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Introduction to Management and Organization

Who are managers? They are under age 18 to over age 80. They run large corporations as well as entrepreneurial start-ups. They are found in government departments, hospitals, small businesses, not for profit agencies, museums, schools, and even such non-traditional organizations as political campaigns and consumer co-operatives. Managers can also be found doing managerial work in every country around the globe. In addition, some managers are top level managers, while others are first line managers. Who were managers? They were the organizational members who told others what to do and how to do it. It was easy to differentiate managers from non-managerial employees. But it is not quite so simple anymore. In many organizations, the changing nature of work has blurred the distinction between managers and non-managerial employees. Many non-managerial jobs now include managerial activities. For example: In India, there are two examples of companies being taken over by employees themselves, the Kamani Tubes Limited in 1998 and the India Coffee House. The India Coffee House is run by employee co-operatives and has more than 400 branches all over the country. Definition Manager "A manager is someone who co-ordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.". A manager's job is not about personal achievement. Its about helping others do their work. That may mean co-ordinating the work of a departmental group, or it might mean supervising a single person. First line manager " The lowest level of management who manage the work of non-managerial employees and typically are directly or indirectly involved with producing the organization's products or servicing the organization's customers". First line managers are often called supervisor but may also be called shift managers, district managers, department managers, or office managers. Middle managers "Managers between the lowest level and top levels of the organization who manage the work of first line managers".

These managers may have the titles such as regional manager, project leader, store manager, or division manager. Top managers "Managers at or near the upper levels of the organization structure who are responsible for making organization wide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organization". These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer.