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PART - A 1. Explain the term sullage.

Sullage is a clear term used to indicate the wastewater from bath rooms, washing places and wash basins etc. It does not create smell since organic matter in it is either absent or it of negligible amount.

2. How water carriage system to be classified? Separate system Combined system Partially separate system.

3. What are the methods available for calculating population growth? Arithmetical increase Geometrical increase Incremental increase method Decreased rate of growth method Graphical comparison method Growth composition analysis Ratio and correlation method Zoning method or master plan method. Graphical extension method

4. What are the materials used for sewers constructions? Asbestos cement sewer Plain or reinforced cement concrete sewer Vitrified clay sewer Brick sewer Cast iron sewer Steel sewer Plastic sewer 5. Write about joints of sewers. Bell and spigot joint Collar joints Simplex joints Flexible or bituminous joints Mechanical joints

6. What are the forces acting on the sewers? Internal pressure Temperature Forces due to external loads o Back fill loads o Super-impose loads Flexural Stresses.

7. Write about the elements of pumping station? Grit channel Coarse and fine screen Sumps or wet well Pump room or dry well Pumps with driving engine or mortar.

8. What are the types of pumps? i. Centrifugal pumps ii. Reciprocating pumps iii. Propeller or axial flow pump iv. Air pressure pumps.

9. Define Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) The BOD may define as oxygen required for micro-organism to carry out biological decomposition of dissolved solids or organic matter in the waste water under aerobic conditions at standard temperature.

10. What are the sources of sanitary sewage? Water supplied to the public for domestic purposes by the local authority. Water supplied to the various industries for various industrial process by the local authority. Water drawn from wells by individual houses for their domestic purpose. Water supplied by the local authority to various public places such as such as school, cine field, hotels, and railways station. Tec. Water drawn from wells, lakes, canals etc. By industries for their purposes Infiltration of ground water in to showers thorough leaky joints. Unauthorized ensure of rainwater in sewer in line.

11. What are the physical characteristics of wastewater & mention their sources.

Characteristic Physical characteristic i) Color

Source

Domestic and industrial wastages, natural decay of organic materials.

Decomposing wastewater: industrial wastages ii) odour Domestic water supply: iii) Solids Domestic and industrial waters; soil erosion, inflow infiltration, Domestic and industrial wastages.

iv)

Temperature

12. What are the Chemical characteristics of wastewater & mention their sources.

Chemical characteristic a. Organic

i) carbo hydrates

Domestic and commercial, industrial wastes

ii) Fats oils and the greases Domestic, commercial and industrial wastage

iii) Pesticides Agricultural wastages

iv) Phenols Industrial wastes v) Proteins Domestic and commercial vi) Surfactant Domestic and industrial

vii) Others Natural decay of organic Materials

b. In organic

i) alkanity Domestic wastes

ii) Chloride

Domestic water supply

Ground water infiltration.


iii) Heavy metal

Domestic supply iv) Oxygen Domestic wastes v)pH Ground water infiltration, vi) Phosphorus Water softeners. vii)sulphur Industrials wastes, domestic and industrial wastes.

Domestic wastes Natural run off viii) Toxic compounds Domestic and industrial wastes.

13. What are the Biological characteristics of wastewater & mention their sources.

Biological characteristic i) Animals Open waters course and treatment plant

ii)

Plants Open waters course and treatment plant

iii)

Protozoa Domestic wastes treatment plants

iv)

Viruses Domestic wastes.

14. What are the advantages of water carriage system?

1. Epidamic aspect: There are no chances of outbreak or epidemic because flies and other insects do not have direct assessed. 2. Pollution aspect: The liquid waste is directly conveyed through the sewers and there fore there no changes of he waste water being soaked in the ground thus contaminating the soil. The waste water does not percolate down to join the ground water. There are no chances of pollution of water of wells individual houses in any. 3. Labour aspect: The labour required for operation and maintained in extremely small. In fact, the following of the system is practically automatic, except for the operation of certain pumps etc. therefore, there is no labour problem in the individual houses.

15. What is meant by separate system? The separate system provides two separate systems of sewers- the one intended for the conveyance of foul sewage only, such as faecal matter, domestic wastewater, the washings and draining of places such as slaughter houses, laundries and wastewater from manufacturing processes; and the other for the rain water, including the surface washing from certain streets, overflow from public baths and foundations. 16. What are the advantages of separate system? The cost of installation is low. The load on the treatment units will be lowered, since only the foul sewage carried by the separate sewers need to be treated. Sewers of smaller section can be easily ventilated than those of larger section. The night flow will be comparatively small this may facilitate operations at the outfall works. Rain water can be discharged in to streams or rivers without any treatment.

17. What is meant by combined system? The combined system provides only one sewer to carry both the foul sewage as well as the rain water.

18. What are the disadvantages of partially combined system?

During the dry weather, when there is no rain water, the velocity of flow will be low. Thus self cleansing velocity may not be achieved. The storm water increases the load on treatment units. The storm water also increases the cost of pumping.

19. What are the factors governing the choice of combined system? Space consideration Integrated development Even rainfall pattern Conversion of existing storm water drains Pumping requirememts.

20. Define dry weather flow. The dry weather flow is the flow through the sewers that would normally be available during non-rainfall periods. It consists mainly of (i) Domestic sewage (ii) Industrial wastewater.

21. What are the factors affecting dry weather flow? Rate of water supply Population growth Type of area served Infiltration of ground water

22. Define time of concentration. It is defined as the longest time, without unreasonable delay, that will be required for a drop of water to flow from the farther point of the drainage area to the point of concentration (i.e., the point at which maximum runoff is estimated). It is the time required for the flood discharge to reach to the maximum limit.

23. Define the term self cleansing velocity. It is defined as that velocity at which the solid particles will remain in suspension, without settling at the bottom of the sewer.

24. What are the factors to be considered while selecting a particular material of a sewer?

Hydraulic efficiency Resistance to abrasion Resistance to corrosion Strength Durability Cost Weight Imperviousness.

25. What is meant by an outfall sewer? It is a sewer that receives the sewage from the collecting systems and conduits it to a point of final discharge or to a disposal plant.

26. What are the various steps involved in the layout and construction of sewer lines? Setting out Alignment and gradient Excavation of trenches, timbering and dewatering Laying and jointing Testing backfilling

27. What are the tests to be conducted on sewer lines? Test for straightness and obstruction Water test Smoke test Air test

28. What are the types of pipe appurtenances? Inlets Catch basins Clean outs Manholes Drop manholes Lamp holes Flushing tanks Grease and oil traps

Inverted siphons Storm regulators

29. What is the necessity of lifting wastewater? The sewage from localized low lying pockets in a city has to be pumped, so as to throw it up in to the citys sewer pipes flowing under gravity and running at higher elevations. When the area is flat, the laying of sewers at their designed gradients may involve deeper excavations in the forward direction of flow. In such circumstances, it may be advisable to lift the sewage at suitable intervals, and then to lay sewers at reasonable depth below the surface. For disposing of the sewage of the basements of large commercial buildings, sewage may have to be pumped, as the street sewer may be higher than the level of the basement floor.