
environment : A comparison of carbon steel and SS bars", The
Indian Concrete Journal, July 2001, pp 452-456.
- John L. Clarke (Editor),(1993), "Alternative Materials for the
Reinforcement and Prestressing of Concrete", Blackie Academic
& Professional, First edition,
- Jones et al., (1995), "Concrete surface treatment : Effect of
exposure temperature on chloride diffusion resistance", American
Concrete Institute, Materials Journal, pp.197-208.
- Srinivasan,P., Firdows M.Z.M., Prabakar J., and Chellappan, A., A
simple accelerated test method for rapid assessment of chloride
penetration of concrete with and without surface coating, The
Indian Concrete Journal, January 2007, pp 43-47.
- Srinivasan, P., Mohd. Firdows, M.Z., & Mani, K., "Surface coatings
for protection of concrete in marine environment - performance
evaluation through laboratory experiments", National Seminar on
Harbour Structures, (NASHAR- 2003), IIT Madras, Chennai, 21-
22, February 2003, pp 341-350
- Alonso, C. and Andrade C. (1990), "Effect of nitrate as a corrosion
inhibitor in contaminated and chloride - free carbonated mortars",
American concrete Institute, Materials Journal, pp.130-137.
- John Broomfield, (1999) "Corrosion inhibitors for steel in concrete",
pp.45-47.
- Berkeley, K.G.C. and S. Pathmanabhan, "Cathodic Protection of
reinforcement steel in concrete", Bulter works, London.
- Mohamed A. El -Reedy, "Assessment and Repai r of
Corrosion",CRC Press, London, New York, 2007
Concrete Repair & Rehabilitation
Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd
Communication Feature
152 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
n part I of this article (which
appeared in Jan issue), we dealt
Iwith the pre-installation guidelines
and in this part II, we will address the
following two important steps:
- installationprocedures
- post-installationpractices
StepII: Installationprocedures:
Once it has been established that
the base floor is capable of receiving
epoxy/PU topping (outcome of step I
), installation sequence is to be set in
motion. Installationprocedure is broadly
classified into three important steps:
- Surface preparation
- Applicationof primer and underlay
- Applicationof topping
Let us discuss the above three
steps indetail:
SurfacePreparation:
This is the single most important
step that determines the life of the
flooring. Any slack in this step will
adversely affect the quality and
durability of the flooring.
Some of the questions that need
to be answered before commencing
thesurfacepreparationarethefollowing:
What is the basic surface on which
epoxy/PU topping needs to be
applied?
- Vacuum de-watered concrete
(power-trowelled)
- Manually trowelled PCC
- Cotta stone/Shabbat stone/ Granite
/Kadappa/Marble
- Ceramic tile/vitrified tile
What is thestatus of thebasefloor?
- Cleanor oil-soaked
- Existence of cracks, powdery
surface etc
Comprehensive Guidelines for Execution of
Epoxy/PU Floorings - Part II
Prachi Mahajan
Director, Neocrete Technologies Pvt Ltd
Communication Feature
153 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
- Soundness of the base floor and
porosity etc
What is the thickness of the topping
proposed as the surface profile to be
created is directly proportional to the
thickness of thecoating?
The answers to the above questions
will lead youto the following decisions:
Proper equipment tobeused
- Floor grinding equipment
- Scarifier
- Shot-blasting equipment
Extent of surfaceprofilerequired
The following graph can be taken as
a guideline to decide on both of the
above questions:
The purpose of the surface
preparationis to:
- Create a surface profile so as to
create a mechanical key which
increases adhesionstrength
- Create a clean and dry base and
remove loose particles
- Improve penetrationof primer
- Removal of oil, grease and other
contaminants that will impede
bonding
- Remember the word DCS; Dry,
Cleanand Sound surface
Priming:
After the surface preparation, the
secondstepis to ensure that the surface
is primed properly. The application of
priming is as important as that of
surface preparation in ensuring the
longevity of flooring and most likely
ignored by most of the contractors. As
you are aware, concrete consists of
micro-pores that typically do not allow
penetration of fileer-rich epoxy coatings.
Hence, it is essential that the initial
bonding is achieved by an epoxy
primer that contains only resin and
hardener and is of suchviscosity so as
to penetrate the pores of concrete
thus creating a bond equivalent to that
of spiked shoe on a soft floor. Thus,
the concrete pores that are opened up
by surface preparation get filled by a
proper epoxy primer and increases
the durability of the topping multi-fold.
Depending on the porosity of the
concrete, viscosity of the primer shall
be properly chosen. Normally available
epoxy primers will not adhere with
vitrified tiles, polished marble/granite
etc, which calls for specially formulated
primers.
Once the primer layer is cured
which typically can take 4 to 12 hrs
depending on temperature and
humidity, screed underlay has to be
applied. It is strongly advised that
screed underlay is applied over primer
not later than 24 hrs. Once the primer
layer is hardened, the inter-phase
bond between screed and primer can
diminish. In case of delay in screed
application, it is advisable to wipe the
primed surface with solvent like Xylene,
MIBKetc.
When the total thickness of floor
topping exceeds 3mm, it is preferable
to do a 2mm self-leveling screed
underlay followed by 1mm self-leveling
topping instead of 3mm topping
together. Though this concept is being
questioned by many, the argument in
favour of doing a screed underlay has
the following merits:
- The function of screed underlay is to
be provide a strong base with
excellent compressive strength and
bond-strength, while the function of
topping is to provide abrasion
resistance, chemical resistance,
aesthetics etc. Thus it is prudent to
formulate two different products to
optimize the properties
- Leveling of undulated floors is
mucheasier
- In essence, it can also reduce the
overall price of the system
Topping:
Execution of topping is very similar
Typical epoxy self-leveling floorings
Communication Feature
154 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
to that of execution of self-leveling
underlay except the fact that topping
contains a forth component i.e
pigment. Pigment needs to be added
to Component A (resin part), mixed well
and component B & C are to be added
sequentially.
Proper mixing machines need to be
used to ensure homogeneity of the
system and consequent development
of desired properties. Do not allow
mechanical movement for 48 hours
and chemical exposure for 7 days.
Post-installationpractices
Some Do's and Don'ts
- Clean the floor regularly with a mop
at least once a day.
- Do not allowloose sharpparticles to
be strewn on the floor and ensure
to remove the same immediately.
- Check the wheels of the vehicles
regularly to ensure that there are
no sharp particles adhering on the
wheels.
- Rectify the leaking pipes and joints
immediately. (eg. Oil carrying pipes
inmachines)
- Avoid dropping of tools and tackles
onthe floor
- Avoid dragging heavy loads like
machinery, woodencrates etc
- Periodically inspect the areas and
rectifydamagedareasimmediately.
- Do not cleanepoxy floors withacid
Conclusion:
Epoxy / PU floorings have been
found to give an excellent service in
various industries such as pharma-
ceuticals, food, automobile/auto-
ancillaries, textile, electronic and
electrical industries, light engineering,
chemical industries etc. However, it is
important to ensure that the execution
and maintenance have been done as
per various standard procedures and I
hope that this article helps in an in-
depthunderstanding of the same.
Typical epoxy self-leveling floorings
For further details:
Neocrete Technologies Pvt Ltd
13-A, Satellite Tower, Film City road
Goregaon (East), Mumbai - 400 063.
Ph: +91-22-32937981,
E-mail: neocrete@gmail.com
Web: www.neocrete.co.in
www.neocrete.in
Sika India Pvt.Ltd
156 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Quake Resistant Infrastructure
okyo's new landmark, the Tokyo Sky Tree, towering at 634 meters, is
the tallest free-standing structure in the world and the second tallest
Tbuilding after the Burj Khalif in Dubai which is 839 meters tall. The
tower is locatedinNarihirabashi / Oshiagearea, of the Sumida district in the
capital city Tokyo. The high-rise tower will become a hub for terrestrial
digital TV and radio broadcastingandalsoasanobservationtower.
Unraveling the Secrets of
'Tokyo Sky Tree'
Bhavani Balakrishna
Picture Source: www.nikken.jp
Reflected view:
Ring floor
Tripod truss Mid-tower framing
Lateral joint truss
Ring truss
Tripod truss
Ribbed truss
Ribbed truss
Ring truss
Tripod truss
Outer tower framing
Mid-tower framing
Inner tower framing
Core framing
Ribbed truss
Lateral joint truss
Ring truss
Reflected view:
Lateral joint floor
157 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Quake Resistant Infrastructure
of theSky Tree. Thetower has atriangular
pyramid shape base. The triangular
footprint turns into a cylindrical shape
along the height. The gradual concave
curvature of the ridge line of the triangle
is called warp. Transition of this section
to circular form through convex upward
curvature is called camber. Camber
structure is commonly used in columns
of Heian and Nara era temples
architecture. The curves also reflect the
blade of a samurai sword and other
traditional Japanese architectural
shapes. The silhouette of the tower
differs when it is seen from different
angles. The observatories have a
round shape to offer panoramic views
of the river and the city. The first
observatory is located at 350 meters
above the ground. It will accommodate
a restaurant, caf and shops. The
second observation deck and air
corridor are at a height of 450 meters.
The tower rises on three legs from
an equilateral triangular footprint of
side 68m. Triangular shapes reduce
the structural steel required for
construction. Lines from three apexes
of the triangles converge about 50m
above grade along the 600m height.
The lengthto widthratio is about 9:1.
In order to ensure that the structure
could withstand the severest of
earthquakes, it was essential to study
thewindconditions at 600meters above
ground. Aradiosondeballoonwasflown
Unveiled just a few days ago, the
Tokyo Sky Tower which mainly acts as a
television transmitter was conceived
when the city's old Sky Tower transmitter
built in 1958 at just over 333 meters ,
had trouble broadcasting over the city's
growing skyline, causing problems for
digital television signals. The planning
of the structure began in February 2005
when Tobu Railway Corporation
expressed its desire to build a tower to
both broadcasting services and
administrative authorities of Sumida-
Ward. The construction of the tower
started in 2008 and was scheduled to
be completed inDec 2011. There was a
two month delay due to the tsunami
that struck Japan's coast last March.
The construction site is at the center of
a triangular plane surrounded by the
threeaxes, theSumidaRiver andArakawa
River, and, to the south, railway lines
running in an east-west direction and
trunk roads. Perpendicular to each axis,
various streets converge toward the
focal point at which the tower stands.
So, the tower has been designed to have
three gates, each inviting people coming
down through these streets. About 100
architects, planners and engineers
were involved in the Tokyo Sky Tree
design.
Designer firm, Nikken Seikkei, has
usedconcepts fromtraditional Japanese
architecture principles - convex (Mukuri)
andconcave(Sori) curves for thedesign
158 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
to gather data related to the distribution
of wind velocity levels and disturbance
conditions at such altitude. Apart from
the conventional subsoil investigation,
in order to simulate soil behavior and
determine the swaying of the tower
during an earthquake, a micro-motion
array observation was conducted to
understand the soil formation at a
depth of 3 kilometers from the ground
surface.
Since foundations of soaring towers
like the Sky Tree are subject to large
pulling-out force and push-down force,
the Sky Tree foundation piles were built
in the shape of nodular walls with the
aim to resemble the function of pins of
spiked shoes increase the friction
resistance. The radial interconnection
is expected to make the piles, the
monolithically integrated into the
ground. The steel tubes used at the
base of tower are 10 centimeters thick
witha diameter of 2.3 meters
The Sky Tree tower uses high-
strength steel tubes that are two times
stronger than a standard steel channel.
The entire tower structure is made upof
truss elements:
- Tripod truss - A built up column
Tokyo Sky Tree Under Construction
Quake Resistant Infrastructure
Indigo Multitrade Pvt.Ltd
composed of four steel columns,
lateral steel members and braces. It
is positioned at the top of a
triangular plane and is one of the
major frames to resist lateral force
- Lateral joint truss - Column section
joining the mid-tower framing and
ring trusses at every two courses
equipment for building service systems,
or a heat accumulator, are used for the
same purpose. The present case of the
core column (the staircase) used as the
addedmassisaworld'sfirst attempt.
PictureSource
www.nikken.jp, www.en.wikipedia.org
www.savingjapan.net
160 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
(25m high). These act as load-
carrying members of lateral force
(in-plane) and as stiffeners to resist
buckling of tripod trusses and
peripheral columns.
- Ring truss - Lateral members
positioned at every course (12.5m).
This truss acts as a stiffener to resist
buckling of peripheral columns
To control vibrations, the designers
have drawn inspiration from the
traditional five-story pagoda temples in
Japan that have never succumbed to
earthquakes due to the temple's
"Shimbashira (Center Column) built at
the center of the temple. In the case of
the Sky Tree tower, it refers to the
cylindrical shell built at its center (made
of reinforced concrete and used as a
staircase). The designers have named
the present vibration-controlling system
as "Shimbashira-Seishin (Center Column
VibrationControl).
The designers have also applied
the concept of Added Mass Control
Mechanism to ensure safety from
swaying of the tower during an
earthquake or string winds. The Added
Mass Control Mechanism is supposed
to reduce the response shear force by
40% during an earthquake. This
mechanism involves controlling the
swaying motions of a structure as a
whole during an earthquake by
providing added mass (balancing
weight) so as to move in slightly
delayed timing from the swaying
motion in a counterbalancing way to
set off the movement of the structure by
the movement of the weight. Usually,
steel ingots or concrete mass is used
as the added mass, and sometimes
Concept of Added Mass Mechanism
Quake Resistant Infrastructure
At a height
of 375m
Core
column
Flexible region:
the core column
and steel tower
framing are connected
with an oil damper.
At a height
of 125 m
Rigid region:
the core column
and tower framing are
fixed with steel members.
Oil damper
Core column:
reinforced concrete shell
Sectional plan of the core column
arrangement in the flexible region
Added mass (balancing weight) swaying to the right Added mass (balancing weight) swaying to the left
The swaying
motions are
counterbalanced
throughout the
entire structure
The structural frames
swaying to the left
The structural frames
swaying to the right
The swaying
motions are
counterbalanced
throughout the entire
structure
Maini Construction
Equipment Pvt.Ltd
162 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Formwork Industry Analysis
and steel based formwork and
scaffolding systems began making an
increasing appearance on the horizon.
While there was growth, it was
dominated by the unorganized sector.
However, the last decade has seen,
aided by the entry of several leading
global players, the organized sector,
which still only constitutes about 10
percent of the industry, gradually leading
toimprovement inquality standards and
enabling customers a wider choice of
formwork and scaffolding equipment.
The Indian formwork industry is
entering perhaps its most crucial phase
this year. The government's policy
f thereis onesegment amongvarious
types of construction equipment,
Iwhich has been maintaining a steady
pace of growth, without hitting frequent
crests and troughs, it has to be that of
formwork and scaffolding equipment.
Steady, rather than spectacular growth
has been the story of the formwork
industry in India so far. With the
construction industry growing at a
CAGRof about 14 percent in the recent
past, before the economic slowdown
impacted it, the growth story of the
formwork industry in the country makes
for fascinating reading. It is a story that
began in the 1990s when aluminum
initiatives, vis--vis the envisaged US$
1 trillion investment in infrastructure
development during the 12th Five Year
Plan period (2012-17), holds the key to
the growth of the formwork industry.
The Union Finance Minister is also
expected to push for further reforms in
the realty sector during the Union
Budget 2012-13, which again holds the
key to how fast the formwork industry
grows. The industry though, is currently
estimated to be growing at a rate of 10-
15 percent. While the growth may have
been steady rather than spectacular,
experts however agree that it is
nevertheless evolving all the time. Today
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor
Formwork Equipment:
Policy Initiatives Hold the Key for
Continued Growth of Formwork Industry
Formwork Equipment:
Policy Initiatives Hold the Key for
Continued Growth of Formwork Industry
163 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Formwork Industry Analysis
Interestingly, somehow this
slowdown has increased the
proportion of the usage of
system formwork compared
to traditional formwork in
order to reduce the interest
during construction time and
several other factors
Anupam Sharma
CEO, Doka India Pvt. Ltd.
a typical customer in India, apart from
looking at the technical attributes of
products, also expects value added
services, something that global players
inthe fray have realized.
Two key factors have been driving
forward the growth momentum of the
formworkandscaffoldingmarket. These
include acute shortage of labour and
rising construction costs, quite often
due to project delays. Contractors are
now looking towards automated
formwork systems to address these
two issues. The increase in the size of
the projects, especially with respect to
infrastructure and high-rise projects
formwork system, easy to handle and
with a higher number of repetitions, to
which the company has received
tremendous response due to a variety
of factors, including, scarcity of skilled
manpower, reduced cycle time, safety
and also because it is an economic
option.
Giving his take on the slowdown,
Mr.Bharat Patel , Head-Sal es &
Marketing, Nav Nirman Beam Technics,
remarked, Forecasting of demand
has now become difficult. Generally
speaking, formworksuppliersarecoming
out with different product solutions to
beat the slowdown. Some in the
has also been instrumental in pushing
the demand for formwork. With a
majority of infrastructure projects being
implemented on a PPP mode, it has
become imperative for project owners
and investors to complete projects on
time in order to generate revenues. By
opting for system/engineered formwork
contractors have realized that sub-
stantial savings are ensured, resulting
inturninfaster returnoninvestments.
Impact of Slowdown
The country's economy grew last
quarter at its slowest pace in more
than two years, after maintaining an
aggressive growth trajectory. Factors
such as increased lending rates by the
Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the
Euro Zone crisis have contributed to the
economic slowdown. According to
Mr.Anupam Sharma, CEO, Doka India,
consequently the construction industry
faced a slump and many sectors such
as housing, power, high-rise, and
infrastructure are witnessing a sluggish
growth rate. However, Mr. Sharma
observes that, Interestingly, somehow
this slowdown has increased the
proportion of the usage of system
formwork compared to traditional
formwork in order to reduce the interest
during construction time and several
other factors. Continuing further he
said that Doka India had last year
launched FramiXlife, which is a panel
Picture Courtesy: www.doca.com
Infrastructure development push holds key to formwork industry's growth
Forecasting of demand has
now become difficult.
Generally speaking, formwork
suppliers are coming out with
different product solutions to
beat the slowdown
Bharat Patel
Head- Sales & Marketing,
Nav Nirman Beam Technics
164 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
industry however feel that the economic
slowdown has had negligible impact.
Giving his views on the subject, Mr.Ajay
Maini, Director, Maini Construction
Equipments (P) Ltd, another leading
name in the field, when quizzed about
the impact of the slowdown said, Not
really, because of our versatile range of
products in steel as well as aluminum
formwork. MCE's aluminum formwork
was launched when the entire industry
was going through a rough phase,
however, we were able to sustain and
managed a steady growth.
Sharing similar views, Mr.Eldo
Varghese, General Manager, Paschal
Formwork (India) Pvt Ltd, when asked
about the impact of the slowdown on
the company's order book, said, While
the economic slowdown has slightly
effected growth, but not to an extent
that it could hit our order book. We
could grow forward in the construction
industry by rapid technological
advancements and we are expecting
good progress, year on year. Industry
experts however believe that in order to
fully achieve the potential of system
formwork, India needs to provide a
boost to the infrastructure sector. There
is unanimous opinion that a positive
environment needs to be created for
theconstructionindustry andimmediate
steps such as curbing lending rates,
which would in turn lead to a boost to
power projects and the realty sector
should be taken.
UniqueParadox
The story of the formwork and
scaffolding industry in India is also
interesting because of another reason.
While the construction industry has
been maintaining a robust pace of
growth fromthe turn of 2000, the growth
rate of the formwork industry has not
kept pace. According to Mr.Anupam
Sharma, due to lack of government
regulations , most developers are not
pressurized for safety, quality and time
bound construction, which in turn
allows them to use cheaper solutions.
Adds Mr. Sharma, Moreover, the
knowledge of system formwork is not
widespread, and hence clients are not
aware of the advantages. While the
initial investment in these systems may
be higher, but if you consider the
number of reuses, it actually works out
to be a cost effective blend with the
advantages of being, safer, efficient
and quality system. These views are
seconded by most of the industry
analysts who feel that factors such as
fast and timely constructionof projects,
lesser dependency on manpower, and
the concern for increased quality and
safety have driven all construction
agencies to use modern System
Formwork for critical projects.
According to Mr.Eldo Varghese the
government is making several efforts
such as bring down the lending rates
and giving boost to power projects in
order to give fillip to growth of
infrastructure projects. Some of the
factors pointed by Mr.Varghese which
would be driving forward the market in
the near future include, need for speedy
and quality construction, labour scarcity
and safety requirement at sites. One
key sector which could give further
boost to the formwork market is power.
With the situation on coal linkages and
funding expected to improve in the
second and third quarters of this fiscal,
this sector could be just the trigger that
the formwork industry has been waiting
for in recent times. Thermal, hydro and
nuclear power projects constitute more
than 85 percent of the power sector.
These apart there are other structure
that the sector needs such as dams,
power houses, water carrying tunnels ,
channels, containment tanks, TG deck,
and cooling towers, etc, all of which
need the use of system formwork for
faster and safer construction.
Continued spurt in high-rise projects bodes well for the formwork industry The rapidly evolving Indian customer has realized that formwork systems are
important for safer, faster and sustainable construction
Formwork Industry Analysis
Technocraft Group
Not really (impacted sales),
because of our versatile range
of products in steel as well as
aluminum formwork. MCE's
aluminum formwork was
launched when the entire
industry was going through a
rough phase, however, we
were able to sustain and
managed a steady growth
Ajay Maini
Director, Maini Construction Equipments (P) Ltd
In terms of market value,
formwork market in India is
approximately ` 14 billion, out
of which modern formwork
has a 15 percent share
Surajit Ray
Managing Director & Country Head,
ULMA Formwork Systems India Pvt. Ltd.
Vertical Growth
Another key area which has been
instrumental in aiding the growth of the
formwork industry has that been of
high-rise projects. While getting
clearance for such projects remains an
area of concern, there is no doubting
the fact that vertical growth is here to
stay in India and therefore makes for
good news for the formwork industry.
Automated self-climbing formwork
systems that can be lifted up and
comingwitha host of features including,
wide and protective platforms, apart
industry though. As rightly pointed out
by Mr.Surajit Ray ,Managing Director &
Country Head, Ulma India, who in an
interaction with The Masterbuilder stated
that, Interms of market value, formwork
market in India is approximately ` 14
billion, out of which modern formwork
has a 15 percent share, figures which
show the sheer magnitude of the
untapped market.
The predominantly unorganized
nature of the market is another challenge
that needs mention here. There have
been calls from industry experts for
settingupof specific certification bodies
for construction industry product
segments such as formwork systems,
since otherwise quality could take a
severe beating. A rapidly evolving
customer is perhaps the most important
challenge that suppliers are facing
today. Customers are demanding
equipment that is easier to handle,
reusable, helps them in adding to the
efficiency and sustainability of the
construction process and all this at a
fair price. With market conditions
expected to show signs of recovery as
the economy enters a crucial phase as
part of the 12th Five Year Plan period, it
remains to be seen as to what direction
the formwork industry takes in the next
five years.
Picture Source
http://www.beton.org
http://www.rmdkwikformnews.co.uk
166 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
from provisions for auxiliary systems
like placing booms, while also offering
adaptability to complex wall geometries
are one of the reasons behind the spurt
in high-rise projects throughout the
country, a trend that is expected to
continue in the near future. It is not
surprising that every major player in the
field such as Peri, Doka, Meva, Ulma,
Pascahal, Navnirman, Technocraft,
Maini, EPIC Indigo, to mention only
some, offer specific products aimed at
this fast growing market segment.
Onus onGovernment
While certain factors are not within
the control of those in the formwork
industry, such as investment in
infrastructure or realty projects, there
are certain aspects that suppliers feel
need to be done in order to give fillip to
the industry. Increasing cost of steel,
sales tax and excise duty are for
instance, key factors that are inhibiting
the growthof the industry.
With formwork systems being
today made mostly out of light weight
and strong materials such as aluminium,
higher levies have become a stumbling
block, since they add to the end cost of
the product. According to industry
analysts the least that the government
can do is to help suppliers procure raw
materials at reasonable rates that
would go a long way in helping
suppliers keeptheir prices competitive.
There is no doubting the potential of the
Rising cost of raw materials is an an area of concern for formwork suppliers
Formwork Industry Analysis
Maruti Steel Fab
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 168
Formwork Failure: Cases & causes
Special Correspondent
C
ollapse of concrete structures during construction
has been happening since concrete has been
placed in formwork. Cases and causes of these
type of failures have been documented and recorded in
many texts, articles and journals. This article will try and
focus on a few of them from the available reports, starting
with The New York Coliseum on May 9, 1955, 2000
Commonwealth Ave. on January 5,1971, Skyline Plaza in
Bailey's Crossroads on March 2, 1973, The Harbour Cay
Condominium in Cocoa Beach, Florida in March 1981 and
ending with The Tropicana in Atlantic City on October 30,
2003.The focus will be on what has been learned over time
from these failures and what has been done to keep these
type of tradgedies from occurring in the future.
Although there were many cases of concrete failures during
construction prior to the New York Coliseum collapse as
illustrated in (McKaig 13-27, 1962), only a few will be
looked at after this point because of the changes and
progressions being made in the construction industry at
this time in history.
(A) New York Coliseum on May 9, 1955
Pic source: http://www.ppconstructionsafety.com
Formwork Failure
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 169
The construction method was a flat plate waffle slab with
solid slabs at the column caps. It was one of the first times
the use of motorized buggies had been used in the pouring
of this type of structure. The floor that collapsed was the
first floor above grade supported on two tiers of shores at
a total of 22' high. It can be seen from Figure 1 how collapse
happened. The buggies weighed about 3000 lb loaded,
ran at about 12 mph, and there were eight of them at the
time of the failure with about 500 cubic yards of concrete
already placed. The investigation that followed put the
blame solely on inadequate provisions in the formwork to
resist lateral forces, it even went on to say that "if there had
been sufficient diagonal, horizontal, and end bacing of
the temporary supporting structure, the collapse could
have been prevented entirely,...", (McKaig 15-16, 1962).
After the collapse the district attorney called attention to
the lack of inspections and made recommendations to
revising the building code with respect to formwork
because of the new advances.
(B) 2000 Commonwealth Avenue: January 5, 1971
This was a progressive collapse of a cast-in-place
reinforced concrete flat-slab structure. Punching shear was
determined to have been the triggering mechanism but
the real problem was in the numerous errors and omissions
by every party involved in the project (Delatte 133-143).
The investigating committee determined that if the
construction had had a proper building permit and had
followed codes, then the failure could have been avoided
(Delatte 142) (See Figure 2 and 3 how failure occurred).
Some of the problems leading to the collapse are
- Not following the structural engineers specifications
for shoring and formwork
- Lack of concrete design strength
- Lack of shoring or removed too soon
- Improper placement of reinforcement
- Little construction control on site
- Owner changed hands many times
- Almost all jobs were sub contracted
- No architectural opr engineering inspection done
- Inadequate inspection by the city of Boston
- The general contractors representative was not a
licensed builder
- Construction was based on arrangements done by the
subcontractors
- No direct supervision of subcontractors
Figure 2: Typical flatplate with uniform distributed loading
Figure 3: Punching shear failure diagram
Figure 4: Skyline Plaza at Bailey's Crossroads, National Archives
Figure 1: N.Y. Coliseum Collapse, National Archives
Formwork Failure
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 170
(C) Skyline Plaza: March 2,1973
Skyline Plaza (See Figure 4) in Bailey's Crossroads is an
example of a catastrophic collapse of a 30 story cast-in-
place reinforced concrete structure. This was also a flat-
plate design structure that failed due to punching shear
on the 23rd floor and resulted in a progressive collapse.
Some of the reasons for this failure again were 1) premature
removal of shores and reshores, 2) insufficient concrete
stength, 3) no preconstruction plans of concrete casting,
formwork plans, removal of formwork schedules, or
reshoring program (Kaminetzky 66-67).
(D) Harbour Cay Condominium: March 1981
Built just 10 years after 2000 Commonwealth Ave. and 8
years after Skyline Plaza, was another cast-in-place
reinforced concrete structure that collapsed during
construction. It was determined that the most important
factor towards its failure was a design error coupled with a
construction error of the wrong size rebar and chair height.
The designer never performed any calculations to check
for punching shear, the most common form of failure in
these type of structures (Feld & Carper 18).
Figure 5: Tropicana Casino; Parking Garage Picture taken from
www.CTLGroup.com
(E) The Tropicana Casino parking garage in Atlantic
City, N.J.: October 30,2003
The structure collapsed during construction killing another
four construction workers and and leaving more than 30
others injured. Larry Bendesky, Mongeluzzi's partner of the
Philadelphia law firm Saltz, Moongeluzzi, Barrett &
Bendesky, P.C, the lead counsel for the litigation with Paul
D'Amato of the D'Amato Law Office and a member of the
trial team, said that "the simple explanation of the cause of
the collapse is that the floors were not connected to the
walls with the required reinforcing steel. Built without the
necessary steel, it is no wonder it collapsed like a house of
cards." (pr newswire) The vertical columns left standing
and the fact that the floors were not connected implies
that this was another punching. Refer Figure 5 for the
collapse picture.
Codes & Regulations
Codes in Place
ACI, The American Concrete Institute's origins started in
1905 with its first building code published in 1910 and
changing its name to the current designation in 1913. ACI's
first design handbook came out in1939 and the first
building code titled ACI 318 came out in 1941. The
beginning volumes of ACI were less tha fifty pages with
the current code specification being nearly 470 pages of
design specifications and commentaries (ACI 318). This
clearly shows the history of ACI is closely tied to the ever
changi ng demands of concrete constructi on and
technology. The ACI sees itelf as an expanding, alert,and
informed organization prepared to stimulate imaginative
applications of concrete and better knowledge of its
properties and uses, and will take an increasingly active
part in solving problems affecting the public welfare
(History of ACI).
Lessons Learned
(A) New York Coliseum on May 9, 1955
From this failure the construction industry learned that
shoring systems should be well braced to resist lateral
loads and to consider the effect of power or motorized
buggies/carts on the formwork (Auburn University).
(B) 2000 Commonwealth Avenue: January 5, 1971
From 2000 Commonwealth Ave. the industry learned that
this type of failure is a critical failure mechanism for flat-
pl ate-sl ab concrete constructi on. Structural safety
depends on adequate slab thickness, proper placement
of reinforcement, and adequate concrete strength (Delatte
144).
(C) Skyline Plaza: March 2,1973
Six lessons learned from the colloapse of Skyline Plaza at
Bailey's Crossroads are listed in (Kaminetzky 67)
- the contractor should prepare formwork drawings
showing details of the formwork, shores, and reshores.
- The contractor should prepare a detailed concrete
testing program, to include cylinder testing, before
stripping forms.
Formwork Failure
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 171
- The engineer of record should ascertain that the
contractor has all the pertinent design data (such as
live loads, superimposed dead loads, and any other
information which is unique to the project).
- Inspectors and other quality control agencies should
verify that items 1 and 2 above are being adhered to.
- Uncontrolled acceleration of formwork removal may
lead to serious consquences. 6) Top and bottom rebars
running continuously within the column periphery must
be incorporated in the design.
(D) Harbour Cay Condominium: March 1981
The Harbour Cay Condominiums presented the industry
with six more lessons learned in this type of construction
also listed in (Kaminetzky 77-78). This tradgedy happened
only eight years after the Skyline Plaza tradgedy and yet
some of the same lessons are listed again, they are
- A punching shear strength check s critical to the
success of a flat-slab, since punching shear is the most
common failure mode of concrete slabs.
- Minimum depth of a flat-slab must be checked to
assure proper strength and acceptable deflections.
- Reinforcing bars, both at the top and at the bottom of
the slab, should be placed directly within the column
periphery to avoid progressive collapse. This can easily
be accomplished routinely in all flat-slab jobs at no
additional cost at all.
- Proper construction control must be provided in the
field, including design of formwork by professionals.
This must include shoring and reshoring plans,
procedures, and schedules, with data on minimum
allowable stripping strength of the concrete.
- When there are failure warning signs of any type on a
construction site, work must stop. All aspects of the
project must be carefully evaluated by experienced
professi onal hel p. Immedi ate evacuati on of the
structure must be considered.
- Special care must be taken during cold weather to
evaluate the actual in place strength of the concrete. It
is also a fact that the level of construction carelessness
increases in the winter months.
(E) The Tropicana Casino parking garage in Atlantic City,
N.J.: October 30,2003
The Tropi cana l essons l earned have not yet been
published in any documented form, but from articles such
as the one from ASQ Newsletter published in the summer
of 2004, one can reasonably determine that all of the above
lessons learned will be revisited. The article states that all
of the errors were remarkably simple engineering error.
Contractor failed to tie rebar in the frames floor beams to
the columns and shear walls in several places was only
one reason as listed in (ASQ Newswire 11-12).
Statistics
Statistics released in 1984 by the National Safety council
reported over 2200 deaths were reported for the
construction industry for that year, and 220,000 disabling
injuries, the largest total for the eight major industries
surveyed (Carper 312).
Over $1.6 billion is lost annually in the U.S. due to
construction accidents (Carper 312). Forty-nine percent
of falsework collapse happens during concrete placing
(Hadipriono & Wang 115).Untimely removal of falsework is
the second most significant event related toconcrete failure
(Hadipriono & Wang 116). Investigations prove that many
accidents causing thousands of dollars worth of damage
could have been prevented if only a few hundred dollars
had been spent on diagonal bracing for the formwork
structure (University of Washington).
Conclusions
OSHA, ASCE, and ACI have all responded to these as well
as many other accidents and issues with activities,
publications and codes aimed at improving construction
safety and the welfare of our construction workforce;
however, these organizations alone cannot be responsible
for all construction related activities and failures.
The safety record in the construction industry can be and
must be improved in all phases. As C. Roy Vince has stated,
many construction accidents are the result of ignorance,
carelessness, and greed (Carper 133). The lessons learned
from above being repeated over and over again can only
point to the fact that this statement is precisely true. "As
long as structures are constructed by humans, using
imperfect materials and procedures, failures are likely to
continue. Many of these failures will occur during the
process of constructi on, endangeri ng the l i ves of
construction workers." (Carper 143) There is no way to break
everyone of their bad habits but awareness has to be raised
and the consequences have to be sharply increased.
More focus has to be placed on required education of all
constructi on personel beyond certai n l evel s of
responsibility, this is to include the workers themselves
who are actually assembling these structures. Better
licensure requirements, more stringent inspections, and
increased factors of safety during construction (because
it is at this time when the structure will be likely to see its
most significant loading), should also be considered to
help prevent these tragedies from reoccurring. From the
initial design phase to maintenance of the structure after
Formwork Failure
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 172
completion everyone involved needs to pay strict attention
to all details and warning signs of impending failures. There
can be NO SHORTCUTS if we are to protect the safety and
lives of the individuals who provide us with all of the
essential structures in our lives.
Most often it is not their mistake that cost them their life
and the misery of the families who lost them too soon.
References
- American Concrete Institute. "History of ACI" <http://
www.concrete.org/members/mem_info_history.htm> (October
10, 2009)
- ACI Committee 318, (2008). ACI 318-08 "Building Code
Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary"
pp. 81-82
- ACI Committee 318, (1963). ACI 318-63 "Building Code
Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary" pp. .
- Arthur H. Nilson, David Darwin and Charles W. Dolan, (2004).
"Design of Concrete Structures" pp. 12-17
- The ASQ Newsletter. "Extracts from Engineering News Record"
OSHA Report Claims that Atlantic City Garage Contractors Failed
to Tie Rebar and Properly Shore <http://www.library.illinois.edu/
archives/e-records/ASQ%20Archives/1182001_Division_General/
DesignDiv/Design-News-Summer2004.pdf> (summer 2004),
(October 10, 2009)
- Auburn University. "Lateral Stability of Structures" New York
Coliseum <https://fp.auburn.edu/heinmic/StructuralStability/
newyork%20coliseum.htm> (2009), (Sept. 18, 2009)
- Charles D. Reese and James Vernon Eidson, (2006). "Handbook
of OSHA Construction Safety and Health" pp. 181-183
- Fabian C. Hadipriono,1 M. ASCE and Hana-Kwang Wang2,
(March/April 1986). "Analysis of Falsework Failures in Concrete
Structures" J. Constr. Engrg. Mgmt. 112(1), pp. 112-121.
- Jacob Feld and Kenneth L. Carper, ((1997) "Construction Failure"
pp. 242-274 Kaminetzky D. (1991). "Design and Construction
Failures" Lessons In Forensic Investigations pp. 67-78
- M. ASCE, (August 1987). "Structural Failures During Construction"
J. Perf. Constr. Fac., ASCE, 1(3), pp. 132-144.
- McKaig T. (1962). "Building Failures" Case Studies in Construction
and Design Norbert J. Delatte Jr., Ph.D., P.E. (2009). "Beyond
Failure" Forensic Case Studies For Civil Engineers pp. 129-155
- PR Newswire. "$101 Million Settlement in Deadly 2003 Tropicana
Parking Garage Collapse That Killed Five Workers" < http://
www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/101-million-settlement -in-
deadly-2003-tropicana-parking-garage-collapse-that-killed-five-
workers-58264282.html> (October 10, 2009)
- University of Washington. "CM 420 Course Lecture 1" Temporary
Structures <http://www.courses.washington.edu/cm420/lec1/
lec1.ppt> (Spring Quarter 2002), (Sept. 18, 2009)
- Zallen Engineering. "Collapse of Flying Formwork During Concrete
Placement" <http://www.zallenengineering.com/On-Line_Issues/
OL-8.pdf> (July 2002), (Sept. 18, 2009)
- http://failures.wikispaces.com/2000+Commonwealth+Avenue+-
+Boston
Formwork Failure
Cosmos Construction
Machineries & Equipments
Pvt.Ltd
174 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Focus Formwork
and South America, it could be stated
that the 1990s and the following 2000s
have been decades of construction.
Several countries were and are even
now vying for the title of 'construction
site 'of the world. Gone are the days
when mega projects were the domain
of only the superpowers. Today, even
small countries have given vent to their
t won't be a misnomer to say that
perhaps no other industry has been
Iimpacted by advancements in
technology as the construction
industry in the last three decades or so.
In fact, with the economic boom that
was witnessed in several parts of Asia
(still continuing in many, despite
economic slowdown) during the 1990s
ambitions and coming out with out-
standing civil engineering achieve-
ments. No longer are skyscrapers the
fiefdom of US. Even a tiny country
like Taiwan or South Korea boasts of
gleaming towers. Better quality
buildings are being at a faster speed
and importantly in a cost effective and
environment friendly manner, all
M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor M.K. Prabhakar, Associate Editor
Modern Formwork Systems:
A Ringside view of the Variety of
Formwork Systems Available Today
Modern Formwork Systems:
A Ringside view of the Variety of
Formwork Systems Available Today
175 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Focus Formwork
thanks to advancements in one area -
Formwork systems.
The rapid advancements in the field
of formwork, along with the innovations
in concrete as a material has led to a
revolutionary change where safer,
quicker , sustainable and more efficient
construction is possible these days.
While during the early 1990s factors
The mobility factor, along with the
relatively easy installation means that
these system are widely used in
construction projects where repetitive
structures, where flat slab and slab
layouts are involved. Some of the
application areas include residential
apartment units and commercial
buildings.
Typically in cases where large floor
layouts are the need, then this type of
formwork system holds the best bet.
Since the assembled units can be
moved easily, it ensures speedy
construction, apart from the high
such as cost, speed and efficiency
were the driving force behind the
growth of the global formwork industry,
the last decade has seen increasing
emphasis on sustainability add to their
demand.
The modern formwork systems are
a far cry from the bespoke timber
formwork that used to be the staple of
the construction industry earlier. Intense
competition has meant that suppliers
are always on their toes and coming
out with product innovations to garner
their share of the market. Let us take a
look at various types of formwork
systems that are being used, their key
application areas, their advantages
and their sustainability quotient.
Tableor FlyingFormSystems
Let us begin with the 'Table' or
'Flying' form systems. These systems
consist of slab formwork tables that
are reused on multiple stories of a
building without being dismantled. The
assembled sections are either lifted
per elevator or using cranes from one
story to another. 'Fillers' are used to fill
gaps between the tables and walls.
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Table formwork systems are typically used in large
floor layouts
An assembled Table section formwork being lifted by a crane
176 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
quality surface finish. The system also
scores high on the sustainability front
since it can be reused. Moreover, the
wastage generated is negligible as
compared to the traditional formwork
systems that were earlier used.
Another key factor that should be noted
is that with the table formwork system
time is also saved, which in turn leads
to cost savings , particularly in the case
with structures with flat slabs. Moreover,
the engineered nature of the formwork
and the repetitive process ensures that
there is almost negligible wastage,
making it a favorite withcontractors.
SystemColumnFormwork
Systemcolumnformwork has gained
in popularity due to the acute shortage
of labour in recent times. Modular in
nature and allowing for quick installation
on site, column formwork systems are
now available in a variety of materials.
Depending on the concrete finish that
is required, contractors cannowchoose
fromaluminumor steel column formwork
systems these days. R & D has led to
several product innovations. Today
different formwork systems for different
column sizes can be easily assembled
on site. Their entire working process is
also simple. Once the concrete is
poured and hardened, the formwork is
then stripped and moved to the next
position. In certain cases the formwork
systems may be left for a longer period
of time for added curing.
One of the major advantages with
column formwork systems is the highly
engineered nature of the formwork.
What this in turn means is that they
ensure greater control over the
construction operations. This automa-
tically means reduction in wastage,
time and labour costs. Moreover,
adding to their sustainability factor is
the fact that quite often disposable
forms canbe recycled and used again.
Horizontal Panel Systems
Advancements in the field of
formwork have seen several new types
of materials being experimented with
making an entry into the market.
Smaller, lightweight modular systems
have nowadays become the norm.
These systems are being made from a
variety of materials such as fiber glass,
aluminum and steel, apart from other
customized options. These easy-to-
handle systems enable quicker
erection, saving precious time and
money. Suppliers have also been
concentrating on reducing the number
of different components in formwork
systems, which in turn allows for a
quicker installation process. Horizontal
panel systems usually consist of a
series of interconnected falsework
bays and pre-formed decking panels
and are typically used for slab
construction.
The highly engineered nature of a system column formwork ensures greater construction efficiency
Lightweight formwork systems are in demand
Focus Formwork
Cosmos Sales Corporation
The lightweight nature of the
components is perhaps the biggest
advantage with horizontal panel
systems. They can be moved around
the site with relative ease, as compared
to traditional formwork. Adding to it is
the engineered nature of the formwork
which ensures reduced wastage.
Another maj or advantage wi th
lightweight formwork systems is safety,
since working from height is not
necessary, as erection work can be
carried out from below.
Vertical Panel Systems
Vertical panel systems, because of
their flexible nature can either be
smaller modular components or larger
crane-lifted systems that are used in
the construction of standard columns,
concrete walls or perimeter basement
walls. They are used for forming vertical
elements and are usually modular in
nature. Consisting of a steel frame,
they are easier to assemble, in turn
leads to reduced labour costs, making
them a more cost effective option than
traditional formwork systems.
Their adaptability to varying wall
heights and structural geometries,
labour costs, while increasing con-
struction efficiency. The jump form
modules can be joined together to suit
different construction geometries.
Latest advancement in the field has
been the advent of self-climbing
formwork systems, that do not require
the help of a crane to be relocated to
thenext constructionlevel andclimbson
rails bymeansof hydraulicmechanism.
Climbing formwork is usually used
in the construction of buildings over
five storeys. Self-climbing, automated
systems are generally used in the
construction of buildings with more
than 20-25 floors. Based on the site
conditions, there are also instances
when a combination of self-climbing
and crane-handled jump form systems
is used. The engineered nature of the
formwork means that jump form
systems allows for better control of the
construction process. Repetitive use is
possible adding to the cost-effective-
ness of the construction process. Apart
from offering enhanced safety, the use
of jump form systems also ensures
minimal concrete wastage and helps
contractors to stick to tight project
deadlines.
along with the fact that their assembly
is less labour intensive and simple has
been behind the popularity of vertical
panel systems. The easier erection
process aids in expediting the
construction process, apart from the
fact that the engineered nature allows
for precision and superior control of
operations for the on-site team. Adding
to the sustainability factor is the fact
they can be used repeatedly, after an
easy cleaning process.
JumpForm
Jump formsystems are increasingly
becoming popular globally, thanks to
the spurt in high-rise construction.
Jump form, also referred to as climbing
form, comprises of formwork systems
complete with working platforms that
supports itself on the concrete that has
been cast earlier. It therefore does not
rely on support from the building. They
are typically used in construction of
multi-stored vertical concrete elements.
Some of the concrete elements that are
constructed using jump form systems
include, core walls, shear walls, bridge
pylons and lift shafts. The use of jump
form systems helps in cutting down on
Vertical panel systems are adaptable to various structural geometries
lb
Spurt in high-rise construction has driven demand
for climbing formwork systems
Focus Formwork
178 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
SlipForm
Similar to jump form systems, this
type of formwork rises continuously,
supporting itself on the core. Slip form
systems are typically used for the
construction of core walls in skyscraper
projects. Since very little crane time is
required, they are used for the con-
struction of stair shafts and lift shafts in
high-rise structures. Slip form systems
rely on the quick setting properties of
concrete and require balance between
quick setting capacity and workability
of the concrete. While the concrete
needs to be workable enough to be
placed into the form and packed, it
should also be quick setting so that it
emerges from the form with strength.
Moreover, the freshly set concrete
should, apart from its strength, also
allow the form to 'slip' to the next level
above, apart from supporting the
freshly poured concrete above it.
Typically slipform systems rise at a rate
of about 300 mm per hour and with
prudent planning, high rates of
productionare possible.
Fine tuning of operations in the site
is facilitated by the repetitive and
continuous nature of work. This also
leads to reduced concrete wastage.
The integration of work platforms in the
formwork systems is another advantage
that apart from ensuring safety also
makes optimumutilization of work space
available in a construction site. Given
the slewof advantages it is not surprising
that slip form systems are a preferred
choice of contractors nowadays.
Tunnel Form
Tunnel form systems are among the
latest innovations to have hit the
formwork industry. The use of repetitive
cellular structures to construct both
horizontal and vertical elements
together is something that has got the
potential to revolutionize the construction
industry in countries like India. The fact
that they enable construction of walls
and floors together make the process
ideally suited for both high and low
raise housing. In fact, the technology
can play a key role in the promotion of
affordable housing projects in a
country like India. Longer tunnel lengths
can be achieved joining individual
tunnel units together.
Easy to clean and reuse, the use of
tunnel form systems also enables high
quality surface finishes. Engineers are
also assured of high dimensional
accuracy of structures. The repetitive
nature of the construction work is
another plus point with this type of
formwork system, adding to its other
advantage of requirement of a very
small team onsite.
PictureSource
www.kildownet.co.uk, www.alibaba.com
www.uni-span.com.au, www.doka.com
www.tfl-gr.com, www.nb-luowen.com
www.water-technology.net
www.made-in-china.com
Slip form systems enable high production rates
Construction cycles can be as low as 24 hours with tunnel form systems
Focus Formwork
179 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 180
Fabric Formwork: Skys the Limit
Special Correspondent
Picture Source: www.matsysdesign.com
F
abric formworks for reinforced concrete construction
and architecture is an emerging technology with
the capacity to transform concrete architecture and
reinforced concrete structures. The natural tension
geometries given by flexible fabric membranes provide
extraordinarily light and inexpensive formworks, some
using hundreds of times less material than conventional
formworks, and some providing zero-waste formwork
systems. The flexibility of a fabric formwork makes it
possible to produce a multitude of architectural and
structural designs from a single, reusable mold. The use of
a permeable formwork fabric produces improved surface
finishes and higher strength concrete as a result of a filtering
action that allows air bubbles and excess mix water to
bleed through the formwork membrane.
A brief history
According to the International Society of Fabric Forming,
the first practical applications for fabric formwork were
introduced in the mid-1960s for erosion control and to line
ponds, although there are several patents for 19th- and
early 20th-century fabric forms. In the 1970s, the Spanish
architect Miguel Fisac used thin plastic sheets as formwork
for textured wall panels. In the late 1980s and early 1990s,
three men, each on his own, invented a variety of
techniques for fabric-forming aboveground structures.
Kenzo Unno, a Japanese architect in Tokyo, invented a
fabric formwork system for in situ cast concrete walls. Rick
Fearn, a builder and businessman in Canada, invented a
number of fabric formwork techniques. This led him to
develop a series of foundation footing and column
products now manufactured and sold by Fab-Form
Industries in Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. He is
presi dent of the company. Mark West - an arti st,
architectural educator and builder who is now the director
of the Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology
Focus Fabric Formwork
Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 184
(CAST) at the University of anitoba's Faculty of Architecture
i n Wi nni peg - i nvented a seri es of techni ques for
constructing fabric-formed walls, beams, columns, slabs
and panels. CAST is the first research center dedicated to
fabric formwork technology and education.
Visualizing the end result
"Fabric is so much more efficient than plywood (for forms),
but the industry is slow to change," says Rick Fearn. "It's
staggering how long it takes to get new ideas into the
marketplace." He thinks the biggest stumbling block to
fabric formwork's acceptance is that many contractors
cannot picture the end result before they start. "(Unlike
rigid formwork), it's just a loose piece of fabric. What you
get is not what you see." To help contractors visualize an
end product, Fearn has a computer program that predicts
the shapes fabric forms will produce. He's hoping that as
more contractors accept computer-generated virtual-
reality scenarios, fabric formwork will grow in use. "Fabric
is a tension membrane," Fearn says. "If you use a different
fabric, it will give you a different texture, but the shape will
be the same." Also, some fabrics aren't coated, so they let
excess water bleed out, he notes. This can make fabric-
formed concrete products stronger than those made with
traditional lumber forms. In a world where resources are
dwindling, he notes, fabric forms, like the ones he sells for
columns, just make good sense. Fast-Tubes, made from
high-strength polyethylene, come in 120-foot rolls that
easily fit behind the seat of a truck and can be cut to any
length with minimal waste. Fabric formworks are such a
green product and so efficient. They take up 1% of the
space cardboard does and they are 1/10 the weight. Also
unlike cardboard, there is no waste to be hauled to the
landfill after the column forms are trimmed to size or when
the forms are stripped. "Fast-Tubes can be put under a
slab after they are stripped. They act as a moisture
protector." Besides allowing contractors to form sturdy
columns of varying lengths - Lawton used Fast-Tubes to
make 29-foot columns for a treehouse he built in Vermont
- Fearn's fabric-formed columns can be easily decorated
by simply tying ropes or putting bands around the forms
while the concrete is still wet.
Flexible fabric vs. hardened forms
The primary differences between both the formwork is ease
of errection.While rigid formwork needs more time to errect.
Also lot of staging and design work is needed for rigid
formwork which Is not required for flexible formwork. One
more striking advantage with flexible formwork is that any
shape can be designed and made using fabric formwork.
The same fact is supported by the all the Figures in the
entire storey. Use of fabric formwork saves lot of manpower
cost and saves lot of energy for preparation of the rigid
formwork. Morover where space is a concern, stocking and
keeping of rigid formwork will be a major concern. Since
most of the fabric formworks are made for one time use
only, they can be kept after concreting which will facilitate
in curing of the concrete. If any kind of aesthetic treatment
is required to be given in the structure fabric formwork is
the only option as it is very tough with rigid formwok and in
some cases it is impossible also.
End product using fabric formwork
A flexible fabric mold awakens concrete to its original wet,
plastic nature by naturally producing concrete members
with complex sensual curvatures. The sculptural and
archi tectural freedom offered by thi s method of
construction is matched by new possibilities for efficiently
curved structures. Research at CAST has produced simple
methods for forming beautiful and efficient beams, trusses,
panels, vaults, slabs, and columns.
The Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology
(C.A.S.T.) is fundamentally interested in finding simple ways
to reduce the amount of materi al consumed i n
construction, while at the same time, making these
constructions more beautiful. C.A.S.T. is also committed
to making these methods accessible to as many people
as possible.
The end product is divided here into two parts viz. (A)
Architectural application, (B) Strutural Application.
(A)Architectural application
Fabric formwork can be used to give tough architectural
shapes to the structural member very easily. Figure 1 shows
typical surface of a fabric cast panel and Figure 2 shows a
branched column made with fabric formwork.
Fabric forms can be used to produce complex concrete
Figure 1:Surface detail of a fabric-cast
panel
Figure 2:Branching column formed in
a geotextile form-liner
Focus Fabric Formwork
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 185
shapes that would be extremely costly or nearly impossible
to create with traditional rigid formwork. Anne-Mette
Manel i us, an archi tect and doctoral student i n
Copenhagen, Denmark, made this chair as part of her thesis
work on fabric formwork for concrete. She wanted the soft-
looking chair to fool sitters (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Chair produced with fabric formwork
Green, clean, relatively inexpensive and incredibly
practical, fabric formwork can be used with concrete to
produce structural l y effi ci ent and archi tectural l y
compelling components in all shapes and sizes, ranging
from footings, columns and beams to walls, sinks, furniture
and an array of accessories
"It's allowed us to create masonry architecture using very
simple skills," says Sandy Lawton, owner of ArroDesign, a
design/build construction company in Waitsfield. With a
background in carpentry, Lawton says, he found rigid
formwork complicated and labor intensive. "Fabric
formwork has given us the freedom to do complicated
structural work in a very different way that's not complicated
at all. That's the bigger advantage. There's a lot more
flexibility with this system." Fabric formwork also has
benefits from a sustainable viewpoint, Lawton says. "Fabric
formwork basically reduces the amount of everything
required to construct something - placement, storage and
even building the forms. There are huge savings every
step of the way."
Also, he points out, depending on the type of fabric you
use for the formwork, you can get a really nice finish. "You
don't have to go behind and refinish." Instead of using rigid
forms made from lumber, plywood, cardboard, steel or
aluminum, fabric forms use a flexible textile membrane to
form concrete in place. Wet concrete is poured into a
tensile membrane, which produces efficient structural
curves and extraordinary surface finishes. The shape is
determined by how the material is restricted. This can
happen in a number of ways, from creatively using form
ties to make "buttonholes" to placing a brick under a fabric
form to make a relief.
Kenzo Unno, a Japanese architect in Tokyo, devised
methods to cast beautifully shaped walls with thin, flexible
textile sheets. These methods are collectively called "Unno
Reinforced Concrete (Shown in Figure 4)."
Figure 4: Walls casted with Fabric formwork
Figure 5 shows a thin GFRC stingray sink created by
students of Brandon Gore of Gore Design Co.
Figure 5: The 1-inch-thick GFRC Stingray Sink
(B) Strutural Application
Here the use of fabric formworks in various structural
members is shown. Figure 6 and Figure 7 shows casting of
a isolated footing and slab footing using fabric formwork.
The fabric comes in rolls of certain widths and it is simply
cut on site to suit the size needed. Apart from normal tools
for cutting and fixing the braces and perimeter frame, the
only extra items are a Stanley knife and a staple gun. The
fabric is cut neatly with the knife and staple to the timber.
There is a very simple method of cutting the fabric at the
Focus Fabric Formwork
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 186
corners, and when it is simply stapled in position that it, in
effect, holds the corners together just as strongly as normal
methods. Before the pour, a sheet of standard plastic
vapour barrier is laid on top of the fabric to stop the footing
absorbing moisture if it is required.
It can be noticed from Figure 6 and Figure 7, that no
movement at the top and a slight bulging at the bottom is
there in the freshly concreted isolated footing.
Figure 6: Fabric formwork used for casting isolated footing in a construction site
Figure 7: Fabric formwork used for casting isolated slab footing in a construction
site
A system for forming round concrete columns using
fabric formwork
Figure 8 and Figure 9 shows round various stages of casting
of round concrete column. It can be very easily seen the
end product finish in Figure 9 and also the ease of casting
from the other Figures ( from Figure 8 (a) to (c) ).
Figure 8: (a) Column ready to be poured, (b) Column pouring in progess, (c)
column pouring completed
This method of casting column is beneficial because of
following reasons
- The fabric come ready made up in tube sections to
form the desired diameter of the column.
- The fabri c tube i s
simply cut to length
with a Stanley knife.
- In the manufacture,
tabs are made
verti cal l y al ong a
center line.
- The loose sleeve of
fabric is fitted over
the rebar.
- The tabs are then
nailed to a straight
l ength of 4" x 2"
timber.
- The 4" x 2" timber is
then positioned, and
braced to hol d i t
plumb.
- For the first foot or so a guy hold the base of the tube in
the correction position with a boot on either side.
- During the pour, it is possible for a guy to feel and guide
the rebar cage, to make sure that it is in the correct
position.
- Unlike conventional formwork, because this is a throw
away, one off system there is never any reason for undue
haste to strip the formwork.
- Therefore the fabric can be left in position to act as a
perfect curing membrane
However if there is a doubt that whether this system can
work for higher columns, then Figure 10 shows the 20ft tall
column ready to be poured in one hit. The project for a
church in Nicaragua in Central America.
The concrete was mixed by hand on the site and lifted up
by hand. In itself, this was probably a good thing as the
slowness of the pour would mean that the concrete at the
bottom would be stiffening up nicely as the height
increased, reducing the theoretical hydrostatic pressure.
Conclusion
It is very essential to use fabric forms and rebar in an area
where wood is scantily available. Fabric is a very forgiving
material.However one should remember that fabric
formwork is not as uniform as standard formwork. Engineers
had to create some structure to give the appearance of
what they wanted, but in the same breath it gives us a lot
of design freedom. It is really an exciting medium. As for
fabric formwork's limitations, "It's wide open. No one have
tested its limits yet.
Figure 9: Fabric Formwork - Stripped
column
Focus Fabric Formwork
Ambattur Scafolding
Company
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 188
The Influence of Construction
Chemicals on Tunnel Durability
Willie Kay
Managing Director of WAK Consultants Pte Ltd /
WAK Technologies Pte Ltd , MC Bauchemie Muller GmbH & Co
Injection Systems
Inj ecti on systems i n tunnel s and underground
constructions are now often considered in the planning
and design stage. They can be a means to simplify
construction, enhance safety, and control potential leaks
or many other applications.
The reason for this change is due to advances in materials
in terms of set times in resin to particle sizes in cement
suspensi on. Equi pment technol ogy i n mi xi ng has
improved and pumps are now capable of handling just
about any material even at tropical ambient temperatures
around 35oC.
Engineers and clients need documentary proof of materials
consumed and at what pressure to ensure correct grouting
and this equipment is now readily available.
Injection resins based on polyurethane have been around
for more than thirty years. In general these were a single
component with an accelerator and reacted with water.
There were and are many manufacturers with varying
quality and properties. Figure 1 show a high quality water
reactive resin foamed to approximately 35 times its original
volume.
Newer technologies have two part polyurethane bases and
have properties from highly elastic to highly rigid elastic.
New technologies in gels allow swelling of up to 30% with
This paper looks at the role construction chemicals in the Tunnelling Industry. Advances in both Tunnel boring machine technology
(TBM) and ground conditions have accelerated the need and growth of specialised material.
Specialised additive and admixtures have revolutionised the durability and production of precast segments. The advancement of
Alkali free shotcrete accelerators has enabled much safer working conditions. The uses of supplementary cementitious additives
have allowed high build high strength concrete tunnels by robotic spraying. This paper however will look at the role of injection
resins in tunnels with case histories.
Figure 1
negligible pressure on the substrate. Many of these
products have both CE and REAch compliance. Table 1
shows some typical properties of a gel material.
Thixotropic Gels
Swell up to 30%
Excellent adhesion to most substrates
Ductile up to 300% (see figure 2)
High tear resistance
Variable set times from less than 10 second to minutes
Table 1. Typical Properties
Certification
REACh is the uniform chemical legislation with a strong
Tunnelling Construction Chemicals
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 189
focus on the protection of human health. Companies
registered can be checked on the internet by contacting
Hel si nki . Al l the i nj ecti on products we have been
discussing all have REACh certification.
Polyurethane Injection Resins (Elastomer)
Polyurethane and Gel Technology have made major
advances due to understanding the critical nature of mix
ratio, mixing technology and advancement of twin line
pump technology.
The term polyurethane is very generic and does not reflect
the technical changes that have taken place over the last
twenty years. The term elastomer is adopted to describe
the material as it technically describes the material
function. To many people, polyurethane is a brown liquid
that foams and stops leak. This statement is simplistic, as
it does not reveal some of the key properties of a water
reactive resin. In order to fill a void and stop water ingress,
of the following properties are needed.
- Expansion of the material in contact with water
- A stable dense foam
- Non Shrinkage after foaming
- Closed cell structure to prevent water permeation
To achieve all these properties with a single component
water reactive resin is impossible under all conditions. The
foam density will depend on the amount of water and
reaction time. The expansion will vary with the specific
environmental conditions at each project. Due to these
constraints, Europe and specifically Germany have
adopted a two-stage process of injection to ensure
Figure 2. - Example of deformation
permanent leak sealing. In applications of high water inflow
a water reactive open cell foaming resin is first injected as
initial seal. This is ten followed by a second injection using
a two part elastomer resin, which will penetrate the open
cell and give a permanent watertight seal. This method is
adopted from the German Training Council and German
Concrete and Construction Association Deutscher Beton
UndBautechnik Verein e.V. (DBV) for injection of water leaks.
Two part elastomer resins have customisable stiffness
properties and can be engineered from elastic and flexible,
to strong and semi-rigid.
The ability to adjust the setting time is of great importance
to ensure complete penetration of the crack as void
viscosity is another critical factor and this will be discussed
later in his paper. Table 2 shows some basic properties
achievable in the market today.
Std
30 secs
60
Differing Properties of Elastomer Resin
Pot Life
Elongation
Strength (N/mm
2
)
Viscosity (mPas)
Long Life
45 mins
60
UW
43 secs
80
NV
35 mins
100%
Compressible
Rigid force transmitting
Table 2
Hydro-Structure Resins
The name hydro-structure is used to dissociate these resins
from the toxic acryl gels, which has caused major
environmental problems in Europe. All the resins discussed
and described in this paper comply with the highest
standards of non-toxicity in contact with potable or
drinking water. These resins cross-link and depend on
water migration for long-term performance. The latest
generation has "thixo" or skinning effect which makes them
an ideal solution for buried leaking joints in car parks,
stations and other underground structures. The ability to
be pumped into very specific locations and then set, gives
an i deal method of repai ri ng j oi nts and damaged
membranes. The viscosity of these materials is very low
thus making penetration into tiny voids and fissures very
quick, which is impossible to achieve with a high viscosity
resin. Table 3 lists some key properties.
Solidification
-
Sealing flexible
++
Sealing swelling
+++ Hydro-Structure
Resins
+ dry ++ wet +++ water pressure
Table 3
These properties have simplified the repair of leaky
segment joints. "Steps" often occurs when building tunnel
rings in precast concrete and this can lead to failure of the
gasket with subsequent leakage. The hydro structure resins
Tunnelling Construction Chemicals
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 190
with the thixo agents will be able to rebuild a membrane
behind the joint and effectively waterproof the ring. Skill is
needed in packer selection, gel time of the resin and pump
pressure. The use of Twin Line pumps with the correct mix
head technology is essential.
Equipment
Advances in equipment technology in the last twenty years
have enable resin injection to provide a long-term durable
repair where previously demolition and rebuilt would have
been the only answer. Twin Line pumps with varying
pressure and volume outputs allow correctly trained
applicators to repair almost all leak problems in tunnels.
The reason why Twin Line pumps are so important and
especially in tropical climates are as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. - Pump pressure versus injection duration
From this table one can see that the resin penetration is
dependent on three factors; viscosity, time and pressure.
Too high a pressure often causes more damage to the
structure by re-cracking or worse. Time is something we
cannot keep extending as the viscosity is increasing and
the injection costs keep rising. Imagine a situation where
each injection port requires a 15 minutes injection. Spacing
of the injection ports could be at 250 mm centre so each
linear metre of crack would take one hour to inject. The
duration is also dependant on the thickness of the concrete
structure.
The answer is the Twin Line equipment where the resin is
mixed only at the point of discharge and this enables the
lowest possible injection viscosity at the packer. This allows
filling of the crack in the shortest possible time and to the
finer parts of the cracks.
Twin Line pumps are only part of much bigger technical
break through as both mix head technology and online
monitoring have become available. Resins which have
different viscosities or mix ratios require different degrees
of mixing. Some resins can be mixed in 60 seconds with a
shear mixer while others require 3 minutes for complete
mixing. Each resin type has a specific mixer length and
this is critical if the mixed resin is to achieve the designed
property.
On many projects the Engineer would like to predetermine
the pressures at which injection is taking place, others
would like to restrict the volume of resin pumped into each
packer. Other sites require a list of packers used and record
of the volume, pressure and duration when the resin was
pumped. All this information can be made available by
using the German made control device.
This equipment pictured below Figure 4 comprehensively
monitors the injection process. It ensures that the machine
is calibrated and should the mixing ratio be out of margin
it will stop and sound an alarm. Given that the machine is
in good working order it will start pumping and record
pressure volume and time. At the end of a shift the tagged
packers are photographed and the information down
loaded. This is then transferred to a computer and a report
is generated automatically. This can be co-related to the
site by grid reference and crack mapping showing an as
built and as repaired document.
The equipment can also be used with water to carry out
void surveys in structures with very heavy reinforcement
when other techniques may not be suitable.
Figure 4
Applicators
With the sophistication of materials and equipment
technology, a new approach to applicator training has
evolved. Companies licensed to use the materials and
equipments are required to have a government backed
independent certification. This requires attending a two
weeks residential course in Europe taking and passing an
exam supervised by impartial and independent bodies.
Manufacturers are not allowed to give this independent
overview in a training course. The course is operated by
the BZB Akemie and the course topics include Basics of
concrete and steel, repair of concrete construction parts,
Tunnelling Construction Chemicals
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 191
polymer and spray polymer repair mortars, and injection
of cracks cavities, joint repair, surface protection systems
and strengthening using carbon fibre laminates. An
examination occurs at the end of the course and if
successful a certification is given. After which, these
licensed operators then attend specific product and
machine training to ensure the total system Man, Materials
and Machinery works.
Case Histories
Brisbane Road Tunnel - Case Histories
North South Bypass Tunnel - NSBT
The SMART Project provides a storm water diversion
scheme including floodwater storage and a 10 km, 11.8 m
diameter bypass tunnel, sufficient to save the city from
flooding in the foreseeable future. With no major flood event
most of the year the tunnel a dual use was engineered,
with double road decks built into the central three kilometre
section, relieving traffic congestion by providing 2 x 2 traffic
lanes for cars connecting the city centre to the southern
gateway, the KL - Seremban Highway.
Suspended slab / Segment detail Application
TBM Segment Installer
The flood water is diverted at the confluence of the Klang
and Ampang rivers into a Holding Pond. From there the
water passes through the tunnel into the Taman Desa
Attenuation Pond and via a box culvert discharges into
the Kerayong River.
Tunnelling Construction Chemicals
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 192
MC was involved in supplying admixtures for both the
backfill grout and the road deck concrete. We were also
involved with all grouting to stop water ingress from within
the tunnel.
Figure 5 and Figure 6 show two specialised injection
systems. Figure 5 shows how we repaired damaged
gaskets using specially developed packers and Figure 6
shows a specially developed packer for resealing leaking
grout sockets.
Area of Application
Application Preparation
Shaft & Joint Sealed
Full Depth Penetration
SMART Tunnel Malaysia - Case Histories
Summary
As tunnel technology advances new materials have been
developed to keep up with these advances and no doubt
will continue in the future.
Figure 5
Figure 6
Tunnelling Construction Chemicals
Reliance Industries Ltd
194 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
TBMs inIndia
The tunnel TBMs were earlier
employed primarily in the water supply
sector and later in hydro-electric
projects. A TBMwas used first in India
in 1984 for excavating a tunnel of
diameter 3.5 meters under a project for
the Bombay Water Supply Scheme.
Although TBMs made an entry in early
1980s, conventional drill and blast
methods remain predominant in India.
Despite, the progress rates achieved
ith sizeable investments
envisaged for infrastructure
Wsector INR 5 trillion in roads,
INR 1.2 trillion in hydropower, INR 1.8
million in water and sewerage systems
and INR 1 trillion in metro rail projects
in the 12th plan, tunnel works are going
tobeinthespotlight. Andwithincreased
focus on development of world class
tunnel infrastructure, the Tunnel Boring
Machines (TBM) industry is expected
to witness a lot of activity in the coming
years.
with such traditional methods being
extremely low7.5mto81.0monmonthly
average basis based on the size of
tunnel and factors like geography, one
of the main reasons for not using TBMs
for such tunnel jobs was the high
prohibitive cost of the imported
equipment and procedures involved in
import of the modern equipment.
However, what was not considered
was that tunneling by drill and blast
methods, particularly in soft rocks, often
resulted in over-breaks of the order of
Bhavani Balakrishna
Bhavani Balakrishna
Modern TBMs:
Enabling the Next Wave of
Infrastructure Growth in India
195 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
10-15% leading to time and cost
overruns.
However, with focus on quality and
tight schedules, use of TBMs has
become imperative to achieve safe
tunnelling while maximizing the rate of
advance in excavation. This advantage
has somewhat offset the high capital
cost involved with this equipment.
Since then TBMs have been used in
hydroelectric projects, roads and water
supply but these machines have been
lately in the limelight for their role in the
part of the tunnel, several mechanisms
for shotcreting, rock bolting, precast
lining segments and steel ribs support
are present.
While more and more projects in
India are switching to TBM technique
over conventional technique, tunneling
in Himalayas has always been a major
challenge to project planners. The
experiences of TBM in Dulhasti and
Parabati have not been successful and
the contractors had to fall back on drill
and blast methods. The Himalayan
geology is quite varying with folds and
metro rail projects of several metro-
polises in India. In fact, the Govern-
ment, recognizing the significance of
these machines in hydroelectric and
road projects, has provided full
exemption from basic customs duty
and additional duty of customs (CVD)
on tunnel boring machines and parts
and components thereof for use in the
assembly of Tunnel boring machines
used in hydroelectric and highway
development projects.
TBMsoperateinall kindsof geologies
comprising hard rock, soft ground and
mixed-face conditions with high
overburden and high ground water
pressures. The application range of
soft ground machines such as earth
pressure balance shields or slurry
shields have allowed a considerable
expansion of the application areas of
shield tunneling leading to increased
economic feasibility of these tunneling
systems. The choice of a single or
double shielded TBM depends on the
type of rock strata and the excavation
speed required and trailing support
mechanisms. Double shielded TBMs
are normally used in unstable rock
strata, or where a high rate of advance-
ment is required. Single shielded
TBMs, which are less expensive, are
more suitable to hard rock strata.
Behind the shield, inside the finished
Picture Courtesy: www.opg.com
The soft ground tunneling
market is expanding-
particularly in India and
China- and we would like to
meet the growing
requirements of customers in
these countries.
Lok Home
President, Robbins
Workers emerging as a TBM breaks through under the India capital, New Delhi
196 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
large number of small and big faults,
thrusts, shear-zones. Moreover, therocks
of Shiwaliks and Lesser Himalayas are,
jointed, sheared, fragile and weak.
These together make Himalayan rocks
a difficult tunneling media.
Experiences have suggested that
TBM excavation needs meticulous
planning and several problems can be
avoided if a thorough site investigation
is done. Almost every aspect of a
tunneling project is influenced by the
geology of the area. Inadequate
geological investigation and poor
anticipationof thenatureandmagnitude
of problems result in delays and higher
cost of construction. Faced with cost
and ti me constrai nts, detai l ed
investigations are often compromised
resulting in lack of quality construction
riddled with problems and time and
cost overruns inthe long term.
Prior understanding, obtained in a
correct manner, of the geological and
geotechnical conditions of the site is
fundamental for the development of
underground works. Probe holes and
the use of geophysical exploration
techniques could be used to ascertain
thepresenceof groundwater. Advanced
geophysical methods like tomographic
analysis and radar, though expensive,
can be cost effective in the longer run
particularly in Himalayas. Forward
probing from a TBM driven pilot tunnel
or a main tunnel is not an alternative to
an adequate pre-investigation. Up to
now, too little money has in general
been spent on preliminary investigations.
It has in fact been demonstrated that
money spent on such investigations is
greatly compensated by the savings
made in terms of construction cost
and time.
The choice of TBM is another
important aspect that needs a critical
analysis at planning stage. The
selection of the TBM should then be
based on the interpretations of this
geotechnical investigation report.
Expert & independent advice should
be sought on the selection of the type
and TBM. Lastly, it is the men behind the
machine that matter. An experienced
Hybrid Earth Pressure Balance Machine (EPB TBM) built using Onsite First Time Assembly (OFTA).
Narmada Valley, located in Central India's Madhya Pradesh state, is a drought-prone region for eight
months out of every year. The Sleemanabad Carrier Canal is part of the Indian Government's Bargi
Diversion Project, which will source water from the Narmada River to irrigate 250,000 acres (100,000
hectares) of land.
The major trans-valley canal will stretch 194 km (120 mi) from the existing Bargi Dam on the Narmada
River to arid areas. Once complete, the Bargi Diversion Project will transfer 152 cubic meters (40,000
gallons) of water per second to Katni, Satna, Panna, and Jabalpur districts, irrigating over 100,000
hectares (250,000 acres) of land.
The contractor, a joint venture of M/s Patel Engineering, SEW, and Coastal Projects Limited (CPL),
signed a contract with Robbins for the supply of a 10.0 m (32.8 ft) diameter EPB, as well as the back-up
system, cutting tools, spares and continuous conveyor system. CPL also opted for Onsite First Time
Assembly (OFTA) of the machine at the jobsite, inorder to expedite the project schedule.
The hybrid EPB was completed using Onsite First Time Assembly (OFTA) in Madhya Pradesh, India
on March 14, 2011. A commissioning ceremony celebrated the launch of the TBM at the 12 km (7.5 mi)
long Sleemanabad Carrier Canal.
The launch ceremony also marked the first time OFTA has been used on a hybrid EPB. The Robbins-
developed method allowed the TBMto be initially assembled on location, rather than in a manufacturing
facility. Critical subsystems, such as the electrical and hydraulic systems, were tested before being
shipped to the jobsite. Once completed, the tunnel will have a diameter of 9.2 m and is expected to be
operational in2013.
A worker standing inside one of the tunnels created by the 14 TBM's used by India to overcome the
challenges of a tight schedule for the common wealth games.
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
he new approach for the Ready mix Mortar producer
is look out for the mixing process of dry mortar
manufacturing are often more advanced technology, T
cost effectiveness, since it is highly Competitive mass
market ,advancing the products standards are growing
increasingly, making the investment in optimized mixing
technology vital o competitiveness .
The formulae for manufacturing variety of mortar such as
brick mortar rendering mortar, joint sealing- mortar, tile
cement and thin bed mortar are getting more and more
complicated led to the result of the New generation Mixing
technology of Toshniwal Twin Shaft mixer Invented by Mr.
Forberg- Norway.
The design and the operation of mixer where the
ingredients of dry mortar Compound of varied Particles size
of 4mm-6mm with additives less than 100ppm randomly
Falls on top in a fluidized zone to achieve homogeneous
blend of Rich Mix in a short duration, with this operation
,the material causes less wear on the mixers paddles, hence
the life spanof the mixer beyond our expectations.
Further details from:
M/s. Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt. Ltd.,
267, Kilpauk GardenRoad, Chennai - 600 010, India
Phone No: 91-44-26445626 / 26448983
Email: mixer@toshniwal.net / Web : www.toshniwal.net
Mixer for Dry Mortar
Manufacturing
Communication Feature
197 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
team with a strong leader is the way
forward.
In India, the TBM market is largely
dominated by Robbins, Herrenknecht,
Hitachi Zosen and SELI. In 2008,
Herrenknecht put into operation an
assembly plant for tunnelling systems
and service in Chennai covering an
area of 40,000 square meters. Coastal
Projects Limited, a Hyderabad-based
tunnel engineering company recently
acquired 26% stake in Italian based
SELI. With increased number of
tunneling projects in India expected to
be implemented using Tunnel Boring
Machines (TBMs), Coastal Projects
stands to benefit from its association
with SELI as it also designs and builds
hard rock and soft ground tunnel boring
machines and auxiliary equipment. In
2009, BEML Li mi ted si gned a
Memoranda of Agreement with NFM
Technologies for the manufacture of
tunnel boring machines in India. NFM
Technologies is the second largest
manufacturer of TBMin the world with a
global market share of 20%. Last year,
Hitachi Zosen Corporation established
an Indian subsidiary, Hitachi Zosen
India Private Limited (HZIND) in
Gurgaon to handle the giant Indian
market Hitachi Zosen delivered two
slurry-type shield tunneling machines
to India for the first time for the
Bangalore Metro subway construction
project inBangalore, Karnataka State.
Projects
PulaSubbaiahVeligondaProject
A Robbins Double Shield TBM is
water. The Double Shield machine
utilizes sixty-seven 20-inch diameter
back-loading cutters to combat the
tough ground conditions. Specially
designed drive motors allow the
machine to run at a higher than normal
RPM, compensating for lowpenetration
rates in the hard rock. In squeezing
ground, the cutterhead is also capable
of vertical movement allowing for
overboring. The machine also has a
probe drill which allows for verification
of geology 30 m (98 ft) ahead of the
TBM. The drill is capable of 360 rotation
and can alternatively serve as a grout
consolidation drill. Large 40 kW(54 hp)
dewatering pumps located on the
back-up system have been specially
designed to pump any water away
from the tunnel face. As the TBMbores,
it erects 300mm(12inch) thick concrete
segmentsina6+1arrangement, making
the final tunnel diameter 9.2 m (30 ft).
Muck haulage requires one of the most
extensive conveyor systems ever used
in India. The continuous steel cable
belt, the longest single flight ever
provided by Robbins, will extend 19.2
198 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
boringtunnel No. 2of thePulaSubbaiah
Veligonda project for Coastal Projects
Ltd. (CPL), of the CPL/ Hindustan
Construction Company (HCC) JV. The
Veligonda tunnel no. 2 is located in
sedimentary rock on the western margin
of theCuddapahBasin, whereanumber
of faults and folds make for complex
geology. Rock includes quartzite with
interbedded shale (60%) and shale
with limestone and phyllite (40%)
ranging from 90 to 225 MPa (13,000 to
33,000 psi) UCS. Two major faults are
expected along with some ground
Typical 10.0m cross section of a double shielded TBM
Shielded TBM's are generally used for fractured rocks with the help of concrete segments to support
the unstable tunnel walls behind the machine. Double Shield TBMs have two modes; in stable ground
they can grip against the tunnel walls to advance. In unstable, fractured ground, the thrust is shifted to
thrust cylinders that push off against the tunnel segments behind the machine. This keeps the significant
thrust forces from impacting fragile tunnel walls. Single Shield TBMs operate in the same way, but are
used only infractured ground, as they canonly pushoff against the concrete segments.
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
Herrenknecht India Private Limited inaugurated the extension of
its manufacturing unit (assembly hall, warehouse and steel
manufacturing unit) in Chennai on December 14, 2011. As India
is one of the fastest-growing markets in the Asia-Pacific region
with very high demand, the factory set-up has been expanded by
2,000m for a new assembly workshop, 830m for the warehouse
and 840m for the steel manufacturing unit. In these facilities
Herrenknecht will assemble and/or produce TBMs up to 9 meters
in diameter, as well as cutting tools, project-specific jobsite
equipment and will handle spare and wear part.
Frank Hurst, Managing Director Herrenknecht India Private Limited
km (11.9 mi) and requires four main
drives and three booster drives. The
machine was assembled in just four
monthsusingOnsiteFirst TimeAssembly
(OFTA). OFTA is a process that allows
machine components to be initially
assembled at the jobsite, rather than in
a manufacturing facility, typically
providing savings in terms of man-
hours and shipping costs.
A huge Herrenknecht Hard Rock
Double Shield is also currently at work
on the project. The 2,800kW TBM is
boring the 18.8 kilometer-long tunnel at
depths of as muchas 550 meters.
Alimineti Madhava Reddy (AMR)
Project
At 43.5 km (27 mi), the Alimineti
Madhava Reddy (AMR) Project will be
the longest tunnel without intermediate
access in the world when complete in
2012. The tunnel will transfer floodwater
from the Krishna River to arid regions of
India's Andhra Pradesh state, providing
2
irrigation to 1,200 km (400,000 acres)
of farmland and clean drinking water to
516 villages. Contractor Jaiprakash
Associates Ltd. (JAL) wontheUSD$413
million engineer-procure-construct
contract in 2005 from the Andhra
Pradesh government to construct a
head regulator and two tunnels,
including the main 43.5 km (27 mi)
tunnel. On May 26, 2006, JAL awarded
a complete contract with The Robbins
Company for two 10.0 m (32.8 ft)
diameter Double Shield TBMs, as well
as conveyor systems, back-upsystems,
spare parts, personnel, and technical
support. The first of the two machines
was launched in March 2008 after an
unprecedented onsite assembly. Both
of themachines wereinitially assembled
onsite using the Onsite First Time
Assembly (OFTA) process. Geologic
conditions consist of quartzite zones
upto450MPa(65,000psi) UCS, layered
and separated by shale for approxi-
mately 50% of the length, with granite
(160 to 190 MPa/ 23,000 to 28,000 psi
UCS) for the remaining 50%. Both
machines feature back-loading 20-inch
diameter cutters for longer cutter life in
the abrasive conditions. Other design
modifications include specially designed
drive motors to run each machine at a
higher than normal rpm for optimal
penetrationrates inthe hard rock.
NewDelhi MetroExtensionProject
10 Herrenknecht TBMs (EPB
Shields, diameter 6,460 - 6,640 mm)
proved themselves in Delhi. For
example, they underpassed a major
railway route without any disruptions to
train traffic. Along one tunnel section,
the TBM unexpectedly had to master
rock formations, which meant that
Herrenknecht had to deliver a new
cutting wheel to the customer to pass
thisfault zoneandavoidaTBMrecovery.
Two machines started tunnelling only a
few meters away from the India Gate,
one of New Delhi's landmarks, and
continuedboringbeneaththegovernment
199 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Workers in the tunnel below the capital, New Delhi, working toward the completion of the 2nd Phase of the
New Delhi Metro Extension Project
OFTA assembly site. It took a mere 4 months to complete the assembly
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
district with its embassies without
problems. The 10 TBMs successfully
completed tunnelling with the last
breakthrough occurring in October
2009, which allows to open the new
metro lines to traffic in due time before
the CommonwealthGames.
Phase II of the New Delhi Metro
Extension Project involved multiple soft
ground tunnels to be bored by Robbins
Earth Pressure Balance Machines
(EPBMs) between underground stations
excavated by cut and cover. The tunnels
rangedfrom8.6 14.0m(28 46ft) below
the water table in sandy silt, silty sand
and gravels. Both EPB cutterheads
featured a 55% opening ratio to allow a
smooth flow of muck and to avoid
clogging the cutterhead. The machines
used several types of tungsten carbide
bits for boring in soft but abrasive ground
and shaft-type screw conveyors to
remove water-bearing muck. Con-
tinuously erected lining along the length
of the tunnel consisted of reinforced
concretesegments275mm(11in) thick.
SleemanabadCarrier Tunnel
The Sleemanabad Carrier Canal is
part of the Indian Government's Bargi
Diversion Project, which will source water
from the Narmada River to irrigate
250,000 acres (100,000 hectares) of
land. The contractor, a joint venture of
M/s Patel Engineering, SEW and
Coastal Projects Limited (CPL), signed
a contract with Robbins for the supply
of a 10.0 m (32.8 ft) diameter EPB, as
well as the back-up system, cutting
tools, spares and continuous conveyor
system. CPL also opted for Onsite First
Time Assembly (OFTA) of the machine
at the jobsite, in order to expedite the
project schedule. The Robbins hybrid
machine is a fully functional hard rock
Single Shield and soft ground EPB
TBM, designed for long sections of 180
MPa (26,000 psi) UCS jointed rock and
marble, interspersed with clay and
gravel. In sections of soft ground, the
machine runs as a standard, pressurized
EPB with an abrasion-resistant, shaft-
type screw conveyor. When short
sections of rock or mixed ground are
encountered, the machine can be run
in non-pressurizedEPBmode. In longer
sections of rock, the TBM can be
converted to a hard rock Single Shield
setupby switchingout thescrewconveyor
with a belt conveyor. The hybrid EPB
was completed using Onsite First Time
Assembly (OFTA) in Madhya Pradesh,
India onMarch14, 2011.
East West Gas Pipeline (Tunnel
Length: 100m; Diameter: 1524m)
The pipeline is planned to transfer
30 billion cubic meters of gas from the
gasfieldsoff India'seast coast (Kakinada,
Andhra Pradesh) to the refineries
located in the west (Ahmedabad,
Gujarat). Two Herrenknecht Hard Rock
Single Shield TBMs were used since
2006 during the construction of the
pipeline. The machines crossed roads
and railway tracks along their tunnel
route. With minimum covers of only 1.5
meters 60-inch steel pipes were pushed
through the underground using the
pipe jacking method. The two machines
M-1118Mand M-1120Mwith hard rock
cutterheads and electric drives were
optimally equipped for operating in the
hard and partially brittle rock forma-
tions. The system for the transport of
the excavated material was quickly
operational comprising belt conveyors,
muck skips and winches.
Ghatkopar HighLevel Tunnel
The project comprises a 2.6-km
long trenchless tunnel. Tunnelling
challenges include massive and
weathered basalt as well as the
groundwater level along the tunnel
alignment. A Herrenknecht TBM2500XH,
equipped with 21 discs, is deployed to
crack the basalt. The tail seal of the
200 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
We have exciting plans to
expand our investment in
India to meet the demand in
India's booming
infrastructure market.
Kazuhiro Fukumoto
General Manager, Sakai Factory, Hitachi Zosen
Robbins is working with lead India construction company Jaiprakash to ensure success of the longest,
largest diameter, hard rock TBM tunnel in India's history and claimed by Robbins as the longest in the world
without intermediate access points.
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
Rockster India Ltd
Herrenknecht Hard Rock TBM used during the 2006 construction of the East-West gas pipeline
TBM avoids groundwater ingress
during ring installation. Water ingress
through the cutting wheel of the
micromachine is pumped out.
Varavalli Reservoir
Two Gripper TBMs with a diameter
of 3,000mm drove several freshwater
tunnels in Mumbai's northeastern
suburbs. Since rock strengths of up to
250MPa had to be mastered along the
overall 9.7 kilometer-long tunnel
sections, two Herrenknecht Gripper
TBMs were used. With diameters of 3.0
and 2.8 meters, they are the smallest
Gripper TBMs ever designed and
manufactured by Herrenknecht.
BangaloreMetro
Two 6.44 diameter Hitachi Zosen
Slurry Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)
were used for this tunneling project.
The tunneling geological profile was a
mixture of soil and bed rock, which
required a Slurry Type of TBMmachine
equipped with 1200kW cutter head
drive power, a First machine of this type
inIndia, to meet suchchallenge.
KishangangaHydroelectric Project
The tunneling geological profile
was a mixture of basalt, andesite,
granite/granodiorite. SELI was involved
in the supply of a new Double Shield
Universal TBM, back-up system and
auxiliary equipment (rolling stock,
ventilation system, spare parts etc.).
The project involved excavation of the
Headrace Tunnel of 14,630 m by
double shield TBM having boring
diameter of 6,10 m, internal finished
diameter 5,20 m. Tunnel lining with
concrete segments.
FutureOutlook
The TBM industry is subject to a
continuous improvement process with
the future trending towards larger
tunnel profiles, long tunnel drives,
tunnels at greater depths and with high
groundwater pressures, which have in
the past not been seriously considered
feasible. Demanding project require-
ments under grueling conditions and
innovative ideas of contractors and
planners are driving further technological
development in TBM technology.
Improved safety requirements and
comprehensive risk management are
also playing an increasingly important
role for all parties involved in the design
and execution of construction projects
with today's tunnels are passing beneath
densely-populated areas, mountain
ranges or rivers and estuaries.
PictureSource
www.robbinstbm.com, AP / Keystone / Batzarini
www.skyscraper.talkwhat.com
www.herrenknecht.com
202 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Tunnel Engineernig TBM's Tunnel Engineernig TBM's
Roshanlal J ain & Sons
(Roljack Industries)
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 204
Tunnel Repair and Rehabilitation
Using Shotcrete
Special Correspondent
T
he art of rehabilitation of tunnels has flourished and
developed significantly over the last couple of
decades. Several hundred railroad, highway, and
conveyance tunnels have been successfully rehabilitated,
converted, and/or enlarged. Much of this development
can be attributed to the successful use of steel fiber
reinforced shotcrete. One of the major attributes of
shotcrete is excellent bond to the substrate, usually
superior to the bond achieved with cast-in-place concrete.
This has made shotcrete particularly well-suited for repair
and or rehabilitation work of vertical and overhead
surfaces. The flexibility and adaptable nature of steel-fiber
microsilica shotcrete is ideal for rehabilitation of tunnels.
Many developments in shotcrete technology during the
1980s have enhanced shotcreting capabilities. These
include advances in shotcreting materials technology and
improved methods for batching, mixing, supply, and
application. The developments have stemmed largely
from the desire of engineers and contractors to improve
the quality and durability of inplace shotcrete, increase
View of a shotcrete operation. Look closely and you can see the stream of wet concrete being
blasted onto the rock surface
Pic courtesy: http://thelaunchbox.blogspot.in
Tunnel Engineering Repair & Rehabilitation
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 205
shotcreting productivity and economy, and expand the
range of shotcrete applications. It is because of these
developments in shotcrete technology, enlargement and
rehabilitation of tunnels without fully taking the tunnel out
of service is not only technically but also economically
feasi bl e consi deri ng the cost of other al ternati ves
Enlargement was usually accomplished by raising the
crown but some have been enlarged by lowering the invert,
which is much more difficult and time-consuming.
Harvey Parker & Associates, Inc., in Bellevue, WA have
rehabilitated several tunnels that were over a century old,
allowing these tunnels to begin their second century of
service. This long life represents a huge life-cycle benefit
for the tunnel owner, and this cost advantage can be
maintained by conducting an occasional rehabilitation
from time to time. The increase in the number and type of
tunnels being rehabilitated over the last few decades was
largely made possible by the continued development of
ground support methods using rock bolts and steel fiber-
reinforced shotcrete. Repair and Rehabilitation is done for
several reasons. Sometimes rehabilitation work is done
simply to extend life or to improve future performance,
such as reduction of maintenance or to improve safety.
Generally, highway tunnels, such as the one illustrated in
Fig. 1, fall into this category. Other reasons for rehabilitation
include: 1) enlarge the tunnel to increase clearances or
capacity or 2) change the type of tunnel from one use to
another. On the other hand tunnel gets damaged because
of following reasons needing urgent repair to bring back
the traffic into operation through it again, these are: 1)
Damage due to lack of maintenance, 2) Damage due to
fire, 3) Damage due to natural calamity such as earth quake,
4) Damages due to unexpected operational problems.
Examples of damage occurring due to reason 4 are shown
in Fig. 2.
The introduction of double-stack container cars and other
special or extra-large cars (for example, tri-level auto racks)
created a need for enlargement of most of the tunnels in
the United States and Canada. This is an ideal example of
Figure 1: Shotcreting for rehabilitation of highway tunnel.
tunnel rehabilitation to satisfy a need for larger tunnels
and better service rather than just to extend their lives.
Many of the railroad tunnels in the west and several on the
east coast have been enlarged by increasing clearance in
the crown. Clearances were improved mostly by crown
mining, which consisted of either cutting a notch in the
existing lining or rock walls, as shown in Fig. 3, or by
Fig. 2. Some failed tunnels at Jiulongkou Coal Mine.
Figure 3: Tunnel clearance notch in a railroad tunnel.
complete or substantial removal of the brick or concrete
lining.
Importance of fast recovery of the Tunnel for
uninterrupted service:-
Tunnels are vital to keeping our transportation systems
going, and interruptions of service are rarely permitted.
Rehabilitation that requires invert work usually shuts the
entire tunnel down. It is better to concentrate tunnel
rehabilitation on the crown and sidewalls if at all possible.
Typically, there are no alternate routes so tunnel work must
be done with the least disruptive effect on paying traffic.
This is done by either temporarily shutting down one lane
or one track in multiple lane/track tunnels or by managing
traffic to permit work windows that might last from 1 to 8 h.
Yes, work can be accomplished in windows of 1 or 2 h; it is
not very efficient but sometimes that is all the time one can
Tunnel Engineering Repair & Rehabilitation
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 206
get in any one work window. Rehabilitation work while
keeping the tunnel in service requires enormous planning,
coordination, and selection of proper construction methods.
Advances in Shotcrete Materials for Tunnel Repair/
Rehabilitation job
Before the 1980s, most shotcrete used for repair and
rehabilitation in North America was made of conventional
portland cement and sand mixtures applied by the drymix
shotcrete process. Some polymer- modified shotcrete was
used for remedial work in aggressive exposure conditions.
There also was limited use of wet-mix shotcrete, primarily
for large- volume projects. Today, both dry- and wet- mix
shotcretes often contain supplementary cementing
materials, such as fly ash and silica fume, as additions or
partial cement replacements. These materials improve
shotcrete workability and performance. In the early 1970s,
a maj or advance i n shotcrete technol ogy was the
development of steel-fiber- reinforced shotcrete (SFRS).
SFRS is particularly useful for remedial applications in
aggressive chemical or marine environments because it
resists corrosion better than shotcrete with conventional
steel reinforcement. As long as the shotcrete matrix retains
its inherent alkalinity and remains uncracked, deterioration
of SFRS is unlikely. Corrosion of the discreet steel fibers
occurs only to the depth of surface carbonation in the
shotcrete. If corrosion of the surface fibers is aesthetically
objectionable, a flash coat of plain, unreinforced shotcrete
can be applied. SFRS has another advantage: It's more
user friendly and less prone to problems caused by
inadequate workmanship. For example, it eliminates the
shadowing and voiding problems sometimes encountered
i n conventi onal l y rei nforced shotcrete repai rs
(Refer Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. An extreme example of shotcrete improperly applied
to mesh reinforcement shows build-up of shotcrete on the
face of the mesh and shadowing and voids behind.
Steel-fiber reinforcement addition rates vary from about
60 to 140 pounds per cubic yard, depending on job
requirements and fiber type and size. Generally, higher
fiber addition rates are used in structures subject to severe
stresses and strains imposed by:
- Impact or explosive forces.
- Heavy, repeated, dynamic cyclic loading.
- Large exposed surfaces, which are more susceptible
to shrinkage cracking
Advantages of Steel Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete
Steel fiber-reinforced shotcrete offers the flexibility needed
to adapt to rapidly changing ground conditions and
uncertain work window schedules. In some projects, due
to the remote location, a concrete batching plant is not
available. Shotcrete dry mix including steel fibers and
microsilica can be purchased in prepackaged 1 y3 (0.75
m3) bags (sling bags) and conveniently stored at the site
until needed (refer to Fig. 5,6,7). Usually the dry mix is
batched at a centrally located plant where the quality of
the shotcrete mixture can be controlled before shipping
to the site. Shotcrete from sling bags can be placed by
the dry or wet method. When placing steel fiber-reinforced
shotcrete in tunnels, costly steel or wood arch forms, and
even rebar or mesh, are not required. Time is not wasted
while erecting, curing, and removing forms or hassling with
mesh. Shotcrete will conform to the rock surface and
smooth out the irregularities caused by blasting. In cases
where the tunnel rock is locally unstable, the design ground
support can be increased to carry the unbalanced load.
Addi ti onal shotcrete and rock bol ts are pl aced as
necessary to stop movements as documented by
monitoring. Shotcrete can be finished with a trowel to a
smooth surface equivalent to a form finish. In a pedestrian
tunnel, shotcrete was placed in the steel reinforced arch
of the horseshoe-shaped tunnel and elegantly finished to
a smooth surface. In tunnel sidewalls, the presence of steel
Fig. 5: Shipment of prepackaged Shotcrete in 2205 lb (1 metric tonne) bags to an
underground mine
Tunnel Engineering Repair & Rehabilitation
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 207
Fig. 6: Shotcrete storage area at Falconbridge Raglan property
Fig. 7: Sling bags of shotcrete mixture and work train at a railroad siding
fibers on the surface could cause scratches on the arms of
pedestrians. In these situations, the last 2 in. (5 cm) of
shotcrete are placed without steel fibers. Typical shotcrete
specifications for mixture proportioning indicate that each
cubic yard contains a minimum of seven and a half sacks
of cement (420 kg/m3), 80 to 100 lb (50 to 60 kg/m3) of
steel fiber, 80 lb (50 kg/m3) of microsilica, and a coarse
aggregate/total aggregate ratio of 0.4. The compressive
strength of these mixtures exceeds 5000 psi (34.5 MPa) in
28 days. The fiber content can be adjusted higher or lower
as necessary to accommodate the ground conditions.
How Rehabilitation is done Keeping Tunnel in Service
Rehabilitation work while keeping the tunnel in service
requires enormous planning, coordination, and selection
of proper construction methods. The flexibility of shotcrete,
Fig.8. Typical Railroad Work Train (Schematic Diagram)
Figure 9: Railroad tunnel clearance excavation: single to double track
especially with volumetric mixing, is extremely valuable to
tunnel rehabilitation. Usually, all work is done from work
platforms designed specifically to make all the work
(including handling muck and rebound) done as efficiently
as possible. A schematic of a special work train that is
used for railroad tunnel rehabilitation is shown in Fig. 8.
Examples of Tunnel Rehabiltation Using Shotcrete
- A railroad tunnel in the eastern United States was
enlarged from a single-track tunnel to a twin-track
tunnel. Originally lined with brick, the tunnel was taken
Tunnel Engineering Repair & Rehabilitation
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 208
out of service and enlarged to obtain the double-track
clearance. The new liner consisted of steel fiber-
rei nforced shotcrete and rock bol ts. Shotcrete
thickness varied from 4 to 12 in. (10 to 30 cm). Typical
rock bolt lengths were 12 ft (3.7 m) but in places ranged
up to 18 ft (5.5 m) long. Figure 9 shows the excavation
process and the shotcrete l i ner. The tunnel
encountered open abandoned coal mine works, and
the flexibility of utilizing shotcrete and tensioned rock
bolts was invaluable in advancing the work through
difficult ground.
- A highway tunnel on the west coast was rehabilitated
because of the limited clearance and continued
deterioration of the timber lining. The liner consisting
of timber sets and lagging was replaced with 4 to 5 in.
(10 to 13 cm) of steel fiber reinforced shotcrete in the
arch and 2 to 4 in. (5 to 10 cm) of concrete on the
sidewalls. Rock dowels anchored with epoxy resin
cartridges were installed after an initial layer of shotcrete
was installed.
- Repair of a deep-mine permanent access tunnel using
bolt, mesh and shotcrete Jiulongkou Coal Mine, China).
Shotcrete prevents the failed rock mass from falling
and further weathering. The total thickness of shotcrete
applied was 120 mm on average and was sprayed as
three layers. The first and second layers together were
70 mm i n thi ckness. Thi s al l ows the di l atancy
deformation to be released. Sometimes there were local
failures in the first and second layers. The final layer
was 50 mm in thickness and was sprayed after the
surrounding rock mass deformation became stable.
Steel mesh was used together with shotcrete to
increase the tensile and bending strengths of the
shotcrete. Steel wire with a diameter of 6.5 mm was
selected to form a 125x125-mm2 mesh. Application of
rock bolt, steel mesh and shotcrete to repair seriously
deformed tunnels of the Jiulongkou deep coal mine
shows that the support approach and techniques
based on the loosening zone concept were very much
successful.
- Restoration of a Tunnel Damaged by Noto Offshore
Earthquake in coast of Suzu city in Japan in 1993 was
carried out using steel-fiber-reinforced shotcrete
(SFRS). Spray of steel-fiber-reinforced shotcrete was
adopted because it was considered to increase
bending tensile strength and ductility under uncertain
additional loads from the ground loosened under the
influence of the earthquake. The SFRS design thickness
was 150 mm and mean extra thickness provided was
50 mm. The restoration procedure is shown in Fig. 10.
Conclusion
In the 80 years since the shotcrete process was developed,
shotcrete has played a valuable role in repair and
rehabilitation projects. One of its major attributes is
excellent bond to the substrate, usually superior to the
bond achieved with cast-in-place concrete. This has made
shotcrete particularly well-suited for repair of vertical and
overhead surfaces. The use of steel fiber-reinforced
shotcrete made the rehabilitation of railroad and highway
tunnels practical and economically viable. The strength
and durability of steel fiber microsilica shotcrete in
combination with tensioned or untensioned anchor bolts
can handle almost any type of tunnel ground loading.
Shotcrete can be installed utilizing the wet or dry methods
and can be installed to sculpt any tunnel shape without
the use of costly forms or the need for rebars or mesh.
However advanced research is still going with with other
varieties of shotcretes with polypropylene fibers and other
polymers.
Reference
- H.W. Song, S.M. Lu, Tunnelling and Underground Space
Technology 16 (2001), pg. 235-240.
- M. Kunita, R. Takemata and Y. Lai, Tunneling and Underground
Space Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 439-448, 1994.
- The are of Tunnel rehabilitation with shotcrete, Harvey Parker
et al.
Fig. 10. Restoration Procedure
Tunnel Engineering Repair & Rehabilitation
E-Surveying Sofetech (India)
Pvt.Ltd
VRVR Constructions
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 210
Durable Concrete for
Tunneling Applications
Eugenkleen
MC - Bauchemie Mueller GmbH and Co. KG
O
ver the past decade, the use of concrete
admi xtures, especi al l y pl asti ci zers and
superplasticizers, is showing upward trend in
India. The advent of concrete pumps and transit mixers
has also contributed to this, as the use of superplasticizers
enables trouble-free pumping operations and minimizes
pipe blockages. With the advent of Major Metro Projects
across India, durability of concrete used especially for
tunneling segments is of prime importance. The earlier
attitude of taking recourse to the use of admixtures only
after facing problems is changing fast, and now, in most
tuneling projects, high performing admixtures are already
included in the specifications and the mix is designed to
achieve the necessary properties.
The concrete for tunnel segments necessitates the
concrete to have the following properties:
- Compressive strength
- Workability
- Surface Finish
- Durability
As part of the durability requirements, concrete is or should
be generally tested for the following properties:
- Chloride migration
- Sulfate resistance
- Water absorption
- Acid resistance
- Porosity
- Freeze Thaw Resistance
This can be achieved using the latest technologies
available for concrete. Concrete is now no longer a material
consisting of cement, aggregates, water and admixtures
but i t i s an engi neered materi al wi th several new
constituents like PFA, GGBSF, Microsilica, Metakaolin,
Colloidal Silica and several other Binders, Fillers and
Pozzolanic materials. The concrete today can take care of
any speci fi c requi rements under most exposure
conditions.
The mix designs are getting relatively complex on account
of interaction of several materials and mix design calls for
expertise in concrete technology and materials. High
Performance Concretes will have to be adopted for
tunneling segments, considering special properties as well
as low cost maintenance strategies.
What type of Concrete do we use?
Concrete used in tunneling applications need the following
outstanding properties viz. Compressive Strength, High
Workabi l i ty, Enhanced Resistances to Chemical or
Mechanical Stresses, Lower Permeability, Durability
etc.This will necessitate the useof High Performance
Concrete. SomeHPC types which will hold the key for
tunneling applications, can be classified into:
- Self Compacting Concrete / High workability concrete
- Concretes resistant against aggressive media
1. Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC)
Self-Compacting or Consolidating Concrete (SCC) as the
name signifies should be able to compact itself by its self-
weight under gravity without any additional vibrations or
compaction. Self Compacting Concrete should be able
to assume any complicated formwork shapes without
cavities and entrapment of air. The reinforcement should
be effectively covered and the aggregates should be fully
soaked in the concrete matrix. In addition, the concrete
should be self-leveling type and self-defoaming without
any external compaction. Figure 1shows SCC.
The formulation of Self Compacting Concrete has the latest
Tunnel Engineering Concrete Admixtures
www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012 211
concrete technology and it requires in-depth knowledge
of materials and meticulous testing procedures before the
concrete is designated as Self Compacting Concrete
(SCC).Self Compacting Concrete has the following special
advantages.
- Saving of costs on machinery, energy and personnel
for vibrating the concrete
- Considerable improvements to exposed surfaces (Fair
Faced Concrete), less efflorescence.
- Marked improvements in durability on account of better
compaction
- Extremely suitable for slim and complicated moulds
- Covers reinforcement effectively.
- Better adhesi on between cement bi nder and
aggregates.
- Reduction in demoulding time
- Advantage with respect to sound pollution
Figure 1: Flow of Self Compacting Concrete around reinforcement
Therefore while calculating the costing and economics of
Self Compacting Concrete all the above mentioned
advantages should be converted to cost parameters. This
kind of concrete can give advantage of good Compressive
Strength, workability and finish to the tunnel segments
and may prove suitable.
2. Durable Concrete resistant against aggressive
media
One major application of HPC is to increase the durability
of concrete where aggressive underground conditions are
anticipated. This can be achieved physically by resorting
to very dense aggregate packing. The packing curve is
shown in Figures 2a and 2b. This is practically possible by
selecting a very smooth sieve line from largest aggregate
to the smallest grain of Mineral Additives like Microsilica
or New Generation Aluminosilicate slurries. Chemically,
cement by itself is not acid resistant. The acid resistant
binder is formed by combination of cement, microsilica /
aluminosilicate and flyash.To control permeability very low
water cement ratio has to be adopted. So as to provide
the essential concrete properties a high-performance PCE
(polycarboxylate ether) needs to be incorporated in the
mix. By adjusting the particle size distribution on a micro
scale the permeability of the concrete is reduced which
minimizes the penetration of aggressive substances.
Depending on the degree of dispersion these material
particles more or less completely fill the spaces between
the cement particles. During hydration the pozzolanic silica
reacts with the free calcium hydroxide to form calcium
silicate hydrates. This gives a denser concrete structure.
Figure 2a: Densest packing grading curve
The main materials, which can help change normal
concrete to durable aggressive media resistant concrete,
are:
- New Generation PCE Based Admixtures
- Condensed Silica Fume or Microsilica Slurry or
- Latest Generation Aluminosilicates
a. PCE Based Admixtures: Most of the new generation
superplasticizers are from the Acrylic Polymer (AP) family.
Polycarboxylate is a common term for the substances that
are specifically used as Polyacrylate or Polycarboxylate
ethers (PCE). The PCE based Super Plasticizers are by far
superior to the conventional ones with respect to initial
slump as well as slump retention with time. The efficient
working of these plasticizers is due to the new type of
Figure 2b: Pictorial representation of Densest packing of aggregates in Concrete
Tunnel Engineering Concrete Admixtures
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 212
molecule designs. PCE based superplasticizers produce
excel l ent properti es when used wi th cementi ti ous
materials. The disadvantages associated with longer
setting times of conventional superplasticizers is offset by
PCE based super plasticizer and therefore its use in
concrete can also attain high early strengths.Figure 3
shows the structure of PCE molecule and its working
mechanism - steric hindrance. The development of highly
effective superplasticizers with long and consistent
duration of action is therefore an important precondition
for the production durable concrete, due to low water
contents and high early strength requirements.
Figure 3: Structure of PCE Molecule and its Mechanism of action
Concrete additives based on PCE offer advantages like:
- Significant reduction of the water demand of the mix
- Little loss of consistency
- Short setting times
- High early strengths
- Low tendency to segregation
The advantages of these New Generation polymers are
very clear, not only in terms of performance but also in
terms of the dosages used for similar conditions and this
factor balances the disadvantages in economy, as New
Generation Superplasticizers are relatively expensive per
unit price.Figure 4shows workability comparisons of MSF/
SNF agai nst PCE. Fi gure 5 shows comparati ve
development of compressive strengths and the dosages
required are very low.
b. Condensed Si l i ca Fume / Mi crosi l i ca:The term
"Microsilica" is adopted to characterize the silica fume,
which is used for the production of concrete. Microsilica or
Condensed Silica Fume (CSF) is a by-product resulting
from reduction of high purity quartz with coal in the Electric
Figure 4: Workability Comparison of MSF/NSF against PCE at lower dosage
Arc Furnaces used in manufacture of Silicon, Ferrosilicon
and other alloys of silicon.
There are three main reasons for the incorporation of Silica
Fume as an additive for HPC. Microsilica has a filler effect
i.e very fine particle distribute itself in the space between
the materials in the concrete in a homogenous way to give
rise to more dense concrete. Silica Fume improves the
strength of the transition zone between cement paste and
aggregates. CSF is highly pozzolanic in combination with
Portland cement. Figure 6 shows structure and effect of
Microsilica.
During cement hydration there is surplus of Calcium
Hydroxide. The Added Condensed Silica Fume's SiO2
reacts with surplus of Calcium Hydroxide. This results in
greater amounts of Calcium Silicate Hydrate, which are
denser and stronger than Calcium Hydroxide. The
pozzol ani c reacti on and the fi l l er-effect l ead to a
compaction of the cement paste and the conversion of
CH crystals into CSH gel leads to a homogeneous paste.
This phenomenon of dense packing in the interface zone
of aggregates also contributes to increase in strength of
the concrete on account of aggregates fully contributing
their strength to the set concrete. Therefore the high
strength of concrete with silica fume is greater than those
of the matrix, indicating the contribution of the aggregate
to the total strength.Experience shows that slurry forms of
Microsilica (50:50 with water) have all the benefits in
transportation, dispensing methods, mixing times and
dispersions to get the desired effect in durable concrete
for tunneling segments.
3. New Generation Aluminosilicates:New generation
aluminosilicates based on special nano-crystallizers have
been developed. These new materials improve the
properties that are crucial for the durability of high-
performance concrete. In addition to reducing chloride
Tunnel Engineering Concrete Admixtures
Credence Engineers Pvt.
Ltd
J B Engineering and Industrial
Company
The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in 214
migration, an exceptional chemical and resistance to
aggressive media of the concrete can be achieved with
Aluminosilicates. The concrete structure is simultaneously
reinforced right down to nanoscale, density is improved
and compressive and flexural strength as well as abrasion
resistance of the high-performance concrete is increased.
There is also a significant reduction of micro-crack
formation,which makes it particularly suitable for the
production of tunneling concrete. Aluminosilicates reduce
the proportion of portlandite by way of a pozzolanic
reaction that changes it into the aluminosilicate crystals
into calcium silicate hydrate. In addition to the unique
resistance against acids a crystalline micro-reinforcement
within the concrete structure is achieved. This reduces
the risk of micro-crack formation, rendering concrete
impermeable.
Due to hi gh homogenei ty and reduced tacki ness
compared with microsilica-basedconcrete, workability is
improved significantly. In many instances this enables the
production of high-performance concrete that can be
pumped. In addition, a distinct improvement of the building
structure's aesthetics is gained due to the fair appearance
Figure 5: Strength Comparison of PCE versus MFS/NFS at lower dosage
of the concrete surface.Aluminosilicates performs over the
some of the disadvantages of Microsilica:
- Graded for dispersion in concrete
- Graded particle size
- Optimizes mixing time within concrete
- Good dispersion reduces unreacted material in the
mix and increases passivation by C-S-H gel on
aggregate surface
Figure 6: Structure and Microfiller effect of Microsilica in Concrete
- Material if agglomerated improve strength of the mix
- Reduces risk of Alkali Silica Reaction by Agglomeration
of aluminosilicate particles
Table 2 shows some of the key differences between
Microsilica and Aluminosilicate slurries. Figure 7 shows
the compari son of strength devel opment between
Microsilica and Aluminosilicates.
All in all the use of PCE Admixtures and Microsilica or
Aluminosilicate Slurries in addition to the standard
i ngredi ents i n concrete, pl us excel l ent mi x-desi gn
practices can facilitate the production of high performance
concretes resistant to aggressive media, suitable for use
in tunneling applications.
Microsilica
By-product of the Ferrosilicium- &
Silicium production, not specifically
produced for concrete
Quantities are depending on the
metal industry and the economic
development
Quality of the product has a higher
deviation because it is only a by
product
Aluminosilicates
Manufactured product, it is only
produced for use as concrete additive
Quantities are not depending on other
industries and are unlimited, the
reforereliable availability
High quality standards for end
product because every step in
production is controlled
Table 2: Key Difference Between Microsilica and Aluminosilicates
Figure 7: Comparison of Strength Development between Microsilica and
Aluminosilicates
Tunnel Engineering Concrete Admixtures
IBK Media
216 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Construction Chemicals
he Indian construction chemicals industry is
growing at a healthy pace of 14-15% CAGR
due to the huge emphasis on infrastructure T
across the country. The demand for construction
chemicals is dependent on the construction
industry and with an increased focus on
sustainability and green buildings, construction
chemicalsareassumingasignificant role. Indeed, it
isnosurprisethat it isbeing referred to as a sunrise
industry.
GlaringFacts of theIndianConstruction Chemicals
Industry
Construction chemicals play a vital role in
concrete performance. India being the second
largest manufacturers of cement in the world
should by default be the second largest consumers
of constructionchemicals. Indevelopedcountries,
construction chemicals are used in every
200/cu.m of concrete and this is inadequate for
producingabout 2%of global production. However,
the Indian construction chemicals industry is a
mere INR2500 crores per annum! If one considers
the quantum of Indian cement production, the
construction chemical industry in India should be
INR20,000 crores/ USD4billionmarket vis--visthe
current figure of INR2500 crores/USD500 million!
Challenges andCritical ChangeAgents
Despite holding such staggering potential,
growth by default for this industry may not be
easy even with the construction sector having
more than 50% outlay of every five year plan as
wel l as bei ng second l argest cement
manufacturer! Factors like limited awareness,
lack of awareness, conventional construction
practices/ malpractices remain huge bottlenecks
for the industry. And if the construction chemical
industry does grow, whether the industry will
Construction Chemicals Industry in India Construction Chemicals Industry in India
Dr. SK Manjrekar
Chairman & Managing Director
Dr. SK Manjrekar
Chairman & Managing Director
'vision 2020'
'vision 2020'
Sunanda Specialty Coatings Pvt. ltd. Sunanda Specialty Coatings Pvt. ltd.
Ms. Ishita Manjrekar
Sr. Associate
Ms. Ishita Manjrekar
Sr. Associate
United States
China
India
USD 4.5 per cu.m
USD 2 per cu.m
USD 1 per cu.m
Expenditure on Admixtures per cubic meter
The construction chemical industry in India accounts
for only 0.4% of the total construction spendinstead
of 1% of total construction spend which is the norm in
developed economies!
217 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Construction Chemicals
This has helped in gaining acceptance
to the concept of construction chemicals
whi ch was hi therto consi dered
superfluous. The entry of foreign
market players, capitalizing on the
market potential of the country, has
also raised the bar. High real estate
prices have led to increased activity in
repairs and rehabilitation and this has
led to increased usage of construction
chemicals incities like Mumbai.
Lack of structured trai ni ng,
professional practice or client training
and passive and under educated
prescription in use of construction
chemicals in organized sector s like
government departments has led to
mushrooming of street smart players
the unorganized sector. These players
have capitalized on the marginal
specifications and usages from all and
sundry but a positive side effect of this
phenomenon has been a raised
awareness of the indispensability of
constructionchemical.
VISION 2020 - Objectives and
Actionables
As always the quality, consistency,
desire to be knowledge partners,
transparency, performance based
specifications and above all being part
of global explosion of knowledge has
to once again prevail and all concerned
have to become more discernible,
informed, proactive and customer
friendly. Hence, this is the ideal time to
make a vision statement A VISION
2020 for the Indian construction
chemical industry. This calls for
collaborated efforts involving all
stakeholders the industry, the end users,
the concerned ministry, concerned
approved organization in chemicals
like FICCI, codal organizers like BIS,
create sustainable and durable
structures, will it bring about reduction
in carbon foot print, will it bring
changes in environmental conditions
these are critical questions that have to
be answered.
There is no doubt that the growth of
construction chemical industry is
imperative or else consequences will
be far reaching disastrous. However,
stop gap measures like seminars and
discussions limited to a fewsections or
few persons of the industry is not
sufficient. It requires a well-drawn,
meticulous, long termplan VISION2020
for the Indian Construction Chemical
Industry!
In the last four decades, there have
been several developments in the
Indian cement industry - India has
grown from 33 million tons to 330
million tons of cement/annum. It ranks
2nd in cement production. We have
transitioned from 33 GRADE cement to
53 GRADE cement and from 1:2:4 era
to mix design era (though mainly in
metropolises) on a percentage basis.
While speed of the work remains critical
due to economic consequences,
qualitative aspects are at times on
sacrificial altars either by compulsion
or out of ignorance. But the industry
has gradually awakened to the
significance and criticality of the role
played by an inexpensive, ignored and
yet avoidable nut and bolt in the huge
gamut of the construction machine
constructionchemicals.
There are still large sections in the
construction and engineering fraternity
that arenot fully awareof theimportance
and benefits of construction chemicals.
Sadly, chemistry of cement hydration
andconcreteasmaterial arenot included
as part of syllabus in engineering
colleges and universities. There have
been a few knowledgeable and
experienced people who have made
an effort to spread awareness about
the subject. Indianpersonnel/ engineers
exposed to construction chemicals in
other countries like the Middle East
have brought back their knowledge
and information and applied it locally.
Picture courtesy: http://marshmucking.blogspot.in
218 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
university syllabi committees and even
Planning Commission to collaborate
and recognize the importance of this
industry. The aim of such collaboration
should be 'to make a vision statement
and strive to accomplish the objectives
withthe helpof all the stake holders'.
The VISION 2020 should aim at the
following.
1. To make construction chemical
industry a major partner in the
construction segment of the
country.
2. To increase the use of construction
chemicals to more than 100% year
onyear.
3. Make construction chemical industry
fully organized sector.
4. Establish an association of the
industry players which will be having
linkages with concerned govern-
ment departments, ministries and
the industry.
5. Spread awareness and abolish the
myths about unavoidable use of
construction chemicals to make
durableandsustainableconstruction.
6. Establish neutral laboratories which
will test the 'uniformity and perfor-
mancebasedparameters' of various
construction chemicals without
bias in order to establish and instill
the confidence in customers' minds
and also to bring the 'system' to the
approach of construction chemicals
industry.
7. Evolve various standards for the
range of construction chemicals,
matching international standards
likeACI, JIS, DIN, ASTM etc. in
collaborationwithBIS
8. Train and assimilate unorganized
sector inthemainstreamof activities.
9. Grant a status of chemical industry
to this sector so that prevailing rates
of various taxations can become
applicable, thus making the pricing
structure competitive.
10. Create focus on sustainability and
durabilitybyliaisingwithgovernment
authorities to offer incentives till a
threshold / cut off year -say 2020
11. By 2020 achieve minimum `20,000
crores (USD 4 billion) production
and ` 40,000 crores (USD8 billion)
12. Members of the industry should
engage in continuous innovation,
based on the conditions of Indian
subcontinent as well as training the
personnel / applicators on regular
basis.
13. Create trained /educated distribution
network, which is important final
link with the customer. Introduce
the subjects of concrete, corrosion
and construction chemicals in the
syllabus of all the universities con-
ducting civil engineering related
programs.
These are just some points to
ponder in VISION 2020. Many more
can be added with the help of wider
debate throughout the industry. This
VISION 2020 will identify that this is not
merely 'sunshine industry' but it will take
the sustainability and durability concerns
of India insunshine zone.
The Indian construction chemicals
industry is in a desperate need for a
wakeupcall. Whileit haslurchedforward
with the impetus in infrastructure, the
growth by default mode may create
complacency. Quick fixesare not
enough. The industry is at its critical
inflexion point and in urgent need of
boldness and a fresh vision. The
VISION 2020 will sound the siren but it
is the persistent, coordinated efforts of
the stakeholders - the construction
chemical players, builders and con-
tractors, academicians, the government
and engineers - who can create the
magical alchemy.
DR. S. K. Manjrekar obtained his Ph.D.
in 1977 from University of Bombay in
Corrosion and Material Science and has
long experience of 32 years in the field of
Construction Chemicals and concrete
related materials. He is the past president of
ACI-India Chapter from 1998 - 2001, 2001 -
2003, and 2005 - 2008.
He is one of the two members in India to
have been conferred upon with the
Fellowship of American Concrete Institute
in 2000 in San Diego, USA. He has been
conferred by ACI (International) 'Chapter
Activities Award' in 2003 in Vancouver
Canada for his dedicated service to the ACI
India Chapter and years of service to the
concrete industry.
Dr. Manjrekar has published more than
200 papers in various national and interna-
tional journals that have resulted in deeper
understanding of concrete and construc-
tionchemicals.
He is a visiting faculty at engineering
colleges like VJTI, IIT Mumbai, NCN
Chennai, Central University of Rajasthan
and many other institutions across the coun-
try.
He has delivered many invited lectures
and keynote addresses oncement and con-
crete as a material, polymers admixtures
and their applications, corrosion protection,
waterproofing etc in civil engineering field
all over India and countries like Dubai,
Qatar, Kuwait, Egypt, Romania, Hong
Kong, U.K., USA etc. He has been invited to
Kuwait to give key note speech in the con-
ference Kuwait Cement & Concrete held
on08th 09thJune 2010 and earlier in2007.
Dr. Manjrekar is also the Chairman and
Managing Director of M/s. Sunanda
Speciality Coatings Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai manu-
facturers of entire range of construction
chemicals who also offer consulting ser-
vices in related field for its use for last 3
decades.
Author's Bio
North America
Central and South America
Western Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
Middle East and Africa
Japan
China
4,684
1,815
6,557
988
1,827
3,560
7,868
5,650
2,317
7,577
1,186
2,399
3,578
12,106
2009 2014
World market for construction chemicals (US$ millions)
Despite being the second largest consumer of cement in the world, India does not figure significantly in the
world market for constructionchemicals!
Construction Chemicals
MM Castings (P) Ltd
220 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Infrastructure Tunnels
above sea level will strengthen shift of
transalpine transit traffic from road to
rail and is part of NRLA (New Rail Link
through the Alps) initiated by the Swiss
authorities with the Ltschberg Tunnel,
inaugurated in 2007. Once completed,
it will carry freight loads of up to 4000
tonnes, 200-250 trains per day in each
directiontravelling at upto 250kmph.
The Gotthard Base Tunnel consists
of two 57-kilometres-long single-track
tubes. The two rail tunnels are about 40
meters apart and joined approximately
every325metersbyconnectinggalleries.
Two multifunction stations are located
in the sections, Faido and Sedrun, to
allow trains to change from one tunnel
to the other, complicated tunnel and
adit systems due to the requirements
ith a planned length of 57 km
and a total of 153.5 of tunnels,
Wshafts and passages planned,
the Gotthard Base Tunnel will become
the longest tunnel in the world once it
gets completed in the year 2017. The
route over Gotthard Pass or one of its
tunnels is one of the most important
passages through the Alps on the
north-south axis in Europe. Traffic has
increased more than tenfold since
1980 and the existing road and rail
tunnels are at their limits. In order to
provide a faster and flatter passage
through the Swiss Alps, the Gotthard
base tunnel was planned cutting through
the Gotthard massif. The tunnel that
courses some 2000 meters below the
rock and lies only about 550 meters
of construction, emergency, ventilation
and technical niches.
For construction purposes, the
Gotthard Base Tunnel was divided into
five separate sections of different
length - Erstfeld, Amsteg, Sedrun, Faido
and Bodio. The construction of the
tunnel has involved primarily the use of
tunnel boring machines apart from
drilling and blasting for the two stations
as well as the section of the main tunnel
in Sedrun due to expected bad geology
in Sedrun. Of the around 152-kilometres-
long tunnel system of the Gotthard
Base Tunnel, includingall passages and
shafts, around 56 % were excavated by
tunnel boring machine and around 44
% by drilling and blasting. During the
excavations, a total of more than 28
Bhavani Balakrishna
The Gotthard Tunnel Pass:
A True Tunneling Marvel
Altdorf
Erstfeld
Amsteg
Sedrun
Gotthard
Base Tunnel
length 57 km
Erstfeld
length 7.4 km
Amsteg
length 11.4 km
Sedrun
length 6.8 km
Faido
length 14.6 km
Bodio
length 16.6 km
Biasca
Bodio
Faido
Tunnel
Open
line
Gotthard Base Tunnel
Postponed
Existing railway line
Shaft, adit
Exploratory bores
piora syncline
221 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Infrastructure Tunnels
million metric tons of rock were trans-
ported out from under the mountains.
From north to south, the 57
kilometers long Gotthard Base Tunnel
passes through crystalline rock
sections, including the Aare massif to
the north, the Gotthard massif and the
Penine gneiss zone to the south. The
massifs consist of high-strength igneous
and metamorphic rock and are inter-
sected by narrowsedimentary tectonic
zones. The main geological risks pre-
dicted were rock bursts, rock wedge
instabilities and water inflow. A great
part of the tunnel will be situated under-
neath a considerably high overburden:
more than 1000 meters of overburden
on a distance of approximately 30
kilometers of the tunnel, more than
intermediate massif around Sedrun
excavated spaces have the tendency
to close again unless countermeasures
are taken. This phenomenon is known
as"squeezingrock". Toholdtheexcavated
cross-section open, supporting means
have to be used. If after excavation a
certain amount of deformation is
allowed, the force needed to hold the
space open can be substantially
reduced. To counter the immense rock
pressure, new methods of tunnel
construction were used at Sedrun. To
provide support for keeping the
excavat ed cross-sect i on open,
deformable steel rings were inserted
whichgradually close under the pressure
of thesqueezingrockuntil their maximum
supporting force is attained. Each arch
consists of eight segments which are
joined together by slightly yielding
1500 on 20 kilometers and more than
2000 meters on approximately 5
kilometers. The Faido-Sedrun section
is reporting the maximum overburden
of about 2400 meters.
The geologists predicted that in the
Amsteg section both tunnels would
encounter the constructionally extremely
unfavourable Intschi zone along a
length of several hundred metres.
Through the entire Intschi zone an
average daily advance rate of 6 metres
was expected. In the fault zone itself,
the construction schedule even foresaw
an interruption in driving of four months
to allow measures for stabilizing the
rockconditions. Thesemeasuresturned
out to be unnecessary. The planned
stoppage of the two tunnel boring
machines was not required.
In the northern part of the Tavetsch
The old and now new Gotthard Railway line.
Picture Courtesy: www.tu-freiberg.de
222 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
connectors to form two concentric
rings. Under the pressure of the rock,
the rings are slowly pushed together
until the maximum supporting force is
reached. Although this technology was
already known fromGerman coal mines,
it had never before been applied in
thesedimensionsintunnel construction.
The selected concept with deformable
steel inserts more than fulfilled
expectations.
The MFS Faido was planned to be
in favorable rock according to the
geographical prediction. While a few
relevant but small fault zones were
predicted, these were not posed as
major obstacles. However, in April
2002, faulty gneisses of low strength
were encountered and rock started to
loosen and fall at the face. Unexpected
squeezing ground and faulted rock
caused major headaches from almost
the first days of work. A major redesign
was needed for the Faido MFS work
eventually, separating the crossover
tunnels from the emergency station
itself andshiftingthem600msouthwards
into better ground. The final TBMdrives
from Faido towards the Sedrun section
were also slightly shortened, with the
additional length added to the Sedrun
contracts, tobalanceout thecompletion
times and bring the overall break-
throughforwards.
Four Herrenknecht machines, with
a length of more than 400 meters and
cutterheads measuring 9.5 meters,
have excavated more than 85km of the
main tubes approximately 75 % of the
tunnel's main route. Gripper TBMs are
specialists for hardrock. Withtwogripper
plates, the TBMs brace themselves
against the rock on both sides. The
thrust cylinders push the TBMforward.
The right and the left grippers can be
controlled individually. This means that
the TBMcan master curves easily. The
rotating cutterhead presses the disc
cutters with high pressure against the
rock. The disc cutters break the rock
into saucer-sized chips. The excavated
material is passed through openings in
the cutterhead onto the belt conveyor
and transported out of the tunnel.
Directly behind the cutterhead, roof
bolting units drill holes along several
meters of length in order to put the roof
bolts into place for rock support.
Additionally steel rings, arches and
mats are installed to stabilize the rock
(if required by the geological conditions).
A shotrete robot rotates around the
TBM's longitudinal axis to provide final
rock rock. The transport of the excavated
rock out of the tunnel and materials into
the tunnel is carried out via the rear part
of the machine, the back-upsystem.
Two Herrenknecht TBMs, Gabi I
and Gabi II, of diameter 9.58 meters,
were used were used for tunneling the
Amsteg-Sedrun section. Tunneling
commenced in Oct 2003 and Jan 2004
and was successfully completed in
June&Oct 2006, 9/6monthsearlier than
planned. On June 16 and September
16, 2009, the two Herrenknecht Gripper
TBMs, Gabi 1 and 2, completed the
northern Erstfeld-Amsteg section with
a length of just over 7 kilometers.
Deviation from the ideal axis measured
only 4mm in the horizontal and 8mm in
the vertical.
Regular tunneling started in Jan
and Feb 2003 in the southern section of
Bodio-Fadio using Heidi and Sissi,
two Herrenknecht Gripper TBMs of
The required concrete was mixed directly on the spot and distributed with the help of the Betonzug.
Shotcrete primary lining on a crossover cavern.
Infrastructure Tunnels
MRT Chemicals Pvt.
Ltd
Bajaj Products
ROTHO - Robert Thomas
Metall- and Elektrowerke
GmbH & Co. KG
diameter 8.83 meters. After just 200
meters, the tunnellers were slowed
down by the discovery of kakirites, since
every meter of tunnel driven was to be
secured in a complex process. In fall
2006, breakthrough was made in Faido
when the TBMs reached their targets
after 13.5 and 14 km respectively, with
vertical and horizontal deviations of
only a fewcentimeters.
most intensely explored section in the
beginning of the project but after
examining drill cores, temperatures
andseismicresults, geologists concluded
that the bottom of the Piora Basin was
sealed with gypsiferous cap-rock. A
rock fall in the western tube and the
subsequent stabilization measures
interrupted tunnelling here until July
2010. The final breakthrough by Sissi
and Heidi came in Oct 2010 and Mar
23, 2011, the latter amidst live media
coveragefromdifferent partsof theworld.
The estimatedfinal cost of the project
was CHF9.4bn (US$9.0bn) for the
Gotthard. These amounts exceed the
original estimates, with the Swiss
parliament approving reserves for
uncertainties that included geological
conditions, engineering issues and
technological developments, the latter
relevant duetothelongproject timescale.
In the Gotthard Base Tunnel, lining
work in the Erstfeld, Sedrun and Faido
sections is progressing according to
plan. At the end of December, the track
crossover door for Sedrun North was
transported into the tunnel and is
currently being installed. AlpTransit
Gotthard Ltd. will hand over the tunnel
to Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) in
operating condition at the end of May
2016. Until then, thefocus of construction
work will be on the tunnel lining, infra-
structure systems and railway installa-
tions. This work has already started in
the previously completed sections of
tunnel in parallel with the final driving
andconcrete-shell constructionactivities.
PictureCourtesy
www.excavations2012.wordpress.com
www.tunneltalk.com
224 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
In July and Oct 2007, both Sissi
and Heidi entered the second
construction phase towards Sedrun
with cutterheads of 9.43 meters. On
October 12, 2008, both the Herrenknecht
TBMs successfully crossed the Piora
Basin a funnel-shaped formation filled
with sugargrained dolomite and water
that reached deep into the rock of the
mountain range. This had been the
The fully complete excavation schematic of the 57km long rail tunnel
A rear view of the driller head of the Tunnel Boring Machine that created the 57 kilometer-long
Gotthard Base Tunnel in Switzerland.
Infrastructure Tunnels
INSTRUCT
226 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Infrastructure Tunnels
value of ` 415.10 crore. The newtunnel
will be replacing the existing Vaitarana,
Tansa (East and West) main pipelines.
The tunnel will have many advantages
over existing surface pipeline. It is
secured at a depth of 70 meters below
ground level and cannot be tampered
as it happens in case of surface
pipelines. Hence there are fewer
chances of leakages and pilferage of
water. It will require minimum mainte-
nance as the entire tunnel is made of
concrete unlike surface pipeline which
corrode over a period of time. The 12.4
km tunnel will be 3.60 meters in
diameter and will have three newshafts
at Maroshi, Vakola and Mahim besides
the existing shaft at Ruparel College.
The shafts are 12 meters in diameters
and around 70 to 80 meters deep which
is equivalent to22 to26 storiedbuildings.
Two tunnel boring machines of 100
he Hindustan Construction
Company ( HCC) r ecent l y
Tcompleted the construction of
a12.4 km Marol Maroshi tunnel.
Constructed under the Jawaharlal
NehruNational UrbanRenewal Mission
(JNNURM), the project is part of the
rehabilitation and improvement of the
drinking water conveyance and
distribution system from Bhanhup
Treatment Works to Western Suburbs
and Southwest part of the Mumbai city,
which consists of Vaitarana, Upper
Vaitarana, Bhandup, Maroshi, Tansa
(East) and Tansa (West) main pipelines.
Bhandup-Maroshi main pipeline runs
up to Maroshi only and supplies water
to the Veravali Group of Reservoirs.
Other mains continue to carry water to
Dharavi, Mahim and further.
HCC bagged the project in
September 2007 with a total contract
meters length weighing 150 tons were
lowered in the shaft piece by piece and
assembled at the bottom of each shaft
before commencement of tunneling
work On an average 20 meters of
tunnel was completed in a single day
with a record of 40 meters tunneling
completed in a single day with a Wirth
Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM).
HCChasconstructed21kmof existing
26 kmwater tunnels that supply drinking
water to Mumbai and is currently
constructing 12 km of tunnels of the 23
km of water. The Bhandup Complex to
Charkoptunnel of 12 km length was the
last tunnel completed by HCC. This
tunnel was completed 5 months ahead
of schedule, despite difficult geological
conditions. Come September 2013
and Mumbai will start getting flawless
water supply from the newtunnel.
After a number of impediments such
Bhavani Balakrishna
Bhavani Balakrishna
Marol Maroshi Tunnel:
Quenching Mumbai's Thirst
Marol Maroshi Tunnel:
Quenching Mumbai's Thirst
227 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Infrastructure Tunnels
as difficulty in maintenance, security
issues because of the pipes passing
beneath the Mumbai airport land, the
Municipal Corporation of Greater
Mumbai (MCGM) decided to construct
a tunnel from Marol Maroshi up to
Ruparel College.
By September 2013, more than half
of Mumbai's homes will enjoy better
and consistent water supply minus the
frequent cuts. The tunnel will be
operational only by September 2013
because engineers have to complete
the cementing work and construct
around five to six shafts linking it to other
smaller water distributionnetworks.
Mumbai has a long history of
struggling to deliver reliable and safe
drinking water to its residents. In 2005,
the Municipal Corporation of Greater
Mumbai initiated a plan to move from
an intermittent water supply, averaging
2 to 4 hours per day, to a 24x7 water
supply while managing to serve its
rapidly growing population. The city
20% of the daily supply of water is lost
due to leakage or pilferage. The autho-
rities decided to do away with pipelines
andconstruct undergroundtunnels below
Mumbai city to transport water.
has already invested heavily in the
expansion of water systems, yet the
rate of population growth, compounded
by instability of the water supply have
hampered progress. It is said that over
Communication Feature
228 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Stirling Lloyd Maintains Cut and Cover Tunnel
Success in Hot Aggressive Climates
Application of the first coat of Integritank
NDIA - Long External View of Tunnel
einforcingits growingreputation
R
in the global tunnelling market,
Stirling Lloyd' s Integritank
waterproofing membrane has recently
been utilised to cope with the
challenges of two major cut and cover
tunnel projects inthe ArabianGulf.
Built in response to significantly
increased passenger capacity, the
NewDoha International Airport in Qatar
has a transport infrastructure built
aroundtwomajor cut andcover tunnels.
The Midfield Access Road Tunnel
crosses under the airport's Western
Runway and provides key access to
the midfield development area and
passenger terminals. The second
tunnel accesses the Free Trade Zone
which includes a business park, offices
and several luxury five star hotels.
With a successful track record of
over fifteen years of waterproofing cut
and cover tunnels, Stirling Lloyd's
Integritank spray-applied membrane
was selected by main contractor and
i n-house desi gner, Benai m, for
waterproofing the wall and roof slab
surfaces of both these cast-in-situ cut
and cover tunnels. Benaim chose this
fully bonded, seamless system as it
offered excellent resistance to the site's
high concentrations of groundwater
chloride and sulphate and they had
confidence in the product gained from
working with the material previously in
Hong Kong.
Some 48,000m of the Integritank
two-coat system was spray-applied to
the Midfield tunnel and 38,000m
on the Free Trade tunnel. A key
consideration throughout for the client
was the unique quality control system
that is implemented during the two-
coat, colour contrasting application of
the membrane.
These features were also important
on a separate tunnel and road
infrastructure project for the Department
of Transport in Abu Dhabi. The Ras Al
Akhdar and Baynounah St reet
improvement works includes two
tunnel packages; Package 1 involving
a 700m, two-lane tunnel to alleviate
traffic congestion at the intersection
between Baynounah Street and Sultan
Bin Zayed Street, and Package 2, a
540m, two-lane, U-shaped tunnel
which will provide direct access to the
Etihad Towers.
With Integritank again specified,
Sreerama
Industries
Relyon Facility
Services Pvt.Ltd
Communication Feature
230 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
View of Works inc High Rise in Background
View of Yellow Integritank on Wall
For further details contact:
Andrew Crosbie, PR Director
Ph: +91-7947-992022
Dave Mulligan
Stirling Lloyd Marketing Manager
Ph: +91-1565-633111
E-mail: andrewcrsb@gmail.com
Web: www.stirlinglloyd.com
adhesion tests were initially carried out
on each section of both cut and cover
tunnels to confirm that the bond
strengths achieved were in excess of
those required, an important factor in
ensuring a long service life for a coating.
On completion of these adhesion tests,
the concrete substrate was then
primed withStirling Lloyd's PA1 primer.
Some 10,590m of Integritank and
9,200m of PVC T-lock liner was then
applied to Package 1 tunnel and
14,000m of Integritank and 16,000m
of PVC T-lock liner on Package 2. Each
coat of the membrane is pigmented in
contrasting colours, the first yellow, the
second grey, so the sprayer can
visually check that the correct thickness
of material has been applied. This is
also backed up by constant wet film
dipping to ensure the required 1mm for
eachcoat has beenachieved.
This latest UAE project was
awarded as a di rect resul t of
Integritank's successful application at
the Yas Island Southern Tunnel Crossing,
completed inAbuDhabi last year.
Named a couple of years ago as
the 'world's leading tourism project' at
the World Travel Awards, Yas Island's
development has relied heavily on
investment in its construction and
transport infrastructure and one central
feature has been the Southern Tunnel
Crossing, which opened in October
2010, connecting Al Raha Beach to
many of Yas Island's key attractions.
Although an immersed tunnel, this
was actually built by cut and cover
methods between two coffer dams that
heldthe water back duringconstruction.
On this 1.2km long, 40m wide and 10m
high tunnel, Integritank was again the
principal waterproofing system, applied
to some 49,000m of concrete wall and
roof slab.
As was the case on the subsequent
Ras Al Akhdar tunnels, one potential
issue for the project's success was the
Abu Dhabi climate. The hot and humid
weather can cause problems for the
installation of other liquid applied
systems, however, Integritank's advanced
methyl methacrylate (MMA) resins are
probably the most tolerant of climatic
conditions and this enabled it to be
successfully applied in temperatures in
excess of 40C.
Once the Southern Tunnel Crossing
had been completed, the coffer dams
were removed and, though the tunnel
is now immersed under 25m of sea
water, the seamless, high performance
waterproofing membrane has ensured
it has remained 100% dry after over 18
months of service.
Communication Feature
231 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
his paper is an attempt to look into different mine
equipment parameters and selection of equipment for
Tenvironmental friendly and cost effective solution for
open cast mining with special reference to coal and limestone.
While cost of every resource is on an increasing trend including
fuel prices, on the other hand the demand for reduced carbon
emission is mounting day by day. A mine investor or operator
has no other alternative but to design, plan&operate a surface
mine according to his needs of the day.
Crushing and conveying the mineral and waste/rejects as
against handling ROMdirectly from the face, transporting it by
diesel bund transport system. Crushing and processing at the
pit top and then further long haul to the final destination of the
mine product including handling and transportation of
multiple volumes of waste is always not only economic but
takes care of the environment and is better organized.
Economics of a mining operation is a subject of efficiency
of each and every operation along with consistency of the set
mining standards and methods and finally the performance of
equipment's and their overall quality. It is however not to be out
of subject to remind that long termplanning of mining operation
and equipment including proper selection of equipment and
resources play a vital role to operate a system economically
and ROI of the project.
The discussion of the subject here shall be restricted to
open cast limestone and coal mining to understand the above
as mentioned.
Present Trend of Surface Mining of Limestone and Coal in
theCountry
While attempt was made to mechanize the underground
coal mining in the country especially by longwall mining,
continuous miner and blast gallery method; the results are not
very encouraging. The open cast mining in coal and limestone,
for that matter, even other minerals like copper, zinc and iron
ore have traditionally been handled by shovel dumper
method. However continuous mining by bucket wheel
excavator has been a success in coal mining belt in southern
sector of the country. Implementation of the dragline mining
although has been made successful in Indian coal mines
thoughachievements are not so encouraging so far.
Surface miners have been a recent trend in both limestone
and coal mining in the country. Although the government run
companies are yet to take direct responsibilities, contract
mining has been very successful. On the other hand, the
cement plant owners in selected projects have implemented a
complete environmental friendly blast free mining by surface
miners ona large scale. Because of the limitations of cuttability
of surfaceminerswithintheeconomicrange, theimplementations
in limestone mining could not be extended further. Once
surfaceminedby surfaceminer theROMaresizedandbeltable.
However transportation of the material or surface mined ROM
is done by trucks or heavy dumpers. Attempts are yet to be
madein the country to convey the sized ROMby belts directly
from the pit to the final dispatch point either in limestone or
coal. There have been continuous improvement in the sizes of
loading or transport in the sizes of loading or transport
vehicles inthe mines thereby encouraging the cost per ton.
Considerationof In-Pit Crushing
Implementation of in-pit mining technology for coal and
other minerals need due consideration of geo-mining condition
of deposit. Availability of in-pit crusher and shiftability of in-pit
crusher in the mine are other consideration which needs to
look into. Shortening travelling distance and cycle time
between excavation and crushing operation require fewer
trucks and leads to less dust generation and also decreases
on site traffic conjunction which is a factor to be considered in
favour of belt conveyor system especially in large open cast
mines. This leads to safer mine conditions and also contributes
in relief against fatigue mine management of large dumper
logistic truck maintenance and haul road maintenance. Most
of the opencast mine in country are governed by high
stripping ratio, thereby planning and operation of opencast
Crush and Convey: The Only Answer to Tackle
Present Day Surface Mine Economics
Abhishek Jain
Final Year M.Tech Student,
Dept. of Mining Engg, IIT,Kharagpur
Vaibhav Singhal
Final Year M.Tech Student,
Dept. of Mining Engg, IIT, Kharagpur
Rockster R1100 crusher in Baranj O.C.P
Communication Feature
232 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Mine planning is very critical in implementation of in-pit
crushing and conveyor. Installation of crusher and conveyor
must be planned well in advance simultaneously with haul
road. Excavation or placement of material to establish
conveyor route and crusher station should be planned as
mining started. Access geometry for haul road, crusher, belt
way etc. is also established as mining proceed. Detail time
sequence planning and evaluation of precise working
geometry are must as installation of crusher and conveyor can
be inflexible and unwieldy.
A combination of conveyor transportation and truck
haulage-dual systemcanbemost cost effective. Whileconveyor
system for transportation of material is most cost effective,
truck haulage system can be justified for mine with different
kind of materials. A particular material may be of insufficient
quantity or scattered inseveral areas of the pit.
In-Pit CrushingConveyingScheme
The ROM material is dumped into a feeder pocket within
the selected pit after crushing by in-pit crusher. The face
material is transported by dumper, lying within pit, from the
face to feeder hopper installed on ground level. From the
ground hopper fed onto the horizontal on the pit or it can be
mine primarily determined by removal, transportation and
dumping of overburden. While in-pit crushing is profitable
proposition, installation of crusher and conveyor can be
inflexible and unwieldy. Pit geometry, depth, operating stripping
ratio and mine access are the parameter which needs to be
study for implementationof in-pit crushing and conveying.
EvaluationandImplementationonIn-Pit Crushing
Design capacity of crusher and conveyor system are
required to be co-ordinated between material handling
engineer and mine planner. As very first step hourly tonnage
and expected belt profile must be determined, secondly it
must be established to determine how big and how long
should be the conveyor system. Finally establishing the
required operational range of material handling system and
consider the function of mine throughout and not only just the
peak should be considered. Estimation of number of loading
equipment which will deliver to the crusher followed by
calculation of maximum hourly production in terms of number
of shovel and the trucks needs to be estimated.
Belt conveyor system for transport from the pit itself
Typical Conveyor Layout with BWE. (Can be also with In-Pit Crusher System)
directly transfer out of the pit. Depending on the pit geometry
and depth, there may be more than one transfer belt junctions.
Once the material is out of the pit it is conveyed to the plant of
final destination.
For further details:
Rockster Recycler India pvt. Ltd.
No. 500, 17th Cross, Ideal Home Society, RR Nagar,
Bangalore - 560098, Ph: +91-80-28604528,
E-mail: subhash@rocksterindia.in, Web: www. Rocksterindia.com
Conclusion
Truck and conveyor combination system can avail the
advantage of both the systemwhile flexibility is assured through
dumper transportation within the pit, operating cost per tonne
for material conveyed out of the pit especially on uphill long
slope is cheaper. Reduced number of dumper not only
lowers the capital investment but at the same time lower the
running cost. Carbon emission which is not only a threat to
environment but also consideration of future financial threat is
not far from where there can be implementation of carbon tax.
Dust pollution is another major hazard to mine environment and
surrounding is greatly reduced by crush and convey system.
However implementation of limited number of truck within the
pit may also lead to the solution to dust generation within the
pit and maintenance of haul road. This can be achieved by
stabilizing the upper layer of haul road including strengthening
of basebyadditionof aggregateandadditivesinin-situmaterial.
At the end it can be concluded wherever applicable and
possible truck and conveyor system should be attempted.
Belt conveyor system with top cover to the final dispatch point
Roof India
Communication Feature
234 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
ith a proven track record of
manufacturing and supplying
qual i t y pr oduct s, Mai ni W
Construction Equipments Pvt Ltd, has
established itself as a leading name
in the formwork industry in India. An ISO
9001:2000 certified company, with a
strong customer focus; Maini is
considered a trendsetter in the field of
modern aluminium formwork systems in
the country.
Under the dynamic leadership of
Mr.Ajay Maini, Director of the company,
Maini has grown from strength to
strength and is nowa preferred choice of
contractors and engineers. The company
began its eventful journey in 1986 when
Maini Scaffolding Company was started.
Earlier the company was a dealer. By
1996 it had entered the mainstream and
had made deep inroads into the market
with direct marketing initiatives. The
company started manufacturi ng
aluminium formwork in 2008 and has
now carved a niche for itself through its
R & D focus, innovative product range,
andexcellent technical support services.
Speaki ng excl usi vel y to the
Masterbuilder, Mr.Ajay Maini gave
insights into the company's product
range, the general state of affairs of the
formwork industry in India and their
future plans. Here are excerpts from the
interview.
Give us an overview of your range of
scaffoldingandformwork systems?
Maini Construction Equipments Pvt.
Ltd. (MCE) are one of the leading
manufacturers of complete range of
aluminum formwork systems right from
designing, manufacturing, erection to
the complete site support and regard to
scaffolding, we offer complete range of
steel scaffolding including cuplok
systems, props, spans, metriform, wall
form and tailor made formworks etc.
Apart from the technical attributes of
your formwork systems, what are the
other valueaddedservices that youoffer
as part of your total product package?
MCE not only provides the best
quality products but also provide
solutions and key inputs for special
In Conversation with Mr.Ajay Maini,
Director, Maini Construction Equipment
For further details:
E-mail: info@mcepl.com
Web: www.mainiscaffolding.com
Ajay Maini,
Director, Maini Construction Equipments Pvt Ltd
structure formworks and assist our
customers technically to reach the
desired results.
Give us a fewexamples of infrastructure
projects where your products have
beenused?
In steel scaffolding, we have
successfully executed residential and
infrastructure projects including Bridges
at Karnal to Ambala, Highway for
National Highway Authority of India,
Allahabad-Naini Bridge, Mumbai-Pune
Expressway, Delhi Metro, Kolkata Airport,
Delhi Airport etc. In aluminum formwork,
a few of our projects includes Salapuria
Greenage project Bangalore, Ozone
Metrozone Chennai, Marg Ltd. UPHDB,
LucknowDevelopment Authority etc.
Has the recent economic slowdown
impactedyour order book?
Not really, because of our versatile
range of products in steel as well as
aluminum formwork. MCE's aluminum
formwork was launched when the entire
industry was going through a rough
phase, however, we were able to sustain
and managed a steady growth.
Given the various advantages of
systemformwork, why do you think has
been the growth rate not up to
expectations in the Indian market? Is it
because of reluctance on the part of the
engineering community or lack of
codes or is it thecost factor?
Yes, given the various advantage of
system formwork the growth rate is not
up to the expectations because of the
lack of skilled and educated labour at the
level of installation. Another reason is the
fact that many are taking a short cut to
cut cost rather than adhering to the
complete system, thus, resulting into not
getting the desired results.
235 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Communication Feature
apidadvancementsintechnology
in the field of formwork have
Rseen the advent of several new
innovative products in the market in
recent times. While there are several
product offerings which could lay claim
to being innovative, there are only a
select few which carve a niche for
themselves. Epic Eco fiberglass
formwork systems are among these
topnotchproducts.
Epic Eco fiberglass formwork
systems come from Epic Group, a
globally renowned formwork specialist,
whose products are being used in
across continents. The Epic Group is
represented in India by Mumbai-based
Indigo Multitrade Pvt Ltd. Epic Eco
Composite Fiberglass shuttering
building systems represent a revolution
in the area of shutteringbecause of their
lightness, simplicity, durability, solidity,
resistance to temperature changes and
their price competitiveness. One of the
major advantages with these systems
is that they offer simplification of
shuttering with the same mechanical
properties of other systems.
Epic Eco fiberglass formwork systems
display excellent mechanical qualities
2
since they can hold 60kN/m ,-1200 psf
of paneling. They are made up of a
composite mixture of polypropylene,
special fibers and chemicals which
enables the construction to hold such
high pressure. Moreover, the speed of
paneling with these systems is very
fast and abundant palette of elements
allows for best possible paneling
composition. Optimum paneling
composition is ensured since the
paneling surface is very close or in
some instances the same as the
surface wetted withconcrete.
Epic Eco paneling systems are
particularly suitable for paneling of
foundations, shafts of all kinds, and
walls up to 4.2 meters / 14 ft height.
They are also suitable for handwork
because of their lowweight, i.e., 18-22
2
kg/m , together with the connective
material. The paneling systemconsists
of 10 elements and 51 connective
elements, which are suitable for all
heights.
The lightweight of the Fiberglass
paneling system also means that they
are easy to transport. Adding to their
sustainability quotient is the fact that
the paneling systems are recyclable.
In fact, they are brought back by Epic
Groupfor the market price.
Excellent finish is ensured because
of perfect treatment of elements and
optimal joints. Cleaning of the panels is
also easy since concrete does not hold
the surface.
Another highlight of EpicEcopaneling
systems is their ability to withstand
extreme vagaries of temperature,
making them ideally suited for varied
climatic conditions. They can withstand
temperatures of even -23 degrees
Celsius / - 9.4 Fahrenheit or up to +50
degrees Celsius / + 122 degrees
Fahrenheit without experiencing any
damage. Since the systems do not
decompose or oxidize, the panel
systems are durable and last for at least
10 years and is maintenance free.
The innovative production process
means that the company is able to pass
on the cost advantage to the end user,
ensuring the cost competitiveness of
Epic Eco Composite Fiberglass
shuttering systems. Adding to the cost
advantage is the fact that they are light
in weight and are therefore easier to
transport.
Given the slewof advantages offered
by this innovative shuttering system,
plus the excellent technical support
services provided by Indigo Multitrade
Pvt Ltd, it is not surprising that Epic Eco
Composite fiberglass formwork systems
are nowgradually becoming the preferred
choice of contractors and engineers
around India.
'Next - Gen' Fiberglass
Shuttering Systems from Indigo
For further details:
Indigo Multitrade Pvt. Ltd.
416, Bhaveshwar Complex, Vidyavihar(W),
Mumbai - 400086, India
Ph: +91-22-25021144, 40111466,
Fax: +91-22-25025994,
E-mail: imports@indigo.in
Web: www.indigo.in
Communication Feature
236 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
aruti Steel Fab (MSF) is one of
the leading formwork and
scaffolding company in the M
country. The company has been a
frontrunner when it comes to introduction
of innovative products and solutions.
Over thepast 12years, fromits inception,
it has become a name synonymous
with a quality range of heavy duty
formwork and scaffolding systems in
the country.
The company offers a comprehensive
rangeof modular tunnel formwork which
enables efficient and cost-effective in
situ casting permitting walls and slabs
to be formed simultaneously in one
operation with a high degree of
accuracy and excellent finish.
The company has carved a niche
for itself in modular tunnel formwork
systems, an area which requires a high
degree of specialization. The specialty
of MSF tunnel formwork includes it
bei ng col l apsi bl e tunnel form,
resusable tunnel form, lightweight
tunnel form and importantly, allows
helps in speeding up the construction
process.
The systematic approach of the
company means that the team of
highly experienced professionals, who
are at the helm of affairs, thoroughly
analyze every detail of the project
based on the structural plan, in close
tandem with the clients, and offer the
right solution.
Making a Mark with Modular
Tunnel Formwork Systems
For further details:
Maruti Steel Fab
109, 1st Floor, Gera Garden Bldg. 1,
Koregaon Park Road, Pune-411001
Ph: +91-20-26056282, Fax: +91-20-26056282
E-mail: harish@marutisteelfab.com,
deepak@marutisteelfab.com
Web: www.marutisteelfab.com
aterproofing is the process of
applying a special membrane
Wor sealant to a surface in order
to stop water from penetrating the
structural areas of a building. Roof,
floor, wall, basement, kitchen, shower
and toilets are the areas those can be
effectively saved from leakage,
seepage and dampness by using
different waterproofing solutions. It is
also used in pools, planters, lagoons,
tunnels and dams to prevent water
leakage.
Traditional waterproofing systems
like brickbat coba, mud faska etc
require a lot of time for execution and
also add to the dead load of the roof
leading to short life expectancy. Now a
days, the time is a major factor and
hence new waterproofing materials
have been adopted for the following
reasons: To reduce time & labour, to
increase the life expectancy of the
structure and to be compatible with
weat her condi t i ons. Moder n
waterproofing systems include Polymer
modified Bitumen Membranes with
different kind of reinforcements, Single
Ply Membranes and Liquid Applied
Membranes. The technical properties
of these waterproofing membranes are
mainly measured in terms of Softening
point, Penetration, Cold flexibility,
Tensile strength and Elongation etc.
These membranes can be fixed by
different methods such as fully
bonded, partially bonded, mechanically
fixed, loose laid and ballasted or any of
t he combi nat i on as per t he
requirement of the site. One should
consi der the type of surface,
application, slope, insulation, vapour
barrier and end user requirements
whi l e choosi ng wat er pr oof i ng
material.Texsa is manufacturing &
marketing Polymer modified Bitumen
based waterproofing membranes
under the brand name of MOPLY &
TEXSELF (Atactic Polypropylene &
Styrene Butadiene Styrene modified
reinforced with Polyester felt or fibre
gl ass) . These membr anes ar e
manufactured from high grade
bitumen blended with polymers to
o o
obtain low cold flexibility (-5 C to -20
C) which is indirectly related to the
durability of membrane whereas the
t ype of r ei nf or cement used
determines the tensile strength, tear
strength, puncture resistance and
other mechanical properties. Other
benefits of using these membranes
are uniform thickness, effective in
thermal and structural stresses, self
finished, user friendly, fast execution
of job etc. Bitumen membranes have
life expectancy of 10-15 years or
more.
Another type of membrane
waterproofing is by Single Ply
Membranes. These are flexible sheet
material, elastomeric or thermoplastic
in nature used in one ply configuration
as roof waterproofing membranes.
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) single ply
membrane, marketed under the
brand name of VINITEX and TPO
(Thermoplastic polyolefin) membrane
under the trade name Texsalon are in
Texsa's waterproofing product range in
India. PVC roof membrane has the
l ongest t r ack r ecor d of any
thermoplastic membrane with the first
PVC based systems initiated in Europe
in early 1960. It has high resistance to
pu n c t u r e , i mpa c t , f i r e a n d
microbiological attack. It is flexible to
low temperature and tolerant to high
temperature and life expectancy of
PVC membranes is 25-50 years.
Tex sa of f er s speci al PVC
membr anes f or wat er pr oof i ng
applications in swimming pools,
tunnels, potable water tanks besides
the standard grades.
Liquid Applied Membranes, are
amongst the popular materials used for
waterproofing where faster installation
without joints is required. These Liquid
membranes are light weight having
very high elongation and elastic
recovery. It is mostly used on complex
roofs and damp surfaces. As there is
no need of torch on application, it is
user and environment friendly. With
high UV resistance and durability, it is
available in different colours. Texsa
o f f e r s c o l d L i q u i d a p p l i e d
waterproofing in the form of Acrylic,
PUcoatings and bitumencoatings.
Thus, Texsa offers all types of
products for providing a waterproofing
solution. Texsa India Ltd. is a wholly
own subsidiary of the TEXSA Group
founded in 1954 in Barcelona (Spain).
Texsa manufactures and markets
products for roofing/ waterproofing,
thermal and acoustic insulation and
geot ex t i l es , as wel l as t he
corresponding auxiliary materials for
each of these fields, for building and
civil works.
Waterproofing Solutions for
New and Old Structures
For further details:
Texsa India Ltd.
345, Ground Floor, Udyog Vihar Phase II,
Gurgaon 122016 Haryana
Ph: +91-124-4052078/79, Fax: +91-124-4052080,
E-mail: texsaindia@texsa.in
Web: www.texsa.com
APP Bituminous Membrane
Liquid Waterproofing PU Based
237 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Communication Feature
Construction Chemicals International Conference
rate, industry analysts had always felt that the growth rate was
not keeping up to the actual potential. Several factors including,
a general lack of awareness about right usage of construction
chemicals among a vast majority of contractors and a dearth of
trained applicators had been attributed to the relatively slow
growth of the construction chemicals industry. This was the
overall scenario of the construction chemicals industry, until
CCMA happened. The formation of the Construction Chemicals
Manufacturers Association (CCMA), a few years ago, came as
the much needed trigger for boosting the fortunes of the
construction chemicals industry. The industry association has
now become the voice of the construction chemicals
manufacturers and has come out with several key initiatives that
have put the construction chemicals industry on an accelerated
growthpath.
he Indian construction industry had set a scorching pace
of growth by the turn of this century. The growth story,
Talthough impacted by the vagaries of the global
economic uncertainties in recent times, has been fuelled by the
inherent demand for infrastructure development and the boom
in the real estate sector over the past two decades. The
construction industry continues to be the second largest
employer after the agriculture sector and with the government
recently announcing plans for investing ` 50 lakh crore in
infrastructure development during the 12th Five Year Plan
period; it is a growth story that is expected to continue in the
near future. One of the direct beneficiaries of this growth story
has been the construction chemicals industry, popularly
referred to as the 'Sunrise Industry'.
While there is no denying the fact that the construction
chemicals industry in the country has been growing at a healthy
238 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Catapults CCMA
into National Limelight
MB Bureau Report MB Bureau Report
239 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
C3 At theRight Time
According to industry experts, over 85% of
contractors in the country are said to be not fully aware of
the uses of construction chemicals. Setting right this
general lack of awareness about proper usage of
construction chemicals is one of the main objectives of
CCMA. The association has been conducting several
seminars and training programs for applicators, thereby
bringing into sharp focus the key role that the
construction chemicals industry can play in the nation
building process.
As part of its initiatives, CCMA had recently
successfully hosted India's largest International
Conference onConstruction Chemicals (C3) on 17th and
18th of February, 2012, at Hotel Ramada, Powai,
Mumbai. The central theme of the conference was,
'Emerging Material, Methods & Practices', in the field of construction
chemicals. Speakers at the conference included, the virtual 'whos who'
from the world of construction chemicals, drawn from academicians,
scientists, and industry professionals, from around the world.
The conduct of C3 could not have been timed better. The country is
entering its crucial second phase of infrastructure development and the
eyes of almost every other industry is towards the construction industry,
as it is the one that plays a key role in the process. The larger scale of
projects, which has pushed up demand for high-strength and quick
settingconcrete, plus thegreater emphasis on quality, has automatically
made a positive impact onthe constructionchemicals market.
TheSunRises
It won't be a misnomer to say that with C3 the sun has really risen, as
far as the sunrise industry is concerned. A fledging industry has now
taken its rightful place in the pantheon of top industries in the country
.The pace of development of technology, as well as usage of
Construction Chemicals International Conference
240 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
construction chemicals has received the necessary fillip
with the successful conduct of the mega conference,
which saw dignitaries from around the world, share their
wisdom with industry professionals, academicians,
scientists and students from around the country.
The importance of the conference, vis--vis the
growth of construction chemicals industry cannot be
overemphasized. As rightly pointed out by Mr.Samir
Surlaker, Chairman, CCMA, C3 is a huge step forward in
increasing awareness about construction chemicals in
the country. Just as the Indian infrastructure development
story enters its second phase, C3 has signaled the entry
of the construction chemicals industry into its crucial
growth phase. The key focus areas of CCMA were a
subject of intense discussion during the conference
within the delegates and among the various participants.
Standardization and training would be among our two
top key focus areas, observed Mr.Samir Surlaker,
further stating that C3 has set the ball rolling for the
conduct of a series of roving seminars around the
country, to further the cause of proper usage of
constructionchemicals.
The growth story of CCMA also makes for
fascinating reading. It is really interesting since it is
perhaps the only industry association whose members
are engaged in intense competition in the marketplace,
a point that was bought out Mr.R.K.Jha, Director, Gujarat
International Finance Tec-City (GIFT), during his
inaugural address at the conference. The association
has grown to include over 35 member-manufacturers
within a remarkably short span of time. C3 sawevery top
player in the field of construction chemicals rub shoulders
Session Chairman: Mr.Barry Jackson, Consultant, Dubai
Session Chairman: Mr.A.R.Jambekar, S.N.Bhobe & Associates
Session Chairman: Mr.A.T.Samuel, STUP Consultants
Session Chairman: Dr.N.V.Nayak, Gammon India
}
}
}
Construction Chemicals A Building Developer's View by Mr.C.K.Pithawallah, Hiranandani Group
Self-Compacting Concrete for Mass Housing by Mr.Charles Jones, BASF India
High quality Sealants and Life Cycle Management by Mr.Ashraf Wahib, Sika IMEA region
}
}
}
Use of Microsilica in High Performance Concrete by Mr.Per Fidjestol, Elkem AS, Norway
Roof Waterproofing & Insulation by Mr.Sanjay Bahadur & Mr.Padmakar, Pidilite India
Right Technologies for Trouble-Free Tile and Stone Installations in Bathrooms and Kitchens by
Dr.P.Arjunan, MYK Laticrete
}
}
}
Construction Chemicals An User's Perspective by Mr.C.R.Dordi, Ambuja Cement
Structural Versus Non-Structural Repairs- A Consultant's Views by Mr.Satish C.Dhupelia
Reliable Waterproofing Solutions from Basement to Roof by Mr.Arijit Basu, Sika India
}
}
}
Future of Tunneling Technologies by Mr.Willey Kay, WAK Technologies, Singapore
Construction Chemicals- A Contractors View by Mr.Manish Mokal, Gammon India
Case Study: Advanced Concrete Technology for Tunnel Segments by Mr.Eugen Kleen,
MC Bauchemie, Germany
}
}
}
}
E-Chem Repairs, A Modern Approach by Mr.M.N.Ramesh, Savcor India
Grouts for Machine Foundations by Mr.Rakesh Shah, Fairmate Chemicals
Precision Grouts by Mr.Prabhakar Sharma, Pidilite India
Customized Flooring Solutions for Industrial Establishments by Mr.N.Gopinath, Sika India
P
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Technical Session II: Session Chairman: Prof.M.S.Shetty
Technical Session III: Solutions for Institutional Buildings
Technical Session IV: Solutions for Transport & Water Infrastructure
Technical Session V: Solutions for Industrial & Power Projects
Technical Session I: Solutions for Mass Housing Buildings
Session Chairman: Mr.C.R.Raikar, Structwel Designers & Consultants
It is indeed laudable
that construction
chemicals manu-
facturers, inspite of
being competitors,
have come together
to share a platform for
the greater cause of
growth of the con-
struction chemicals
industry
R.K.Jha
Director, Gujarat International
Finance Tec-City (GIFT)
C3 has set the ball
rolling for the
conduct of a series
of roving seminars
around the country,
to further the cause
of proper usage of
construction
chemicals
Samir Surlaker
President, CCMA
with each other, all for the greater cause of the promotion of the industry,
something that is remarkable inthis day and age of intense competition.
UnprecedentedSuccess
The conference perhaps marked the first time that such a
conglomeration of leading players in the field of construction chemicals
shared a common platform towards achieving a common goal, in the
country. It also offered delegates a chance to get detailed insights into
various aspects of construction chemicals from renowned experts,
keeping in tune with one of the key objectives of CCMA, i.e.,
disseminationof knowledge inthe field.
Construction Chemicals International Conference
The formation of CCMA has meant that construction
chemicals manufacturers can nowbe assured of the fact
that their requirements would be put across to various
different authorities for the further growth of the industry,
a factor that was earlier considered one of the growth
inhibitors. In fact, as part of the conference, it was
resolved that the views of the members would be put
forth before the central and state governments. CCMA is
already working in close tandem with other leading
industry bodies with respect to liasoning with various
government authorities for the betterment of the
constructionchemicals industry.
The conference also helped in highlighting the
ambitious training initiatives that CCMA has lined up for
conduct around the nation. CCMA has also announced
its plan to come out with a detailed handbook on the
proper usage of construction chemicals, which it would
be publishing with help from ICI. The association has
also been meeting technical institutions for including
certain topics pertaining to construction chemicals as
part of the academic syllabus. The widespread attention
that C3 garnered, among academicians, industry
professionals, students, and civil engineering fraternity,
augers well for CCMA further intensifying its efforts
towards conduct of specialized training programs for
various stakeholders from the constructionindustry.
Challenges Ahead
The success of the conference has also meant that the real test for
CCMA begins now. All the eyes are now on the association, which is
expected to help the construction chemicals industry surmount challenges
that lie ahead, such as lack of standardization, codes , rationalization of
tax structures, etc. The onus is now on CCMA to address key issues
that have been hindering the growth of the construction chemicals
industry in the country. CCMA has already started the process and has
now firmly entrenched itself as the voice of the construction chemicals
manufacturers. One of the biggest breakthroughs for CCMA has been
that BIS has co-opted the association in IS codal committees and will
play a key role in hastening the process of IS codes for new
technologies. A rapidly evolving customer and his changing demands
is another area that the CCMA has to take care off.
Lack of standardization and entry barriers is another one of the
toughchallenges facingtheconstructionchemicals industry today. These
factors have meant that the construction chemicals market continues to
be dominated by the unorganized sector in the country, leading to
skewed competition. It is in this scenario that the coming together of
leading players under the banner of CCMA bodes well for the growth of
the industry. As mentioned earlier, the success of C3 could well prove to
be the trigger that helps CCMA surmount the challenges and put the
construction chemicals industry on the fast track. With the sustained
emphasis on infrastructure development and the push being given to
affordable housing, the construction chemicals industry in the country
could be infor its most exciting growthphase inthe near future.
245 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Construction Chemicals International Conference
246 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Events Stimulus 2012
engineers performing different roles in
the community, two teams each from
the state of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,
Kerala and Andhra Pradesh battled it
out at the Nimhans Convention Center
inBangalore for SouthIndia's topslots.
Hosted by renowned quiz master,
Mr. Giri Balasubramanian, the teams
were subjected to creative but
rigourousroundslikeDecodeStimulus,
Lateral stimulus and Visual
stimulus involving questions revolving
around civil engineering fundamentals,
practical applications and best
practices. The team's colour-coded
shirts and the buzz, excitement and
nail-biting finish that kept the audience
on the edge until the quiz master
bowled what he dubbed as the final
ball, was much akin to a thrilling twenty-
twenty cricket match. Even the veteran
civil engineers and academicians in the
audience caught the adrenaline rush
n Feb 22nd, 2012, some of
India's brightest, budding civil
Oengineering students had their
mettle tested on questions related to
concreteandconstructioninStimulus,
Ultra Tech's Cement's civil engineering
quiz program in South India. Ultra
Tech's Stimulus has been the largest
quizzing platform for civil engineering
students and it lived upto its promise of
being larger-than-life this year with
participation from over 21,000 civil
engineering students involving 400
engineering colleges across the states
of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and
Andhra Pradesh. Stimulus has
reigned supreme as the ultimate battle
of brains for civil engineering students
and is the most coveted quizzing title
for engineering colleges across South
India inthe civil engineering stream.
Ami dst an enthusi asti c and
cheering audience comprising civil
as they vied with each other to tackle
the googlies and bouncers thrown by
the Quiz Master in audience questions
section.
Amrita School of Engineering,
Coimbatore bagged the top honors of
winning the south India final with a cash
prize of ` 30000 while Alagappa College
of Technology, Karaikkudi came second
andwonacashprizeof ` 15000. Nearly
800 national delegates participated in
the program as live audience. The
grand finale was preceded by state
and regional rounds held in their
respective states earlier.
Organized by Ultra Tech Cement
Limted, Stimulus is a civil engineering
quizprograminSouthIndiatoencourage
and nurture the talent among the Civil
Engineering Students. The students
were selected from their respective
colleges based on preliminary written
tests. The regional rounds were
MB Bureau Report
UltraTech 'Stimulus 2012'
Winner and Runner of STIMULUS 2012 in South India final with UltraTech team
247 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Events Stimulus 2012
represented by 8 colleges and winners
of the regional round participated in the
state final and finally, the best two
teams from the state of Tamil Nadu,
Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
competed for the topslots.
The regional round of Chennai was
heldat thegrandVivekanandaAuditorium,
College of Engineering Guindy on Sept
28, 2011. The preliminary round winners
from IIT Madras (IITM), College of
Engineering Guindy (CEG)-Anna
University, SRM University, Bharath
University, Hindustan University, B. S.
Abdur Rahman University (new entrant),
Dr. M. G. R. University and Velammal
Engineering College (new entrant)
participated. CEGemerged the winners
after winning the nerve wrecking tie-
breaker and walked away with a cash
prize of `10000/-. They also qualified
for the Mega Final while the runner up
SRM University contended with the
prize money of ` 6000/- and vowed to
Feb 6, 2012 at Sona College of
Technology, Salem. The teams that
participated included Government
College of Engineering-Salem, Mahendra
Engineering-Sale, S.R.College of
Engineering and Sona College of
Technology.Kongu Engineering College,
Perundurai, Institute of Road and
Transport Technol ogy, Bhavani ,
MPNMJ Engi neer i ng Col l ege,
Chenni mal ai , Erode Sengunthar
Engineering College, Thudupathi.
The regional round in Coimbatore
held during Feb 9, 2012 attracted 1200
participants from colleges like PSG
Tech - Coimbatore, Coimbatore Institute
of Technology (CIT)-Coimbatore,
Government College of Technology
(GCT)- Coimbatore, Amrita School of
Engineering (ASE)-Coimbatore, Sri
Ramakrishna Institute of Technology
(SRIT)-Coimbatore, Shri Krishna
Col l ege of Technol ogy (SKCT)-
Coimbatore, Karunya University (KU)-
come back with revived energy next
year.
The regional round of Vellore region
held on the following day received
enthusiastic response with colleges
spread far and wide - in a range of
about 200kms - eagerly participated in
the contest. The participating teams,
VIT University (VITU)-Vellore, Thanthai
Periyar Government Institute of
Technology (TPGIT)-Vellore, Arunai
Engi neer i ng Col l ege ( AEC) -
Tiruvannamalai (new entrant), Sri
Venkateshwara College of Engineering
(SVCE)-Sriperumpudur, Adhiparasakthi
Engi neer i ng Col l ege ( APEC) -
Melmaruvathur, Jayam College of
Engineering & Technology (JCET)-
Dharmapuri and Sapthagiri Engineering
College (SEC)-Dharmapuri left no
stone unturned when it came to
winning. SVCE emerged the winners
while TPGIT came behind them.
Salem Regional round was held on
Courtesy: www.tu-freiberg.de
Salem Cochin
Madurai Coimbatore
Thanjavur Vellore
Chennai
Kozhikode
Winner of various
regional rounds in
Tamilnadu & Kerala
248 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Coi mbat ore, PSNA Col l ege of
Engineering and Technology-Dindugul.
ASE-Coimbatore emerged the winners
while PSNA came behind them.
Another regional round was held on
Feb 7, 2012 at Thiagarajar College of
Engineering-Madurai.The teams that
participatedincludedThiagarajar College
of Engineering Madurai Kalasalingam
University-Krishnankovil, Mepco Schlenk
EngineeringCollege -Sivakasi, Alagappa
College of Engineering and Technology
-Karaikudi, Raja College of Engineering
& Technology-Madurai, K. L. N. College
of Information Technology-Madurai,
Vickram College of Engineering-
Enathi, Mohamed Sathak Engineering
College-Kilakkarai. Madurai went on
with a record for the highest score (75
points as a winning team) in the South
Indian STIMULUS. AC Tech. Karaikudi
emerged the winners while TCE,
Madurai came behind them.
Thanjavur Regional round was held
on 10th Feb'12 at Periyar Maniammai
University Thanjavur. The participating
teams arePeriyar Maniammai University
Thanjavur, P R Engineering College -
Thanjavur, SudharsanEngineeringcollege
-Sathiyamangalam, Oxford Engineering
College- Tiruchirappalli, AnnaUniversity
of Technology-Tiruchirappalli, National
Institute of Technology-Tiruchirappalli,
M. I . E. T. Engi neer i ng Col l ege-
Tiruchirappalli, Annamalai University-
Chidambaram. The PREC, Thanjavur
emerged the winners while NIT, Trichy
came the runner.
Cochin region saw participation
from Sree Narayana Guru College of
Engineering-Cochin, SCMS School of
Engineering & Technology-Cochin,
CUSAT-Cochin, Mar Athanasius College
of Engineering-Kothamangalam, RAJIV
GANDHI Institute of Technology-Pampady,
SAINT GITS College of Engineering -
Pathamuttom, TKMCollegeOf Engineering-
Kollam. Mar Athanasius College of
Engineering Kothamangalam emerged
the Winners.
In the Kozhikode Region, NSS
College of Engineering Palakkad
emerged winners. Other colleges that
participated include IES College of
Engineering Chittilapally, Thrissur,
Govt. Engineering College Thrissur,
MES College of Engineering Kuttipuram,
A. W .H Engineering College-Calicut,
Govt. Engineering College-Calicut,
N. I. T. Calicut and Govt. College of
Engineering - Kannur.
The winners and the runners of 6
regions participated in the Tamil Nadu
Final with the Alagappa College of
Technology, Karaikkudi and Amrita
School of Engineering, Coimbatore
winning in the event. The winner of the
Cochin Region and Kozhikode region
represented Kerala state in South India
Final.
The competition coincided with the
3 day conference on REDECON 2012
organized by Association of Consulting
Civil Engineers (I) in which UltraTech
Cement Limited was the principal
patron. With an obvious gap between
curriculum and the real world of
construction, innovative and creative
platforms like the Stimulus can help
future civil engineers to acquaint
themselves withthe actual applications
of theory and concept in the practical
world. The Indian construction industry
needs more such events wherein civil
engineering students can interact with
the people inthe field.
Events Stimulus 2012
Amrita School of Engg. Received the Winner Award
AC Tech, Karaikudi received the Runner Award
The Masterbuilder Subscription Form
Communication Feature
250 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
asy to use, factory packed,

sel f curi ng, achi eves hi gh
2
compressive strength- >3N/mm E
in 4 hrs. and can be painted over, 24
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2 2
=> 3N/ mm , 7days=20N/ mm ,
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Specific Gravity of 1.2 gms / ltr.
In India, the Chowgule Construction
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chemicals. Chowgule Construction
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E-mail: captainbond@chowgule.co.in
Web: www.chowguletech.com
MortaRep SuperStrong
251 www.masterbuilder.co.in The Masterbuilder - March 2012
Communication Feature
onstructed of galvanized or
stainless steel in a variety of
gauges, slat designs and C
finishes for unsurpassed strength,
durability and style. Wide ranges of
styles meets or exceed industry fire
safety testing standards including UL,
FM and ULC. The doors are also
compliant withall NFPA-80 standards.
Door closes automatically under
governor control after separation of
fuse link. UL-listed brush type smoke
gaskets satisfy smoke retardation
requi rements. Addi ti onal safety
options include the fire SentinelTM
time-delay release device photoelectric
or ionization-type smoke detectors,
wi th or wi thout heat detector.
Additionally available uninterruptible
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Fire Shutter
252 The Masterbuilder - March 2012 www.masterbuilder.co.in
Karnataka to Declare Results of
Solar Project Auctions
arnataka, a South Indian State, is geared up to
Kannounce the winners of its solar power plants
auction, under the supervision of KREDL (Karnataka
Renewable Energy Development Ltd), a state-runagency.
In a recent interview held in Chennai, the Managing
Director of KREDL, N S Prasanna Kumar stated that the
results of the state's first ever auction to grant contracts for
solar projects will be announced in the coming week. The
agency stated that the participants including Tata Power,
Kiran Energy Solar Power Pvt, Welspun Group and Jindal
Aluminium Ltd had submitted bids in December last year
for 50 MW of photovoltaic capacity. Atria Power Corp and
Sunborne Energy LLC, supported by billionaire Vinod
Khosla had submitted bids for 30 MW solar-thermal
projects.
There was a delay in opening the bids as a legal
problem surfaced following the agency's failure to conform
with a rule entailing government bodies to use online
procurement systems to award contracts. (Source:
Bloomberg Pic Courtesy:
http://weblog.greenpeace.org)
fter its successful bid in 2010 to host the 2022 FIFA
AWorld Cup, Qatar made ingenious plans to design
solar-powered arenas that will not only exude outstanding
architectural ingenuity, but will also be capable of sheltering
against the summer heat. Among these, 'The Showcase'
designed by Arup Associates is a net-zero stadium that
took just four months for completion.
With a capacity of 500 seats with under-side cooling,
the arena's roof can be retracted and its photovoltaic solar
panels supply to the grid when it is not being used.
According to Architecture World News, oil-rich Qatar can
easily excel in its sustainable design, defying former
misconceptions that desert regions cannot host huge
sporting events. The Showcase merges passive design
with innovative energy-saving technology and comfortable
architecture. It uses Fresnel parabolic mirrors to provide
thermal cooling.
Owing to the enormity of the multitude that throng the
world's biggest sporting event, host nations give heed to
environmental concerns, besides exhibiting path-breaking
designs in their sports centers. South Africa, which hosted
the 2010 World Cup created a range of eco-friendly arenas.
Brazil, the 2014 World Cup host is set to create green
renovation in a hotel, along with incorporating green trends
in new constructions. Russia, the 2018 World Cup host is
set to build a high-speed rail system. (Source and Picture
Courtesy: Inhabitat)
E.Scape
'THE SHOWCASE' 'THE SHOWCASE'
Qatar's Gorgeous Stadium for the
2022 FIFA World Cup
Qatar's Gorgeous Stadium for the
2022 FIFA World Cup
iverpool Department Store is an ultra-modern structure located in
LInterlomas, a traffic-heavy region outside Mexico City. The
designer Rojkind Arquitectos has incorporated innovative elements to
the circular shopping center, so as to create cultural and relaxation
sites inthe humdrum region.
The store's silver fascia has a unique sheen that matches the
quick-paced traffic around it. Nestled in the junction of multiple
highways and overpasses, the store's double-layer faade has been
fabricated with 3D models. The spectacular stainless steel covering
on the outer layer serves to shelter the visitors from the surrounding
traffic bustle, providing a tranquil space amidst the commotion in one
of the busiest regions in the suburbs. Perforations in the silver layer
allowinfiltrationof sunlight during the day.
The three-story atrium of the Blade-Runner style structure brings
light to the interior. At night the space between the two layers is filled
with a wall of light, allowing colorful reflections on the steel fascia.
Apart from community balconies, the structure has a roof garden that
brings the much needed green touch to the area. (Source and Pic
Courtesy: Inhabitat)
A