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BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COLORIMETRY

Color Vision and Perception


Light Eye

Object

LIGHT

Electromagnetic Radiation
Light
1pm

1A 1nm

1mm

1m

100m

UV X-Ray Gamma Infrared


Ultrashort waves

Short waves

The Colors of Light

Wavelenght of Photons

Energy

White Light

Generation of the Spectrum

Farbraum
White Light Prism

Spectral Analysis of the Light

UV

IR

400nm

550nm

700nm

Light Sources

Primary Light Source

Secondary Light Source

Color Composition of Light Sources Color Temperature

Average Daylight (5500 K)

Tungsten Halogen Lamp (3200 K)

Relative Spectral Distribution of Standard Illuminants


Rel. Intensity 300 250 D 65 200 150 100 50 0 300 nm C A

400 nm

500 nm

600 nm

700 nm

Wavelenght in nm

Color Mixture

Additive Color Mixture


Green

Blue

Red

Subtractive Color Mixture


Yellow

Cyan

Magenta

Matching of Pigments and Colors Example: Subtractive Color Mixing

Color Circle

Purple (M)

Blue-Green (C)

Yellow (Y)

OBJECT

Effect of light and materiel Example of Printing Inks

Light Source

Illustration of Spectral Remission


100%

CYAN

50%

0% 400 nm 550 nm Wavelength in nm

700 nm

The Eye

Eye in Cross-Section
Retina Cornea Pigment epithel

Pupil

Yellow Spot

Iris

Optic Nerve

Lens
Vitreous Humour Blind Spot

Retina

Light

Rods

Cones

CIE Color- Matching Functions


2,5 x y 2 z 1,5

0,5

0 400 500 600 700

Wavelength in nm

2- and 10- Standard Observer

10
2

Colorimetry

How to obtain X Y Z - Values

x =
R XS

R: Remission Spectrum S: Spectral Distribution of Light

x
x

x
y

x
z
Spectral Tristimulus Curves

I
X

I
Y

I
Primaries X,Y,Z

Description of Colors
Color

Brightness "Bright" "Dark"

Chroma "Brilliant" "Grayish"

Hue "Green" "Blue"

CIE Cromaticity Diagram

0,8

0,6

Spectrum Locus

y
0,4 E

0,2 Purple Boundary

0 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8

CIE Color Space


Y

100 80 60 40 E y 20 0 x 0

MacAdam - Ellipses

0,8
510

520

530

540
550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640

0,6

500

y
0,4 490 0,2 480 470 460 450
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

Transformation

* b*

a*

CIELAB Color Space


Withe
L*

Yellow
+ b* C* h + a*

Green

Blue

Red Black

L: Brightness a: Green - Red - Axis b: Yellow - Blue- Axis h: Hue-Angle C: Chroma

APPLICATION

Color Deviation
1,6

b*

Sample D b*

b*
Sample D H* D C* Reference

1,4

1,2

0,8

Reference D a*

0,6

0,4 0,4

0,6

0,8

1,2

1,4

1,6

a*
+Yellow

a*
Clearer

+Yellow +Green +Red

+Blue

Duller

+Red

L*, a*, b* Reference -

L*, a*, b* Samples

L*, C*, H* Reference -

L*, C*, H* Sample

D L* D a* D b*
=

Differences

D L* D C* D H* =

DE

Total Color Deviation

DE

How to Interprete Color Differences

D E* D E* D E* D E* D E*

0.0 to 0.2 0.2 to 1.0 1.0 to 3.0 3.0 to 6.0 6.0 and +

not visible very small small medium large

Colorimetric Systems
CIE Cromaticity Diagram: x,y Chromaticity Coordinates Y Brightness CIE-UCS Cromaticity Diagram: u,v Y Brightness

Primaries X Y Z

CIELUV Color Space: u*,v* L* Brightness CIELAB Color Space: a*,b* L* Brightness

DIN Color System: T:S:D

Others: Munsell, Hue, Chroma, Value Pantone HKS RAL

Metameric Colors

100%

50%

0% 400 nm

550 nm
Wavelengths

700 nm

Fluorescence
100%

50%

0% 400 nm

550 nm
Wavelengths

700 nm