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# CHAPTER 6 Activity Analysis, Cost Behavior, and Cost Estimation

6-1 Cost behavior patterns are important in the process of making cost predictions. Cost predictions are used in planning, control, and decision making. For example, cost budgets are based on predictions of costs at various levels of activity. Cost control is accomplished by comparing actual costs against budgeted costs, which are based on cost predictions. Cost predictions are also important in decision making, since the desirability of various alternatives often depends on the costs that will be incurred under those alternatives. a. Cost estimation is the process of determining how a particular cost behaves. b. Cost behavior is the relationship between cost and activity. c. Cost prediction is the forecast of cost at a particular level of activity. Cost estimation determines the cost behavior pattern, which is used to make a cost prediction about the cost at a particular level of activity contemplated in the future. 6-3 a. Hotel: Percentage of rooms occupied or the number of occupancy-days, where an occupancy-day is defined as one room occupied for one day. b. Hospital: Patient-days, where a patient-day is defined as a one-day stay by one patient. c. Computer manufacturer: Number of computers manufactured, throughput, engineering specifications, engineering change orders, or number of parts in the finished product. d. Computer sales store: Sales revenue. e. Computer repair service: Repair calls or hours of repair service. f. Public accounting firm: Hours of auditing service provided by each classification of personnel (partner, manager, supervisor, senior accountant, and staff accountant).

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6.4 Cost

## Activity a. Variable Cost Cost b. Step-variable

Activity

Cost

c. Fixed

Activity Cost

d. Step-fixed

Activity

e. Semivariable McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Activity

## Activity f. Curvilinear 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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As the level of activity (or cost driver) increases, total fixed cost remains constant. However, the fixed cost per unit of activity declines as activity increases. A manufacturer's cost of supervising production might be a step-fixed cost, because one supervisor is needed for each shift. Each shift can accommodate a certain range of production activity; when activity exceeds that range, a new shift must be added. When the new shift is added, a new production supervisor must be employed. This new position results in a jump in the step-fixed cost to a higher level. As the level of activity (or cost driver) increases, total variable cost increases proportionately and the variable cost per unit remains constant. a. A semivariable cost behavior pattern can be used to approximate a step-variable cost as shown in the following graph: Cost Semivariable approximation

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Step-variable cost Activity b. A semivariable cost behavior pattern can be used to approximate a curvilinear cost as shown in the following graph: Cost

Curvilinear cost

## Semivariable approximation Activity

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inc. Managerial Accounting, 8/e

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(a) Annual cost of maintaining an interstate highway: committed cost. (Once the highway has been built, it must be maintained. The transportation authorities are largely committed to spending the necessary funds to maintain the highway adequately.) (b) Ingredients in a breakfast cereal: engineered cost. (c) Advertising for a credit card company: discretionary cost. (d) Depreciation on an insurance company's computer: committed cost. (e) Charitable donations: discretionary cost. (f) Research and development: discretionary cost.

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The cost analyst should respond by pointing out that in most cases a cost behavior pattern should be limited to the relevant range of activity. When the firm's utility cost was shown as a semivariable cost, it is likely that only some portion in the middle of the graph would fall within the relevant range. Within the relevant range, the firm's utility cost can be approximated reasonably closely by a semivariable cost behavior pattern. However, outside that range (including an activity level of zero), the semivariable cost behavior pattern should not be used as an approximation of the utility cost. A learning curve shows how average labor time per unit of production changes as cumulative output changes. In many production processes, as production activity increases and learning takes place, there is a significant reduction in the amount of labor time required per unit. The learning phenomenon is important in cost estimation, since estimates must often be made for the level of cost to be incurred after additional production experience is gained. Appropriate independent variables for several tasks are as follows: a. Handling materials at a loading dock: Weight of materials handled. b. Registering vehicles at a county motor vehicle office: Number of registrations processed. c. Picking oranges: Volume or weight of oranges picked. d. Inspecting computer components in an electronics firm: Number of components inspected.

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An outlier is a data point that falls far away from the other points in the scatter diagram and is not representative of the data. One possible cause of an outlier is simply a mistake in recording the data. Another cause of an outlier is a random event that occurred, which caused the cost during a particular period to be unusually high or low. For example, a power outage may have resulted in unusually high costs of idle time for a particular time period. Outliers should be eliminated from a data set upon which cost estimates are based. Fixed costs are often allocated on a per unit-of-activity basis. For example, fixed manufacturing-overhead costs, such as depreciation, may be allocated to units of production. As a result, such costs may appear to be variable in the cost records. Discretionary costs often are budgeted in a manner that makes them appear variable. A cost such as charitable donations, for example, may be fixed once management decides on the level of donations to be made. If management's policy is to budget charitable donations on the basis of sales dollars, however, the cost will appear to be variable to the cost analyst. An experienced analyst should be wary of allocated and discretionary costs and take steps to learn how the amounts are determined. In the first step of the visual-fit method of cost estimation, data points are plotted on graph paper to form a scatter diagram. Then a line is drawn through the scatter diagram in an attempt to minimize the distance between the line and the plotted points. The scatter diagram and the visually-fitted cost line provide a valuable first approximation in the analysis of any cost suspected to be semivariable or curvilinear. The method is easy to use and to explain to others and provides a useful view of the overall cost behavior pattern. The visual-fit method also enables an experienced cost analyst to spot outliers in the data. The primary drawback of the visual-fit method is its lack of objectivity. Two cost analysts may draw two different visually-fitted cost lines. The chief drawback of the high-low method of cost estimation is that it uses only two data points. The rest of the data are ignored by the method. An outlier can cause a significant problem when the high-low method is used if one of the two data points happens to be an outlier. In other words, if the high activity level happens to be associated with a cost that is not representative of the data, the resulting cost line may not be representative of the cost behavior pattern. The term least squares in the least-squares regression method of cost estimation refers to the process of minimizing the sum of the squares of the vertical distances between the data and the regression line.

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A least-squares regression line may be expressed in equation form as follows: Y = a + bX In this equation, X is referred to as the independent variable, since it is the variable upon which the estimate is based. Y is called the dependent variable, since its estimate depends on the independent variable. The intercept of the line on the vertical axis is denoted by a, and the slope of the line is denoted by b. Within the relevant range, a is interpreted as an estimate of the fixed-cost component, and b is interpreted as an estimate of the variable cost per unit of activity.

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In simple regression there is a single independent variable. In multiple regression there are two or more independent variables. Potential cost drivers in the cruise industry include the following: number of passengers, number of passenger miles traveled, number of port calls, cruise ship tonnage (i.e., ship size), and number of crew members, among others. A particular least-squares regression line may be evaluated on the basis of economic plausibility or goodness of fit. The cost analyst should always evaluate a regression line from the perspective of economic plausibility. Does the regression line make economic sense? Is it intuitively plausible? An experienced cost analyst should have a good feel for whether the regression line looks reasonable. Statistical methods can also be used to determine how well a regression line fits the data upon which it is based. This method is referred to as assessing the goodness of fit of the regression. A commonly used measure of goodness of fit is the coefficient of determination, which is described in the appendix at the end of the chapter. The coefficient of determination is also denoted by R2.

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SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES
EXERCISE 6-22 (15 MINUTES) 1. Cost Item Production crew: \$5,330/410 hr............................................. \$8,840/680 hr............................................. Supervisory employees: \$6,000/410 hr............................................. \$6,000/680 hr............................................. *Rounded. 2. December cost predictions: Production crew (440 \$13.00 per hr.)............................................. Supervisory employees...................................................................... 3. Cost Item Production crew........................................................ Supervisory employees (\$6,000/440 hr.).................. *Rounded. Cost per Broadcast Hour in December \$13.00 per hr. 13.64 per hr.* \$5,720 6,000 Cost per Broadcast Hour August October \$13.00 per hr. \$13.00 per hr. \$14.63 per hr.* \$ 8.82 per hr.*

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Total cost

1,000

2,000

3,000

Patient days

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EXERCISE 6-23 (CONTINUED) 2. Cost of salaries and fringe benefits for administrative staff:

Total cost

1,000

2,000

3,000

Patient days

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\$60,000

\$50,000

\$40,000

\$30,000

\$20,000

\$10,000

1,000

2,000

3,000

Patient days

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Total cost

1,000

2,000

3,000

Patient days

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## EXERCISE 6-23 (CONTINUED) 5. Nursing costs:

Cost per month \$17,500 \$15,000 \$12,500 \$10,000 \$7,500 \$5,000 \$2,500 200 400 600 800 1,000 Patient days Total cost

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EXERCISE 6-24 (15 MINUTES) 1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. Fixed Variable Variable Fixed Semivariable (or mixed)

Production cost per month = \$37,000* + \$2.30X *37,000 = \$21,000 + \$11,000 + \$5,000

## \$2.30 = \$1.20 + \$.85 + \$.25

EXERCISE 6-25 (15 MINUTES) 1. Variable maintenance cost per tour mile = (18,750r-16,500r) / (30,000 miles 12,000 miles) = .125r r denotes the real, Brazils national currency. Total maintenance cost at 12,000 miles..................................................... Variable maintenance cost at 12,000 miles (.125r 12,000)..................... Fixed maintenance cost per month............................................................ 2. Cost formula: Total maintenance cost per month = 15,000r + .125rX , where X denotes tour miles traveled during the month. 3. Cost prediction at the 34,000-mile activity level: Maintenance cost = = 15,000r + (.125r)(34,000) 19,250r 16,500r 1,500r 15,000r

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## EXERCISE 6-25 (CONTINUED)

2.

THE ELECTRONIC VERSION OF THE SOLUTIONS MANUAL BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS IS AVAILABLE ON YOUR INSTRUCTORS CD AND ON THE HILTON, 8E WEBSITE: WWW.MHHE.COM/HILTON8E.

EXERCISE 6-26 (15 MINUTES) 1. a. b. c. d. 2. (a) (b) 20,000 miles.................................................................. 40,000 miles.................................................................. 60,000 miles.................................................................. 90,000 miles.................................................................. Actual \$1,950 2,600 3,000 4,250 Estimated \$2,200 2,600 3,000 3,600

The approximation is very accurate in the range 40,000 to 60,000 miles per month. The approximation is less accurate in the extremes of the longer range, 20,000 to 90,000 miles.

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\$40,000

\$30,000

\$20,000

\$10,000

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

3,500

Tests

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EXERCISE 6-27 (CONTINUED) 2. The requirement asks for an estimate based on the visually-fit cost line. Therefore, answers will vary on this requirement because of variation in the visually-fitted lines. Based on the preceding plot: Monthly fixed cost............................................................................................ Variable cost per diagnostic test..................................................................... *Calculation of variable cost: Total cost at Total cost at Difference: 3,600 0 3,600 tests........................................... tests........................................... tests........................................... =
\$38,000 3,600

\$14,000 \$ 10.56*

## Variable cost per diagnostic test

= \$10.56

Rounded.

EXERCISE 6-28 (30 MINUTES) Answers will vary widely, depending on the company and costs selected. Some examples of typical manufacturing costs follow. Direct material: variable Electricity: variable Depreciation on plant and equipment: fixed Plant managers salary: fixed Property taxes: fixed

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EXERCISE 6-29 (15 MINUTES) 1. Variable cost per pint of applesauce produced =
\$72,300 \$66,300 = \$.10 123,000 63,000

Total cost at 123,000 pints......................................................................... Variable cost at 123,000 pints (123,000 \$.10 per pint)................................................................... Fixed cost.................................................................................................... Cost equation:

## \$72,300 12,300 \$60,000

Total energy cost = \$60,000 + \$.10X, where X denotes pints of applesauce produced 2. Cost prediction when 78,000 pints of applesauce are produced Energy cost = \$60,000 + (\$.10)(78,000) = \$67,800

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\$75,000

\$60,000

\$45,000

\$30,000

\$15,000

30,000

60,000

90,000

120,000

150,000

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EXERCISE 6-30 (CONTINUED) 2. Answers will vary on this requirement because of variation in the visually-fitted lines. Based on the preceding plot, the cost prediction at 78,000 pounds is: Energy cost = \$67,800 3. The July cost observation at the 120,000-pint activity level appears to be an outlier. The cost analyst should check the observation data for accuracy. If the data are accurate, the outlier should be ignored in making cost predictions.

EXERCISE 6-31 (10 MINUTES) 1. 2. 3. (a) (b) (a) (b) Average time for 4 satellites.............................................................. Average time for 8 satellites.............................................................. Total time for 4 satellites (195 hr. X 4).............................................. Total time for 8 satellites (150 hr. X 8).............................................. 195 hours 150 hours 780 hours 1,200 hours

Learning curves indicate how labor costs will change as the company gains experience with the production process. Since labor time and costs must be predicted both for budgeting and for setting cost standards, the learning curve is a valuable tool.

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## EXERCISE 6-32 (15 MINUTES)

Monthly audit cost \$100,000 Total cost when 100 audits are performed in a month: \$78,200 = \$10,000 + (\$682) (100) \$80,000

\$60,000

\$40,000

20

40

60

80

100

Solutions Manual

## EXERCISE 6-33 (45 MINUTES) 1. Variable utility cost per hour =

\$3,800 \$2,600 = 700 400

## \$4.00 \$ 3,800 2,800 \$ 1,000

Total utility cost at 700 hours...................................................................... Variable utility cost at 700 hours (\$4.00 700 hours)............................... Fixed cost per month................................................................................... Cost formula: Monthly utility cost = \$1,000 + \$4.00 X , where X denotes hours of operation. 2. Variable-cost estimate based on the scatter diagram on the next page: Cost at Cost at Difference 600 hours ....................................................................... 0 hours ....................................................................... 600 hours .......................................................................

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EXERCISE 6-33 (CONTINUED) Scatter diagram and visually-fit line: Utility cost per month
5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

## 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Hours of operation

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## EXERCISE 6-33 (CONTINUED)

3.

Estimation of variable- and fixed-cost components of cost behavior using leastsquares regression: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e.

4.

Cost predictions at 300 hours of operation: (a) High-low method: Utility cost (b) Visually-fitted line: Utility cost = \$2,190 = \$1,000 + (\$4.00)(300) = \$2,200

This cost prediction was simply read directly from the visually-fitted cost line. This prediction will vary because of variations in the visually-fitted lines. (c) Regression: Utility cost = \$1,002 + (\$4.04)(300) = \$2,214 5. Calculation of R2: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: WWW.MHHE.COM/HILTON8E. The R2 is .9518.

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EXERCISE 6-33 (CONTINUED) The following alternative approach to calculating the regression parameters is not a requirement in the problem. Least-square regression using manual calculations: (a) Tabulation of data: Dependent Variable (cost) Y 3,240 3,400 3,800 3,200 2,700 2,600 18,940 Independent Variable (hours) X 550 600 700 500 450 400 3,200

## (b) Calculation of parameters: a =

( Y )( X 2 ) ( X )( XY ) 2 n( X ) ( X )( X)
(6)(1,765,000) (3,200)(3,200)

## Y) b = n( XY) ( X)( n( X 2 ) ( X)( X)

= (c) Cost formula: Monthly utility cost Variable utility cost = \$1,002 + \$4.04X, where X denotes hours of operation. = \$4.04 per hour of operation
(6)(10,337,000) (3,200)(18,940) = 4.04 (6)(1,765,000) (3,200)(3,200)

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EXERCISE 6-34 (45 MINUTES) 1. The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e.

2.

The following alternative approach to calculating the regression parameters and R 2 is not a requirement in the problem. Least-square regression using manual calculations: (a) Tabulation of data: Independent Variable (thousands of passengers) X 16 17 16 18 15 17 99

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## EXERCISE 6-34 (CONTINUED) (b) Calculation of parameters:

( Y )( X 2 ) ( X )( XY ) a = 2 n( X ) ( X )( X)

## n( XY) ( X)( Y) n( X 2 ) ( X)( X)

(6)(5,553) (99)(336) = 1.636 (rounded) (6)(1,639) (99)(99)

Monthly cost of flight service = \$29,000 + \$1,636X, where X denotes thousands of passengers.

Calculation and interpretation of R2 using manual calculations: (a) Formula for calculation:
(Y Y ') 2 R 2 =1 (Y Y )2

where

Y Y'
Y

denotes the observed value of the dependent variable (cost) at a particular activity level. denotes the predicted value of the dependent variable (cost) based on the regression line, at a particular activity level. denotes the mean (average) observation of the dependent variable (cost).

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EXERCISE 6-34 (CONTINUED) (b) Tabulation of data:* Predicted Cost (in thousands) Based on Regression Line Y' [( Y Y')2] 55.176 1.383 56.812 7.907 55.176 3.327 58.448 2.409 53.540 .212 56.812 .035 15.273

## Month July................. August............ September..... October.......... November...... December....... Total............... *Y'

Y

Y 54 54 57 60 54 57

X 16 17 16 18 15 17

## = (\$29,000 + \$1,636X)/\$1,000 = Y/6 = 56

Rounded.

(c)

Calculation of R2: R2 = 1
15.273 = .49 (rounded) 30.000

(d)

Interpretation of R2: The coefficient of determination, R2, is a measure of the goodness of fit of the least-squares regression line. An R2 of .49 means that 49% of the variability of the dependent variable about its mean is explained by the variability of the independent variable about its mean. The higher the R2, the better the regression line fits the data. The interpretation of a high R2 is that the independent variable is a good predictor of the behavior of the dependent variable. In cost estimation, a high R2 means that the cost analyst can be relatively confident in the cost predictions based on the estimated-cost behavior pattern.

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SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS
PROBLEM 6-35 (20 MINUTES) 1. 2. 3. 4. h i f e 5. 6. 7. 8. a g c b 9. d

10. k 11. l

Note that j was not used. PROBLEM 6-36 (15 MINUTES) An appropriate activity measure for the school would be hours of instruction. The costs are classified as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Variable Semivariable (or mixed)* Fixed Fixed Fixed 6. 7. 8. 9. Variable Fixed Fixed Semivariable (or mixed)

*The fixed-cost component is the salary of the school's repair technician. As activity increases, one would expect more repairs beyond the technician's capability. This increase in repairs would result in a variable-cost component equal to the dealer's repair charges.

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PROBLEM 6-37 (25 MINUTES) 1. Variable maintenance cost per hour of service =
\$4,710 \$2,990

525 310

= \$8.00 Total maintenance cost at 310 hours of service........................................ Variable maintenance cost at 310 hours of service (310 hr. \$8.00)...... Fixed maintenance cost per month............................................................ Cost formula: Monthly maintenance cost = \$510 + \$8.00X, where X denotes hours of maintenance service. 2. 3. The variable component of the maintenance cost is \$8.00 per hour of service. Cost prediction at 600 hours of activity: Maintenance cost = \$510 + (\$8.00)(600) = \$5,310 4. Variable cost per hour [from requirement (2)]........................................... Fixed cost per hour at 610 hours of activity (\$510/610)............................ *Rounded. The fixed cost per hour is a misleading amount, because it will change as the number of hours changes. For example, at 500 hours of maintenance service, the fixed cost per hour is \$1.02 (\$510/500 hours). \$8.00 \$ .84* \$2,990 2,480 \$ 510

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PROBLEM 6-38 (25 MINUTES) 1. Straight-line depreciationcommitted fixed Charitable contributionsdiscretionary fixed Mining labor/fringe benefitsvariable Royaltiessemivariable Trucking and haulingstep-fixed The per-ton mining labor/fringe benefit cost is constant at both volume levels presented, which is characteristic of a variable cost. \$315,000 1,400 tons = \$225 per ton \$607,500 2,700 tons = \$225 per ton Royalties have both a variable and a fixed component, making it a semivariable (mixed) cost. Variable royalty cost = difference in cost difference in tons = (\$224,500 \$140,000) (2,700 1,400) = \$84,500 1,300 tons = \$65 per ton Fixed royalty cost: June (2,700 tons) Total royalty cost. Less: Variable cost at \$65 per ton.. Fixed royalty cost 2. Total cost for 1,700 tons: Depreciation... \$ 30,000 Charitable contributions. ---Mining labor/fringe benefits at \$225 per ton. 382,500 Royalties: Variable at \$65 per ton.. 110,500 Fixed.. 49,000 Trucking and hauling.. 280,000 Total.. \$852,000
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inc. 6-30

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PROBLEM 6-38 (CONTINUED) 3. Hauling 1,400 tons is not particularly cost effective. Lone Mountain Extraction will incur a cost of \$280,000 if it needs 1,400 tons hauled or, for that matter, 1,899 tons. The company would be better off if it had 1,399 tons hauled, saving outlays of \$40,000. In general, with this type of cost function, effectiveness is maximized if a firm operates on the right-most portion of a step, just prior to a jump in cost. A committed fixed cost results from an entitys ownership or use of facilities and its basic organizational structure. Examples of such costs include property taxes, depreciation, rent, and management salaries. Discretionary fixed costs, on the other hand, arise from a decision to spend a particular amount of money for a specific purpose. Outlays for research and development, advertising, and charitable contributions fall in this category. In times of severe economic difficulties, a companys management will often try to cut discretionary fixed costs. Such costs are more easily altered in the short run and do not have as significant long-term ramifications for a firm as do more long-lasting actions. While its true that cutting expenditures on advertising or R & D can often have adverse long-term consequences, other cuts could have even more significant negative consequences in the future. The decision to close a manufacturing facility, for example, could reduce property taxes, rent, and/or depreciation. However, that decision may result in a significant long-run change in operations that may be difficult to overturn when economic conditions rebound. 5. Lone Mountain Extraction uses a calendar year for tax-reporting purposes. At yearend, it may have ample funds available and decide to make donations to charitable causes. Such contributions are deductible in computing the companys tax obligation to the government. Tax deductions reduce taxable income and, therefore, produce a tax savings for the firm.

4.

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PROBLEM 6-39 (25 MINUTES) 1. Machine supplies: \$153,000 34,000 direct-labor hours = \$4.50 per hour So for April we have: 23,000 direct-labor hours x \$4.50 = \$103,500 Depreciation: Fixed at \$22,500 2. Plant maintenance cost: April (23,000 hours) Total cost*.. Less: Machine supplies. Depreciation.. Plant maintenance... \$ 681,000 (103,500) (22,500) \$ 555,000 June (34,000 hours) \$ 879,000 (153,000) (22,500) \$ 703,500

* Excludes supervisory labor cost Variable maintenance cost = difference in cost difference in direct-labor hours = (\$703,500 \$555,000) (34,000 23,000) = \$148,500 11,000 hours = \$13.50 per hour Fixed maintenance cost: April (23,000 hours) Total maintenance cost............................ Less: Variable cost at \$13.50 per hour.... Fixed maintenance cost............................ \$555,000 310,500 \$244,500 June (34,000 hours) \$703,500 459,000 \$244,500

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PROBLEM 6-39 (CONTINUED) 3. Manufacturing overhead at 29,500 labor hours: Machine supplies at \$4.50 per hour............... Depreciation..................................................... Plant maintenance cost: Variable at \$13.50 per hour....................... Fixed........................................................... Supervisory labor............................................ Total..................................................... 4. \$132,750 22,500 398,250 244,500 135,000 \$933,000

A fixed cost remains constant when a change occurs in the cost driver (or activity base). A step-fixed cost, on the other hand, remains constant within a range but will change (rise or fall) when activity falls outside that range. In other words, a fixed cost is constant over a wider range of activity than a step-fixed cost. Ideally, the company should operate on the right-most portion of a step, just prior to the jump in cost. In this manner, a firm receives maximum benefit (i.e., the maximum amount of activity) for the dollars invested.

5.

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## PROBLEM 6-40 (40 MINUTES) 1.

Material-handling costs \$12,500 \$12,000 \$11,500 \$11,000 \$10,500 \$10,000 \$9,500 Hundreds of pounds of equipment 2. Visually-fitted cost line

500 The lower part of the vertical axis has been shortened.

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

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PROBLEM 6-40 (CONTINUED) 2. 3. See graph for requirement (1). The estimate of the fixed cost is the intercept on the vertical axis. Fixed-cost component = \$9,700 To estimate the variable-cost component, choose any two points on the visually-fitted cost line. For example, choose the following points: Activity 0.............................................................................................. 2,000........................................................................................ Cost \$ 9,700 11,700

Then proceed as follows to estimate the variable-cost component: Variable cost per unit of activity* =
\$11,700 \$9,700 2,000 0

= \$1.00 *Pounds (in hundreds) of equipment loaded or unloaded 4. Cost equation: Total material-handling cost = \$9,700 + \$1.00X, where X denotes the number pounds (in hundreds) of equipment loaded or unloaded during the month.

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## PROBLEM 6-40 (CONTINUED) 5. High-low method: Variable cost unit of activity* =

\$12,120 \$10,200 2,600 1,000

= \$1.20 *Pounds (in hundreds) of equipment loaded or unloaded Total cost at 2,600 units of activity............................................................... Deduct: Variable cost at 2,600 units of activity (2,600 \$1.20)................. Fixed cost....................................................................................................... Cost equation based on high-low method: Material-handling cost per month = \$9,000 + \$1.20X, where X denotes the number of units of activity during the month. \$12,120 3,120 \$ 9,000

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PROBLEM 6-40 (CONTINUED) 6. Date: To: From: Today President, Nantucket Marine Supply I.M. Student Memorandum

Subject: Material-handling cost estimates On the basis of a scatter diagram and visually-fitted cost line, the Material-Handling Department's monthly cost behavior was estimated as follows: Material-handling cost per month = \$9,700 + \$1.00 unit of activity A unit of activity is defined in this department as 100 pounds of equipment loaded or unloaded at the loading dock. Using the high-low method, the following cost estimate was obtained: Material-handling cost per month = \$9,000 + \$1.20 unit of activity The two methods yield different estimates because the high-low method uses only two data points, ignoring the rest of the information. The method of visually fitting a cost line, while subjective, uses all of the data available. In this case, the two data points used by the high-low method do not appear to be representative of the entire set of data. 7. Predicted Material-Handling Costs Using Visually-Fit Cost Line* \$11,950 = \$9,700 + (\$1.00)(2,250) Using High-Low Method \$11,700 = \$9,000 + (\$1.20)(2,250)

*This method is preferable, because it uses all of the data in developing the cost equation.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-41 (45 MINUTES) 1. Estimation of variable and fixed components of cost behavior using least-squares regression: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. 2. Least-squares regression equation: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. Total monthly cost = \$9,943 + \$.89 per unit of activity 3. Cost prediction: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. 4. The cost predictions differ because the cost formulas differ under the three costestimation methods. The high-low method, while objective, uses only two data points. Ten observations are excluded. The visual-fit method, while it uses all of the data, is somewhat subjective. Different analysts may draw different cost lines. Least-squares regression is objective, uses all of the data, and is a statistically sound method of estimation. Therefore, least-squares regression is the preferred method of cost estimation. 5. Calculation of R2: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

The following alternative approach to calculating the regression parameters is not a requirement in the problem. Least-squares regression using manual calculations: (a) Tabulation of data: Dependent Variable (cost in thousands) Y 11.70 11.30 11.25 10.20 11.10 12.55 12.00 11.40 12.12 11.05 11.35 11.35 137.37 Independent Variable (units of activity in thousands) X 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.0 2.2 2.4 2.0 1.8 2.6 1.1 1.2 1.4 20.4

Month January....................... February...................... March.......................... April............................. May.............................. June............................ July.............................. August........................ September.................. October....................... November................... December.................... Total............................

X2 3.24 2.56 1.69 1.00 4.84 5.76 4.00 3.24 6.76 1.21 1.44 1.96 37.70

XY 21.060 18.080 14.625 10.200 24.420 30.120 24.000 20.520 31.512 12.155 13.620 15.890 236.202

## (b) Calculation of parameters:

( Y )( X 2 ) ( X )( XY ) a = n( X 2 ) ( X )( X)

= b = =

## n( XY) ( X)( Y) n( X 2 ) ( X)( X)

(12)(236.202) (20.4)(137.37) =.885 (rounded) (12)(37.7) (20.4)(20.4)

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-41 (CONTINUED) (c) Fixed- and variable-cost components: Monthly fixed cost = \$9,943* Variable cost = \$.89 per unit of activity (rounded) *The intercept parameter (a) computed above is the cost per month in thousands. The slope parameter (b) calculated above is the cost in thousands of dollars per thousand units of activity. Equivalently, it is the cost per unit of activity.

Solutions Manual

## PROBLEM 6-42 (40 MINUTES)

Total course maintenance cost \$13,250 \$13,200 \$13,150 \$13,100 \$13,050 \$13,000

## 1. Step-variable component of maintenance cost 2. Semivariable cost approximation

1. Fixed component of maintenance cost 50 100 150 200 250 300 Number of golfers

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-42 (CONTINUED) 3. Fixed-cost component = \$13,005 Variable-cost component: Variable cost = per golfer Cost equation: Maintenance cost per month = \$13,005 + \$1 X, where X denotes the number of golfers during the month. 4. Predicted Course Maintenance Costs Using Fixed Cost Coupled with StepVariable Cost Behavior Pattern \$13,150 13,160
\$13,205 \$13,005 200 0

= \$1

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

PROBLEM 6-43 (35 MINUTES) 1. The regression equation's intercept on the vertical axis is \$190. It represents the portion of indirect material cost that does not vary with machine hours when operating within the relevant range. The slope of the regression line is \$5 per machine hour. For every machine hour, \$5 of indirect material costs are expected to be incurred. Estimated cost of indirect material at 850 machine hours of activity: S = \$190 + (\$5 850) = \$4,440 3. Several questions should be asked: (a) (b) Do the observations contain any outliers, or are they all representative of normal operations? Are there any mismatched time periods in the data? Are all of the indirect material cost observations matched properly with the machine hour observations? Are there any allocated costs included in the indirect material cost data? Are the cost data affected by inflation? April \$1,300 5,900 (1,350) \$5,850 August \$1,000 6,200 (3,000) \$4,200

2.

(c) (d) 4.

Beginning inventory............................................................. + Purchases.......................................................................... Ending inventory............................................................... Indirect material used.......................................................... 5. High-low method: Variable cost per machine hour = =
difference in cost levels difference in activity levels

\$5,850 \$4,200 \$1,650 = = \$5.50 per machine hour 1,000 700 300
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,
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## McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inc. Managerial Accounting, 8/e

PROBLEM 6-43 (CONTINUED) Fixed cost per month: Total cost at 1,000 hours............................................................................... Variable cost at 1,000 hours (\$5.50 1,000)......................................................................................... Fixed cost....................................................................................................... Equation form: Indirect material cost = \$350 + (\$5.50 machine hours) 6. The regression estimate should be recommended because it uses all of the data, not just two pairs of observations when developing the cost equation. \$5,850 5,500 \$ 350

Solutions Manual

## PROBLEM 6-44 (25 MINUTES) 1. Scatter diagrams:

Present, in graphic form, the relationship between costs and cost drivers via a plot of data points Require that a straight line be fit through the data points, with approximately the same number of data points above and below the line Easy to use Provide a means to easily recognize outliers Least-squares regression: Uses statistical formulas to fit a cost line through the data points Is a very objective method of cost estimation that uses all the data points Requires more computation than other cost-estimation methods; however, software programs are readily available High-low method: Relies on only two data points (for the highest and lowest activity levels) in drawing conclusions about cost behavior Is considered more objective than the scatter diagram; however, is weaker than the scatter diagram because it relies on only two data points The least-squares regression method will typically produce the most accurate results. 2. Yes. The three methods produce equations by different means. Scatter diagrams and least-squares regression rely on an examination of all data points. The scatter diagram, however, requires an analyst to fit a line through the points by visual approximation, or eyeballing. In contrast, least-squares regression involves the use of statistical formulas to derive the best possible fit of the line through the points. Finally, the high-low method is based on an analysis of only two data points: the highest and the lowest activity levels.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-44 (CONTINUED) 3. These amounts represent the fixed and variable costs associated with the ticketing operation. Fixed cost totals \$300,000 within the relevant range, and Florida International incurs \$2.25 of variable cost for each ticket issued. C = \$295,000 + \$2.20PT C = \$295,000 + (\$2.20 x 570,000) C = \$1,549,000 Yes, she did err by including November data. November is not representative because of the effects of the Southeastern Airlines strike. The month is an outlier and should be eliminated from the data set. Currently, most of the airlines tickets are written through reservations personnel, whose wages are likely variable in nature. Heavier reliance on the Internet means a greater investment in software, Web-site maintenance and development, and other similar expenditures. Outlays that fall in these latter categories are typically fixed costs, assuming that the cost driver is the number of tickets. The outcome would parallel the experiences of a manufacturing firm that automates its processes and reduces its reliance on direct-labor personnel.

4.

5.

6.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

PROBLEM 6-45 (40 MINUTES) 1. The original method was simply the average overhead per hour for the last 12 months and did not distinguish between fixed and variable costs. Dana divided total overhead by total labor hours, which effectively treated all overhead as variable. Regression analysis measures the behavior of the overhead costs in relation to labor hours and is a model that distinguishes between fixed and variable costs within the relevant range of 2,500 to 7,500 labor hours. a. Based on the regression analysis, the variable cost per person for a cocktail party is \$23, calculated as follows: Food and beverages............................................................................... Labor (.6 hr. @ \$11/hr.)........................................................................... Variable overhead (.6 hr. @ \$4/hr.)........................................................ Total................................................................................................... \$14.00 6.60 2.40 \$23.00

2.

b. Based on the regression analysis, the full absorption cost per person for a cocktail party is \$29, calculated as follows: Food and beverages............................................................................... Labor (.6 hr. @ \$11/hr.)........................................................................... Variable overhead (.6 hr. @ \$4/hr.)........................................................ Fixed overhead (.6 hr. @ \$10/hr.)*......................................................... Total................................................................................................... *\$48,000 x 12 months = \$576,000 \$576,000/57,600 hr. = \$10/hr. 3. The minimum bid for a 250-person cocktail party would be \$5,750. The amount is calculated by multiplying the variable cost per person of \$23 by 250 people. At any price above the variable cost, Dana will be earning a contribution toward his fixed costs. \$14.00 6.60 2.40 6.00 \$29.00

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-45 (CONTINUED) 4. Other factors that Dana should consider in developing a bid include the following:

The assessment of the current capacity of Danas business. If the business is at capacity, other work would have to be sacrificed at some opportunity cost. Analyses of the competition. If competition is rigorous, Dana may not have much bargaining power. A determination of whether or not Danas bid will set a precedent for lower prices. The realization that regression analysis is based on historical data, and that any anticipated changes in the cost structure should be considered.

Solutions Manual

## Airport costs \$30,000

\$25,000

\$20,000

\$15,000

\$10,000

\$5,000

250

500

750

1,000

1,250

1,500

1,750 Flights

Note: Only 11 data points appear, because two monthly observations were identical (February and October).
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inc. Managerial Accounting, 8/e

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-46 (CONTINUED) 2. Estimation of variable- and fixed-cost components of cost behavior using leastsquares regression: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. 3. Cost equation: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. Total monthly airport cost = \$11,796 + \$677X, where X denotes the number of flights 4. Cost prediction for 1,500 flights: The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. 5. Calculation of R2; The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e. Interpretation of R2: The coefficient of determination, R2, is a measure of the goodness of fit of the least-squares regression line. An R2 of .58 means that 58% of the variability of the dependent variable about its mean is explained by the variability of the independent variable about its mean. The higher the R2, the better the regression line fits the data. The interpretation of a high R2 is that the independent variable is a good predictor of the behavior of the dependent variable. In the countys cost estimation, a high R2 would mean that the county budget officer can be relatively confident in the cost predictions based on the estimated-cost behavior pattern. An R2 of .58 is not particularly high.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

PROBLEM 6-46 (CONTINUED) The following alternative approach to calculating the regression parameters and R 2 is not a requirement in the problem. Least-squares regression using manual calculations: (a) Tabulation of data: Dependent Variable (cost in thousands) Y 20 19 18 19 17 20 21 17 21 19 24 18 233 Independent Variable (flights in hundreds) X 12 10 9 14 8 11 15 9 12 10 14 11 135

Month January....................... February...................... March.......................... April............................. May.............................. June............................ July.............................. August........................ September.................. October....................... November................... December.................... Total............................

X2 144 100 81 196 64 121 225 81 144 100 196 121 1,573

XY 240 190 162 266 136 220 315 153 252 190 336 198 2,658

## (b) Calculation of parameters: ( Y )( X 2 ) ( X )( XY ) a = 2 n( X ) ( X )( X) = b =

(233)(1,573) (135)(2,658) = 11.796 (rounded) (12)(1,573) (135)(135)

## n( XY) ( X)( Y) n( X 2 ) ( X)( X)

(12)(2,658) (135)(233)

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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PROBLEM 6-46 (CONTINUED) (c) Fixed- and variable-cost components: Monthly fixed cost = \$11,796 Variable cost = \$677 per hundred flights

Calculation and interpretation of R 2 using manual calculations (a) Formula for calculation:
(Y Y ') 2 R2 = 1 (Y Y )2

where

Y Y'
Y

denotes the observed value of the dependent variable (cost) at a particular activity level. denotes the predicted value of the dependent variable (cost) based on the regression line, at a particular activity level. denotes the mean (average) observation of the dependent variable (cost).

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

PROBLEM 6-46 (CONTINUED) (b) Tabulation of data:* Predicted Cost (in thousands) Based on Regression Line Y' [( Y Y')2] 19.920 .006 18.566 .188 17.889 .012 21.274 5.171 17.212 .045 19.243 .573 21.951 .904 17.889 .790 19.920 1.166 18.566 .188 21.274 7.431 19.243 1.545 18.019

Month January.......... February......... March............. April................ May................. June................ July................. August............ September..... October.......... November...... December....... Total............... *Y'
Y

Y 20 19 18 19 17 20 21 17 21 19 24 18

X 12 10 9 14 8 11 15 9 12 10 14 11

[(Y Y )2] .340 .174 2.008 .174 5.842 .340 2.506 5.842 2.506 .174 21.004 2.008 42.918

## = (\$11,796 + \$677X)/\$1,000 = Y/12 = 233/12 = 19.417 (rounded)

Rounded.

(c)

Calculation of R2: R2 = 1
18.019 = .58 (rounded) 42.918

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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SOLUTIONS TO CASES
CASE 6-47 (45 MINUTES) 1. Cairns' preliminary estimate for overhead of \$18.00 per direct-labor hour does not distinguish between fixed and variable overhead. This preliminary rate is applicable only to the activity level at which it was computed (72,000 direct-labor hours per year) and may not be used to predict total overhead at other activity levels. The overhead rate developed from the least-squares regression recognizes the relationship between cost and volume in the data. The regression suggests that there is a component of the cost (\$52,400 per month) that is unrelated to total direct-labor hours. This cost component is the intercept on the vertical axis and is often considered to be the fixed cost as long as the activity level is within the relevant range. Thus, the least-squares regression results in a cost function with two components: fixed cost per month and variable cost per direct-labor hour. This cost formula can be used to predict total overhead at any activity level within the relevant range. 2. Direct material............................................................................................... Direct labor (5 DLH* \$11.00 per DLH)....................................................... Variable overhead (5 DLH \$9.25 per DLH)............................................... Total variable cost per 1,000 square feet.................................................... *DLH denotes direct-labor hours. 3. The minimum bid should include the following incremental costs of the project.: Direct material (\$390.00 50)...................................................................... Direct labor (\$55.00 50)............................................................................. Variable overhead (\$9.25 per DLH 5 DLH 50)....................................... Overtime premium (\$5.50 per DLH 5 DLH 50 .3).............................. Minimum bid.................................................................................................. 4. \$19,500.00 2,750.00 2,312.50 412.50 \$24,975.00 \$390.00 55.00 46.25 \$491.25

Yes, Cairns can rely on the formula as long as she recognizes that there are some shortcomings. The fact that least-squares regression estimates cost behavior increases the usefulness of rates computed from cost data. However, the regression is based on historical costs that may change in the future, and Cairns must assess whether the cost equation would need to be revised for future cost increases or decreases.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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CASE 6-47 (CONTINUED) 5. a. Variable OH1 (50 5 \$4.15)............................................................... Variable OH2 (50 \$13.60).................................................................... Variable OH3 (70 \$5.90)...................................................................... Total incremental variable overhead................................................... Variable OH1 (50 5 \$4.15)............................................................... Variable OH2 (25 \$13.60).................................................................... Variable OH3 (230 \$5.90).................................................................... Total incremental variable overhead................................................... \$1,037.50 680.00 413.00 \$2,130.50 \$1,037.50 340.00 1,357.00 \$2,734.50

b.

c.

The two scenarios in (a) and (b) differ in terms of the activities to be undertaken. Scenario (a) involves a large amount of seeding activity and relatively little planting activity. Scenario (b) involves considerably less seeding activity, but a great deal more planting activity. An activity-based costing system accounts for the different costs in projects involving different mixes of activity.

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## CASE 6-48 (45 MINUTES)

1. Scatter diagram:

\$20,000

\$15,000

## 2. Visually-fitted curvilinear cost line 4. Visually-fitted semivariable cost line

\$10,000

\$5,000

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

3. Relevant range

2. through 4.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inc. 6-56

## See scatter diagram for requirement (1).

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Solutions Manual

## CASE 6-48 (CONTINUED) 5. Fixed cost = \$7,000

Variable cost per patient = \$10,600 \$7,000 = \$3.00 1,200 0

6. 7.

Administrative cost = \$7,000 + \$3.00X, where X denotes the number of patients. Cost predictions using visually-fit cost lines: Patient Load 750......... 350. Cost Prediction \$9,300 5,500

It makes no difference which visually-fit cost line is used to make the cost prediction for 750 patients. The semivariable approximation is very accurate at this patient load, which is near the middle of the relevant range. However, for a patient load of 350 patients, the visually-fit curvilinear cost line yields a much more accurate prediction. CASE 6-49 (50 MINUTES) 1. High-low method: Variable administrative cost per patient =
\$16,100 \$4,100 = \$10 1,500 300

Total cost at 1,500 patients........................................................................... Variable cost at 1,500 patients...................................................................... Fixed cost per month.................................................................................... Cost formula:

## \$16,100 15,000 \$1,100

Total monthly administrative cost = \$1,100 + \$10X, where X denotes the number of patients for the month. The variable cost per patient is \$10. 2. The electronic version of the Solutions Manual BUILD A SPREADSHEET SOLUTIONS is available on your Instructors CD and on the Hilton, 8e website: www.mhhe.com/hilton8e.
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,
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## McGraw-Hill/Irwin Inc. Managerial Accounting, 8/e

CASE 6-49 (CONTINUED) 3. Date: To: From: Today Jeffrey Mahoney, Administrator I.M. Student Memorandum

Subject: Comparison of cost estimates for clinic administrative costs Three alternative cost-estimation methods were used to estimate the pediatric clinic's administrative cost behavior. The results of these three approaches (in formula form) are shown below. In each formula, X denotes the number of patients in a month. (a) Least-squares regression method: Total monthly administrative cost = \$2,671 + \$7.81X (b) High-low method: Total monthly administrative cost = \$1,100 + \$10X (c) Visual-fit method: Total monthly administrative cost = \$7,000 + \$3.00X These cost estimates differ very significantly. The activity level in the clinic during its first year of operation fluctuated greatly. This fluctuation is not expected in the future; patient loads in the range of 600 to 1,200 patients per month are anticipated. The cost estimates differ so greatly because two of the methods (least-squares and high-low) used data from outside the relevant range of activity. The clinic's administrative cost behavior appears from the scatter diagram to be curvilinear over the entire range. The cost behavior pattern exhibits very low costs in the range of activity below the relevant range and very high costs in the activity range above the relevant range. Since the regression and high-low estimates are so heavily influenced by observations outside the relevant range, they do not provide the best estimate in this case of how administrative costs are likely to behave within the relevant range. In this instance, the visually-fitted cost line probably provides the best estimate.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

CASE 6-49 (CONTINUED) Another possible approach would be to use least-squares regression, but restrict the data to those observations within the relevant range. However, only a handful of observations would remain to include in the analysis. My overall recommendation is to use the visually-fitted cost line as the best estimate until the clinic has operated for its second year. Then I would recommend a new cost analysis using least-squares regression on all of the data from the relevant range of activity. 4. It is very inappropriate for the hospital administrator to manipulate the cost information supplied by the director of cost management in order to push his own agenda before the board of trustees. It is the board's legitimate role to decide whether or not to establish and continue operations in the clinic. In making decisions about the clinic, the board should have the best information possible, including the controller's best estimate as to how administrative costs will behave. Megan McDonough, the hospitals director of cost management, has a professional obligation to provide her best professional judgment to the board of trustees. The standards of ethical conduct for management accountants include the following requirements concerning objectivity: (a) Communicate information fairly and objectively.

(b) Disclose fully all relevant information that could reasonably be expected to influence an intended user's understanding of the reports, comments, and recommendations presented. McDonough should insist that the best and most appropriate estimate of the clinic's administrative cost behavior be presented to the board.

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

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CASE 6-49 (CONTINUED) The following alternative approach to calculating the regression parameters is not a requirement in the problem. Least-squares regression using manual calculations (a) Tabulation of data: Dependent Variable (cost in hundreds) Y 60 70 139 92 119 100 94 41 102 161 83 111 1,172 Independent Variable (patients in hundreds) X 4 5 14 9 13 10 7 3 11 15 6 12 109

Month January....................... February...................... March.......................... April............................. May.............................. June............................ July.............................. August........................ September.................. October....................... November................... December.................... Total............................

## X2 16 25 196 81 169 100 49 9 121 225 36 144 1,171

XY 240 350 1,946 828 1,547 1,000 658 123 1,122 2,415 498 1,332 12,059

## (b) Calculation of parameters: ( Y )( X 2 ) ( X )( XY ) a = 2 n( X ) ( X )( X) = b = =

(1,172)(1,171) (109)(12,059) = 26.707 (rounded) (12)(1,171) (109)(109)

## n( XY) ( X)( Y) n( X 2 ) ( X)( X)

(12)(12,059) (109)(1,172) = 7.812 (rounded) (12)(1,171) (109)(109)

## 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Solutions Manual

CASE 6-49 (CONTINUED) (c) Cost behavior in formula form (with rounded parameters):* Total monthly administrative cost = \$2,671 + \$7.81X, where X denotes the number of patients for the month. *When interpreting the regression parameters, remember that both the cost and patient data were transformed to hundreds. Thus, the 26.707 intercept parameter (a) is in terms of hundreds of dollars of cost, or \$2,671 (rounded). The 7.812 slope parameter (b) is in terms of hundreds of dollars of cost per hundred patients, or \$781 (rounded) per hundred patients. This amount is equivalent to \$7.81 per patient. (d) The variable cost per patient is \$7.81, as explained above.

## FOCUS ON ETHICS (See page 253 in the text.)

Is direct labor a variable cost? Is it ethical to tap and zap employees? Direct labor is a variable cost if management is both able and willing to continually adjust the workforce to meet short-term needs. Many observers would argue that it is ethical to tap and zap employees provided that those employees are appropriately notified about and compensated for the added risks and uncertainties surrounding their employment. For example, hourly rates for temporary employees may be set somewhat higher than for permanent employees to account for temps not having paid vacation, health benefits, and other standard compensation features of the modern workforce. For many cyclical industries (e.g., recreational resorts) such labor flexibility is essential. For industries with more stable labor levels, there are legal limitations, which seek to prevent classifying labor incorrectly as temporary. The deliberate misclassification of employees to avoid appropriate compensation is unethical, and in certain circumstances may be illegal.

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