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Chapter 1


The objective of Online Auctioning/Bidding site is to develop a site where any kind of product can be auctioned and provide value-added services to the bidders or registered users as well as the sellers. The products will be authenticated and the site provides a safe environment for online users. Users of the System:1. Administrator 2. Registered Users Online Auctioning System operates as follows: The application allows users to register and log in to the system. The customers have to provide fund amount while registering. The user can update his/her profile after registering themselves. The users can able to view any product information that are open for auctioning as well as auctioning dates, initial amount to bid, etc. The Bidders can able to select their interested products and can bid for them and at the same time can view the bids of other bidders for the same product. The application allows Administrator to authorize users, delete unauthorized users, to enter new product information, update product details, etc. The Administrator would set the auction dates as well as minimum auction amount for the product. Prior to each bid, the bidders initial amount must be authenticated by the administrator and only those bidders having sufficient balance required for bid should allow for auctioning of a product. The invitation having product information, its auction dates and initial amount to bid would be sent to those users having sufficient balance to bid for the particular product.


In the old days, people physically travelled from place to place in order to buy. The seller books the hall and invites the people to participate in the bidding on a particular date and the bidding was for only one day. Sometime people dont have a time to participate in the bidding. To overcome this, the new system comes into existence.


3.1 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS 3.1.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS a) Strong Data Validation: There is possibility that user might enter wrong data and wrong data may cause inconsistency to the database and hence to the system. To avoid this, data should be validated whenever entered.

b) Automatic updation of the database: After any transaction is performed, it is necessary that the updations should be reflected in the database without any inconsistency.

c) Provide efficiency querying based on user requests: The major purpose is to generate efficient reports on any user request. This will be done by our query processing system, which should be able to process any combination of queries will be done dynamically at run time depending on the user

3.1.2 EXTERNAL INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS a) User friendly interface: The interface should be developed in such a manner that it is very user friendly, this not only improve interaction but also saves data entry time.

b) Making well designed forms for capturing data: The forms for capturing the data should be well-designed using pop-down menus and drag & drop facilities, which reduce the data entry effort on the part of the user.

3.1.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS a) Security: All users are not allowed to access the database. Hence there is a need to check authority of every user. Username and Password validation helps to deny unauthorized access to the system. There are 2 main types of users who will be using the software They are:1) Admin 2) Bidders Each user is given the specific rights to access the data in Read only, Read Write, Delete.

3.2 ERD

Context Level DFD:-


7:Send Invitation 6:View Bidder Details

4:View Product Details 2:Enter Product Details 1:Logs in


5:Enter Bidder Details 8:View/Update Profile

9:View Invitation
10:Set Bid

Management System For Real Estate Agent

3: Product Details



1.1 Enter Product Details


1.2 View Product Details


1.3 View Bidder Details


1.4 Allow auctioning of a product


1.5 Send Invitation to Bidders


2.1 Enter Bidder Details



2.2 View/ Update Profile

2.3 View Invitation



3.1 Set Bid amount


3.4 Methodology adopted, system implementation and details of hardware and software used



In the development of software we have used Waterfall Model, the linear sequential mode. This model encompasses the following activities:

a) Analysis Phase: System Analysis:This refers to the gathering of system requirements, with the goal of determining how these requirements will be accommodated in the system.


b) System Design Phase: This is actually a multistep process. In this we tried to focus on some distinct attributes of a program like data structure, software architecture, interface representations and algorithmic detail. In this we tried to translate requirements into representation of the software which can be assessed for quality before coding begins. In the verifications, I have tried to ensure that the design is satisfying the requirements and is of good quality. I have tried to find out if there is any misinterpretation of specified any requirements.

c) Code Generation Phase: In this phase, we translated design of a system into code which can be compiled and executed. In this phase we have done actual coding for all forms. In this we tried to produce simple program which are clear to understanding and modify. We have used dynamic method to verify the code. We have executed program on some test data and output of the program examined to determine if there are any error present. I have read the code carefully to detect any discrepancies between the design specification and the actual implementation.

d) Testing: Testing plays a critical role in quality assurance for software. Due to limitations of the verification methods for the previous phase, design and requirement faults also appear in the code. Testing is used to detect these errors, in addition to the errors introduced during the coding phase.





FRONT END: Visual Studio 2005.

BACK END: SQL Server 2005

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: Intel Pentium III 733 MHz or Higher. 256 MB RAM or Higher.




DATA STRUCTURE 1) Table Name: USER_REGISTRATION It stores Users information. FIELD USER_ID LOGIN_NAME PASSWORD USER_NAME ADDRESS CONTACT_NO EMAIL_ID AMOUNT ROLE SIZE 50 50 100 max 50 50 50 50 TYPE Int Varchar Varchar Varchar varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar DESCRIPTION Primary key Describes login name for the user Password for the user Name of the user Role of the user Contact number of the user E-mail Id of the user Fund amount provided by the user Role(Admin/User)

2) Table Name: PRODUCTS It stores products information. FIELD PRODUCT_ID PRODUCT_NAME PRODUCT_DESC PRODUCT_IMAGE SIZE Max Max Max TYPE Int Varchar Varchar Varchar DESCRIPTION Primary Key Name of the product Description of the product Image of the product

3) Table Name: DATE It stores auctioning dates for the product. FIELD PRODUCT_ID TO_DATE FROM_DATE INITIAL_AMOUNT SIZE TYPE Int Datetime Varchar Varchar DESCRIPTION Id of the product Date where auctioning ends Date from where auctioning starts Initial amount to bid



4) Table Name: INVITE It stores the Bidders Id to whom the invitation is sent and the time at which it is sent. FIELD PRODUCT_ID BIDDER_ID TIME SIZE TYPE Int Int Datetime DESCRIPTION Id of the product User Id Time at which invitation sent to the user

5) Table Name: AUCTION It stores date and amount for auctioning of particular product. FIELD PRODUCT_ID BIDDER_ID DATE AMOUNT SIZE TYPE Int Int Datetime Varchar DESCRIPTION Id of the product User Id Date on which user bids for the product Amount with which the user bids for the product





Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design, coding. Testing objectives 1. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. 2. A good test case is the one that has high portability of finding an as-yet undiscovered error. 3. A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet discovered error. The main objective here will be to design test cases to uncover different classes of errors and to do so with minimum amount of time and efforts. If testing is conducted successfully it will uncover errors in the software. Another advantage is that it demonstrates that software functions appear to be working according to the specifications and performance requirement have been met.

But Testing cannot show the absence of defects it can show only that software errors are present. Strategies used for software testing The software engineering process is viewed as spiral as shown: Unit testing begins at the vortex of the spiral and concentrates at the each unit of the software as implemented in the source code. Unit testing assures each module tested individually functions properly as a unit. Integration testing focuses on the design and construction of the software architecture. It is a systematic technique for constructing a program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. The objective is to take unit-tested module and build a program structure that has been specified as design.


Validation testing takes care of the requirements established as part of the software requirements analysis are validated against the software that has been constructed. It is said to be successful when the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. System testing tests software and other system elements as a whole. These tests fall outside the scope of software engineering process and are not conducted solely by the software developer.




Login: This form allows user to login to the system. The user can either be admin or bidder. If the user is new to the system he/she can register themselves by clicking on the link specified below the login.


Admin: This form allows admin to enter new product details by clicking on New Product link. Admin can view Product details by clicking on Display Product Details. Admin can also view Bidders details that have been registered so far by clicking on Display Bidders Details.


Product Information: This form allows Admin to enter new products details such as Product name, image and its description. Admin can sign out or can go to Main Page.


Product Details: This form allows Admin to update Product Details or delete the product and its details from the database. It also allows admin to select a particular product for auctioning by clicking on the Auctioning link button.


For Update: To update the product details admin has to click on Edit link button of that product and after updating the record the admin has to click on Update link button.


Product Auctioning Details: Admin can able to access this form on clicking of auctioning link button of Product Details form. This form allows admin to enter auctioning dates as well as initial amount to bid for that particular product. On clicking of Send Invitation button admin can access Bidder details form and can allow bidders for auctioning.


Bidder Details: Here, Admin can allow selected users for auctioning by clicking on the Allow link button. The invitation would be sent to selected user by the Admin.


Display Bidder Details: This form allows Admin to view all registered users of the system. Admin can able to delete particular user by clicking on delete link button.


User Registration Form: New users can register themselves using this form. User has to provide Personal Information as well as login name, password and fund, etc.


Home Page for User: After successful login the user can access home page from where he can view his profile or any auctioning invitations.


User Profile: This form allows user to view or update his details.


Auctioning Information: This form allows user to view invitations that are sent by Admin for the products that are open for auctioning. On click of Image, the user can go to Product Auctioning Page.


Product Auctioning: This form allows user to submit bid amount as well as to view other users bid amount for the same product.

The winner would be displayed after the time period is over.