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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

B.E. Sem-I Remedial examination March 2009

Subject code: 110011


Date: 18 / 03 /2009

Subject Name: Physics


Time: 02:00pm To 4:30pm

Instructions: Total Marks: 70


1. Attempt all questions. 2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary. 3. Figures to the right indicate full marks.

Que-1 1

Attempt all the question. Classify the sound waves based on frequency. Based upon the frequency of sound waves it ca be define into three part [a] Audible waves : 20 Hz to 20 KHz [b] Infrasonic waves : below 20 Hz [c] Ultrasonic waves : above 20 KHz

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Define Reverberation time.


Reverberation time is defined as the time gap between initial direct note and reflected note at a minimum audible level. Define Ultrasonic waves. The sound waves of frequency above 20kHz are called ultrasonic waves. What is magnetostriction method? Magnetostriction method is used to generate ultrasonic waves up to 3000 KHz using magnetostriction effect. What is SONAR? The full form of Sound Navigation and Ranging. It is based on the principle of echo sounding. What are lattice parameters? There are six parameters : a, b, c, , . What is LASER?
Light Amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. It is based on principle of echo sounding.

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5 6 7 8

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Define fiber optic system? Fiber optic system is a communication system which uses optical fibers and light signal to carry information signal. What are conduction electrons? The electrons in conduction band are called free or conduction electrons. Classify the solids based in band theory. Solids are classified into (1) conductor (2) semiconductor (3) Insulator.
What is holography?

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Holography is techniques that allow the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that it appears as if the object is in same position relative to recording medium as it was when recorded. Define superconductor? Superconductivity is defined as state of zero resistivity and perfect conduction of current through it. What are Nanomaterials? A nanomaterial is made up by grains that are about 100 nm in diameter and contains less than a few ten thousand of atoms. Mention the names of the various NDT methods. 1 liquid penetrate-dye penetrate inspection 2 X-ray radiography

3 Ultrasonic inspection method 4 Magnetic particle inspection 5 Visual inspections. 6 Sonic inspections.

Que-2 (a)
1 The volume of room is 1500 m3.The wall area of the room is 260m2, the floor area is 140m2 and the ceiling area is 140 m2 .The average sound absorption coefficient for wall is 0.03, for the ceiling is 0.8 and for the floor is 0.06. Calculate the average absorption coefficient and the Reverberation time. = a1s1+a2s2+a3s3/s1+s2+s3 = (0.03*260)+(0.8*140)+(0.06*140)/260+140+140 = 0.2374 o.w.u. 3

Total sound absorption in room = *s= a.ds = 0.2374*(260+140+140) = 128.196 o.w.u. m2 Reverberation time T = 0.162V/ a.ds = (0.162*1500)/128.196 = 1.95 sec.
2 Calculate the capacitance to produce ultrasonic waves of 106 Hz with an Inductance of 1 Henry. 2

f = 1/2LC 106 = 1/2*3.14*1*C C = 1/(2*3.14*106)2 = 0.0254*10-12 F C = 0.0254 PF


3 Calculate the drift velocity of the free electrons in copper for an electrical Field strength of 0.5 V/m (with a mobility of 3.5 10-3 m2 V- 1 S-1 ). n = 3.5 * 10-3 m2/vs E = 0.5 v/m V =nE = 3.5*10-3*0.5 V = 1.75*10-3 m/s 2

(B) 1 Discuss the various factors affecting the acoustics of buildings and give their Remedies Reverberation is one of the important factors that affect the acoustics of a building. Besides reverberation there are other factors like loudness, focusing, echelon effect, extraneous noise and resonance. Loudness:Suppose 1000 persons can hear the speech of a person in an auditorium, but there will not be any uniform sound distribution. So to ensure uniform distribution of sound intensity in the hall electrically amplified loudspeakers are used. These speakers are kept in different places in the auditorium and are kept at a higher than the speakers head. Amplifiers shall make the low frequency tones more prominent and hence the amplification has to be kept low. Focusing The presence of cylindrical or spherical surface on the wall or the ceiling gives rise to undesirable focusing. In hall, the observer receives sound waves from the speaker along the direct path and the observer also receives the sound waves after reflection from the ceiling. Echelon effect:If there is regular structure similar to a flight of stairs or asset of railways in the hall, the sound produced in front of such a structure may produce a musical note due to regular successive echoes of sound reaching the observer. Such an effect is called echelon effect. If the frequency of this note is within the audible range, the listeners will hear only this note prominently. To avoid echelon effect, the staircase must have to be covered with carpets. Extraneous noise:-

The extraneous noise may be due to the sound received form outside the auditorium and the sound produced by fans inside the auditorium. The external sound cannot be completely eliminated but can be minimized by using double or triple windows and doors. Proper attention must be given to maximum permissible speed of time and the rate of air circulation in the room. The air conditioning pipes should be covered with corks and insulated acoustically forms the main building. Resonance:The acoustics of a building may also be affected by resonance. So if the hall is of large size the resonance frequency is much below the audible frequency limit and harmful effect due to resonance will not be affected Reverberation time: the auditorium must be designed in such a way that it could have the optimum reverberation time. In an auditorium reverberation time can also be maintained by eliminating unwanted echoes, focusing effects of curved surfaces, flatter echoes etc., Echoes, etc. Sound absorption:Sound absorption is a process in which sound energy is converted partly into heat and partly in to mechanical vibrations of the material. Carpets, suspended space absorbers and interchangeable absorption panels in rooms and buildings can absorb unwanted sound. 2 Using Sabines formula explains how the sound absorption coefficient of a material is determined? Step 1:- Using a source of sound inside the hall reverberation time is measured without inserting any test material. let the reverberation time be T1 T1 = 0.161 V/A = 0.161V/aS 1/T1 = aS/0.161V..(1) Absorption coefficient = a Effective absorbing area = aS reverberation time = T Step 2:Now consider a material like curtain whose co-efficient of absorption is to be found out suspended inside the room and reverberation time T2 is obtained. 1/T2 = aS+2a2s2/0.161V. (2) Absorption coefficient of the material under investigation = a2 Effective absorbing area(since both the side are used it is multiplied by 2) = S2 So from equ. (1) and (2), 1/T2 -1/T1 =1/0.161V * 2a2s2 So 2a2s2 = 0.161V(1/T2 -1/T1) a2 = 0.161V/2 s2*(1/T2 -1/T1) ..(3) so equ. (1), (2), and (3) are known as coefficient of Absorption of an absorbing material which is suspended in hall with both the surfaces open can be calculated. OR (B) 1 Draw the circuit diagram of piezoelectric oscillator and explain the Production of ultrasonic waves using it. 4 3

Principle:when certain crystals like quartz, rochelsolt,tourmaline etc are stretched or compressed along certain axis an electric potential difference is produced along a perpendicular axis Construction:A quartz crystal Q is placed between two metallic plates A and B and they are connected with coil L3 - Coils L1, L2, L3 are inductively coupled to the oscillatory circuit of a triode valve. L2 connected with plate circuit L1 connected with variable capacitor c1 forming the tank circuit is connected between grid and cathode.

High tension battery is connected to L2 and cathode of a triode valve oscillator. Working:- when the switch S is closed and battery is switched on the oscillator produce high frequency alternating voltage f = 1/2L1C1 - The frequency of oscillation can be controlled bye variable capacitor C1. - By transformer action an oscillatory emf is induced in coil L3. - This emf are compressed on the plates A and B. - Because of this emf crystal starts for vibration - Adjust the variable capacitor c1 such that the frequency of a oscillation matches with the natural frequency of a vibration. - Hence crystal vibrates with maximum amplitude at resonance and produced the required ultrasonic waves in surrounding medium. - The frequency of a vibration is f =n/2l*y/p or f =n/2t*y/p where n = frequency mode l = length, t = thickness, y = young modulus p=density
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Thus using piezo-electric oscillator ultrasonic waves up to frequency 15*105 Hz can be produced. Circuit:-

Explain the applications of ultrasonic. science application:- To find out the defect in metal. - To find out the passion of ice-burg and submarines in sea. - It is also useful as pulse, eco-system General application:- It is used for drilling, cutting and soldering of law melting point-metal like soft metals. - It is used for NDT. - It is useful for measuring the viscosity. - It is useful for metal and plastic welding. Engineering application:- For thickness measurement - For cavitations: when U.V. transducer is placed in a liquid, it produced a vibration which develop bubbles in liquid they are known as cavitations bubble, - For cleaning: high frequency U.V. rays are used to clean fibers and low frequency are used to clean the metallic parts. - It also used as a transducer and emulsification. Medical application:- The waves are used for observing the growth of a child in mothers wombs - It is used to remove kidney stone and brain tumors without shedding any blood. - It is used to remove broken teeth. - It is used to study the blood flow velocities in blood vessels of our body. - Its also useful for treatment of cancer. SONAR:- Using SONAR the distance and the direction of submarines, depth of sea, depth of rocks in sea, the shoal of fish in the sea etc can be find out.

Sound signaling and depth sounding:- the principle of echo sounding can e used to give a signal to a distant ship. - We can also find out depth of water below a ship.

Que-3
1 Explain the various types of crystal system with example. In crystallography, a crystal system or crystal family or lattice system is one of several classes of space groups, lattices, point groups, or crystals. - A crystal system is a class of point groups. However, for the five point groups in the trigonal crystal class there are two possible lattice systems for their point groups: rhombohedral or hexagonal. - In three dimensions there are seven crystal systems: triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, trigonal, hexagonal, and cubic. The crystal system of a crystal or space group is determined by its point group but not always by its lattice - The relation between three-dimensional crystal families, crystal systems, and lattice systems is shown in the following table: Crystal system Cubic Parameters of unit cell lengths a=b=c Space Lattice Element of symmetry 9 planes,13 axes examples 4

Orthorhombic abc

Tetragonal Monoclinic Triclinic Hexagonal Trigonal

a=bc abc abc a=bc a=b=c

angles ===90 Simple Body centred Face centred ===90 Simple Body centred End centred Face centred ===90 Simple Body centred ==90 Simple 90 End centred 90 Simple ==90 Simple =120 ==90 Simple 90

NaCl,KCl,Fe,ZnS

3 planes,3 axes

Rhombic sulphur , KNO3 Sn,SiO2,Sn O2 Na2SO410H2O,mo noclinic sulphur CuSO4,5H2O Zn,Cd,ice Quartz,Sb,NaNO3 3

5 planes,5 axes 1 planes,1 axes No planes, no axes 7 planes,7 axes 7 planes,7 axes

What are the difference between crystalline material and Non-crystalline material. crystalline material Non-crystalline material. Here atom or molecular are arranged in a very regular and ordinary fashion in three dimensional pattern. They are highly ordered state of crystalline solid Strength of these materials are comparatively high Example are metals and alloy Write short note on Energy bands in solids Here atom or molecular are arranged randomly and in irregular manner They are disordered state of crystalline solid or amorphous solid Strength of these materials are lower than crystalline solid Examples are glass,wood,plastics.etc

The atoms in the solid are very closely packed. The nucleus of an atom is so heavy that it considered being at rest and hence the characteristic of an atom are decided by the electrons. During the formation of a solid, energy levels of outer shell electrons got split up. As a result, closely packed energy levels are produced. The collection of such a large number of energy levels is called energy band. The electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons. The band formed by a series of energy levels containing the valence electrons is known as valence band.

The next higher permitted band in a solid is the conduction band. The electrons occupying this band are known as conduction electrons. Conduction band valence band are separated by a gap known as forbidden energy gap. No electrons can occupy energy levels in this band. Classification of solids on the basis of energy bands Insulator Insulators are very poor conductors of electricity. In this case Eg 6eV. For E.g..carbon(shown in fig A) Semiconductor A semiconductor material is one whose electrical properties lie between that of insulators and good conductors. Their forbidden band is small.Ge and Si are examples with forbidden energy gap 0.7eV and 1.1eV respectively. An appreciable number of electrons can be excited across the gap at room temperature. By adding impurities or by thermal excitation, we can increase the electrical conductivity in semiconductors(shown in fig-B) Conductor Here valence band and conduction band overlap and there is no forbidden energy gap.Here plenty of electrons are available for electrical conduction. The electrons from valence band can freely enter the conduction band.(fig C)

(fig -A)
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(fig B)

(fig C)
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Explain Photovoltaic Cell and materials used.

Principle:Solar cells are designed to convert available light into electrical energy. Structure:- Modern solar cells are based on semiconductor physics -- they are basically just P-N junction photodiodes with a very large light-sensitive area. - The photovoltaic effect, which causes the cell to convert light directly into electrical energy, occurs in the three energy-conversion layers. - The first of these three layers necessary for energy conversion in a solar cell is the top junction layer (made of N-type semiconductor). - The next layer in the structure is the core of the device; this is the absorber layer (the P-N junction). - The last of the energy-conversion layers is the back junction layer (made of P-type semiconductor). Working:- Light generates electron-hole pairs on both sides of the junction, in the n-type emitter and in the p-type base. - The generated electrons (from the base) and holes (from the emitter) then diffuse to the junction and are swept away by the electric field, thus producing electric current across the device. - Note how the electric currents of the electrons and holes reinforce each other since these particles carry opposite charges. - The p-n junction therefore separates the carriers with opposite charge, and transforms the generation current between the bands into an electric current across the p-n junction.

Circuit:-

V-I characteristic of solar cell:-

Parameter of solar cell:- Solar cells are characterized by a maximum Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) at zero output current and a Short Circuit Current (Isc) at zero output voltage. Since power can be computed via this equation: P=I*V OR
1 Explain with a neat diagram the construction and working of a 4

semiconductor laser. Raw Materials:- The conventional semiconductor laser consists of a compound semiconductor, gallium arsenide. - The materials used to form these layers are precisely weighed according to a specific formula. Other materials that are - A double heterostructure laser.used to make this type of laser include certain metals (zinc, gold, and copper) as additives (dopants) or electrodes, and silicon dioxide as an insulator.

Design:The basic design of a semiconductor laser consists of a "double heterostructure." This consists of several layers that have different functions. An active or light amplification layer is sandwiched between two cladding layers. These cladding layers provide injection of electrons into the active layer. Because the active layer has a refractive index larger than those of the cladding layers, light is confined in the active layer. The performance of the laser can be improved by changing the junction design so that diffraction loss in the optical cavity is reduced. This is made possible by modifying the laser material to control the index of refraction of the cavity and the width of the junction. The index of refraction of the material depends upon the type and quantity of impurity. For instance, if part of the gallium in the positively-charged layer is replaced by aluminum, the index of refraction is reduced and the laser light is better confined to the optical cavity. The width of the junction can also affect the performance. A narrow dimension confines the current to a single line along the length of the laser, increasing the current density. Peak power output must be limited to no more than 400 watts per cm (0.4 in) length of the junction and current density to less than 6,500 amperes per centimeter squared at the junction to extend the life of the laser.

The Manufacturing Process:Making the substrate:The substrates are made using a crystal pulling technique called the Czochralski method, where a crystal is grown from a melt. Growing the layers:The most common method for growing the layers onto the substrate is called liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE).As the temperature is decreased, the semiconductor compound (such as GaAs)

comes out of the solution in crystalline form and is deposited onto the substrate. Fabricating the laser device :First, the substrate is mechanically polished Next, a very thin silicon dioxide film is formed on the substrate surface. Stripes are formed by photolithography and chemical etching. Contact electrodes are applied using an evaporation method. Next, a laser resonator is formed by cleaving the wafer along parallel crystal planes. The completed laser devices are then attached to a copper heat sink on one side and a small electrical contact on the other. 2

Application:Medical equipments used in surgery As pointer and range finders Networking of computers As a light sourse and light amplifier in fiber optic communication system
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Discuss the merits and demerits of semiconductor laser Merits:- output power is controlled by junction current - smaller in size - highly efficient - easy to fabricate - Gives continuous wave output. Demerits:- threshold current density is very large - monochromatically and coherence are poorer Discuss in detail the principle of optical finer communication. total Internal Reflection is the principle of optical fiber, (T.I.R.) it can be define as when light travels from a more optically dense material [larger index of refraction] to a less dense material the angle of refraction is larger than the incident angle. There are numerous cases where a larger optical density is accompanied by a smaller mass density.

Because the refracted angle is always larger than the incident angle, it is possible for the refracted angle to reach 90 before the incident angle reaches 90. If the light were to refract out of the denser medium, it would then run along the surface. Larger angles would then yield situations which would force the sine function to be larger than 1.00, which is mathematically impossible.

When the incident angle reaches the condition whereby the refracted ray would bend to an angle of 90, it is called the CRITICAL ANGLE. The critical angle obeys the following equation:

This reflected ray changes in intensity as we vary the angle of incidence. At small incident angles (almost perpendicular to the surface) the reflected ray is weak and the refracted ray is strong.

What do you mean by acceptance angle and numerical aperture of a fiber? In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.

Multimode optical fiber will only propagate light that enters the fiber within a certain cone, known as the acceptance cone of the fiber. The half-angle of this cone is called the acceptance angle, max. For step-index multimode fiber, the acceptance angle is determined only by the indices of refraction where n1 is the refractive index of the fiber core, and n2 is the refractive index of the cladding.

When a light ray is incident from a medium of refractive index n to the core of index n1, Snell's law at medium-core interface gives From the above figure and using trigonometry, we get :

Where is the critical angle for total internal reflection, since Substituting for sin r in Snell's law we get:

By squaring both sides

Thus, from where the formula given above follows.

max = Sin- (n1)2-(n2)2 This has the same form as the numerical aperture in other optical systems, so it has become common to define the NA of any type of fiber to be Where n1 =refractive index of core n2= refractive index of cladding NA=numerical aperture max = acceptance angle Obtain expression for thermal conductivity - Heat transfer by conduction involves transfer of energy within a material without any motion of the material as a whole. - The rate of heat transfer depends upon the temperature gradient and the thermal conductivity of the material. - More fundamental questions arise when you examine the reasons for wide variations in thermal conductivity. Gases transfer heat by direct collisions between molecules, and as would be expected, their thermal conductivity is low compared to most solids since they are dilute media. - Non-metallic solids transfer heat by lattice vibrations so that there is no net motion of the media as the energy propagates through. Such heat transfer is often described in terms of "phonons", quanta of lattice vibrations. Metals are much better thermal conductors than non-metals because the same mobile electrons which participate in electrical conduction also take part in the transfer of heat. - Conceptually, the thermal conductivity can be thought of as the container for the medium-dependent properties which relate the rate of heat loss per unit area to the rate of change of temperature.(Fig A)

Fig A Fig B For an ideal gas the heat transfer rate is proportional to the average molecular velocity, the mean free path, and the molar heat capacity of the gas. For metals, the thermal conductivity is quite high, and those metals which are the best electrical conductors are also the best thermal conductors. At a given temperature, the thermal and electrical conductivities of metals are proportional, but raising the temperature increases the thermal conductivity while decreasing the electrical conductivity. This behavior is quantified in the Wiedemann-Franz Law:

Where the constant of proportionality L is called the Lorenz number. Qualitatively, this relationship is based upon the fact that the heat and electrical transport both involve the free electrons in the metal. The thermal conductivity increases with the average particle velocity since that increases the forward transport of energy. However, the electrical conductivity decreases with particle velocity increases because the collisions divert the electrons from forward transport of charge. This means that the ratio of thermal to electrical conductivity depends upon the average velocity squared, which is proportional to the kinetic temperature. 3

State and deduce Wiedemann-Franz law. - The ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity of a metal is proportional to the temperature. Qualitatively, this relationship is based upon the fact that the heat and electrical transport both involve the free electrons in the metal. The thermal conductivity increases with the average particle velocity since that increases the forward transport of energy. However, the electrical conductivity decreases with particle velocity increases because the collisions divert the electrons from forward transport of charge. This means that the ratio of thermal to electrical conductivity depends upon the average velocity squared, which is proportional to the kinetic temperature. The molar heat capacity of a classical monoatomic gas is given by

the Wiedemann-Franz Law can be understood by treating the electrons like a classical gas and comparing the resultant thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity. The expressions for thermal and electrical conductivity become:

Using the expression for mean particle speed from kinetic theory

the ratio of these quantities can be expressed in terms of the temperature. The ratio of thermal to electrical conductivity illustrates the Wiedemann-Franz Law,

While qualitatively agreeing with experiment, the value of the constant is in error in this classical treatment. When the quantum mechanical treatment is done, the value of the constant is found to be:

What are Type I and Type II superconductors?

Type 1 Superconductors:Type 1 superconductors - characterized as the "soft" superconductors - were discovered first and require the coldest temperatures to become superconductive. They exhibit a very sharp transition to a

superconducting state (see graph) and "perfect" diamagnetism - the ability to repel a magnetic field completely

Where as most superconducting pure metals are Type-I superconductors.

Type II Superconductor:A Type-II superconductor is a superconductor characterized by its gradual transition from the superconducting to the normal state within an increasing magnetic field. Typically they superconduct at higher temperatures and magnetic fields than Type-I superconductors. This allows them to conduct higher currents and makes them useful for strong electromagnets. Niobium, Vanadium, Technetium, Diamond and Silicon are pure element Type-II superconductors. Metal alloy superconductors also exhibit Type-II behavior (e.g. niobiumtitanium, niobium-tin). In comparison to the (theoretically) sharp transition of a Type-I superconductor above the lower temperature Tc1, magnetic flux from external fields is no longer completely expelled, and the superconductor exists in a mixed state. Above the higher temperature Tc2, the superconductivity is completely destroyed, and the material exists in a normal state. Both of these temperatures are dependent on the strength of the applied field. It is more usual to consider a fixed temperature, in which case transition (flux penetration) occurs between critical field strengths Hc1((lower critical field)) and Hc2( the (upper critical field)

What is magnetic levitation? Explain with its application. Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. Magnetic pressure is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational and any other accelerations. As we have notice in meissner effect that superconductor state has complete diamagnetism and the external magnetic field is expelled by superconductor. In this state if a bar magnet is dropped on a superconductor, it will repelled and will hover about it. This is known as magnetic levitation.

Magnetic levitation is used for maglev trains, magnetic bearings and for product display purposes. Application Maglev - Maglev, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends and guides vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother than wheeled mass transit systems. - The highest recorded speed of a maglev train is 581 kilometers per hour (361 mph), achieved in Japan in 2003,[11] 6 km/h faster than the conventional TGV speed record. This is slower than many aircraft, since aircraft can fly at far higher altitudes where air drag is lower, thus high speeds are more readily attained .Magnetic bearings - Magnetic bearings - Flywheels - Centrifuges - This gives us high speed frictionless transportation system. OR What are the four applications of Nanomaterials?

Here there are a list of number of applications considering current and future application of nanomaterialsCosmetics application of nanoparticle:- sunscreen lotions: ray absorb properties Nanocomposite materials:- Nanoparticle silicate nanolayer (clay nanocomposites) and nanotubes can be used as reinforzed filler not only to increase mechanical properties of nanocomposites but also to impart new properties (optical, electronic etc.). Nanocoatings:- Surface coating with nanometre thickness of nanomaterial can be used to improve properties like wear and scratch-resistant, optoelectronics, hydrophobic properties. Hard cutting tools:current cutting tools (e.g. mill machine tools) are made using a sort of metal nanocomposites such as tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide and titanium carbide that have more wear and erosionresistant, and last longer than their conventional (large-grained) materials. Fuel cells:Could use nano-engineered membranes to catalytic processes for improve efficiency of small-scale fuel cells. Displays:- New class of display using carbon nanotubes as emission device for the next generation of monitor and television (FED field-emission displays). Other feasible nanotechnology applications:Nanospheres in lubrificants technology like a sort of nano balls bearing Nanoscale magnetic materials in data storage device. Nanostructure membranes for water purification.
2 How will you distinguish metallic glass from ordinary glass? - Unlike the ordinary glass, metallic glasses are not transparent yet there unusual atomic structure gives them distinctive mechanical and magnetic properties. Unlike the ordinary glass, metallic glasses are not brittle - Many traditional metals can be relatively easily deformed or bent permanently out of shape, because their crystal lattice are riddled with defects a metallic glass in contrast will spring back to its original shape much more readily. 3

Que-5
1

List out the difference between Stimulated emission and Spontaneous emission Stimulated emission Spontaneous emission 4

stimulated emission causes due to the energy difference between the higher and lower energy level state, but it doesn't depends in the case of spontaneous emission stimulated emission is the process by which an atomic electron (or an excited molecular state) interacting with an electromagnetic wave of a certain frequency, may drop to a lower energy level transferring its energy to that field
it is a random process non coherent emission it doesnt provide mono chromatic radiation. Destructive test and Non-destructive test 2 Destructive test In destructive testing, tests are carried out to the specimen's failure, in order to understand a specimen's structural performance or material behaviors under different loads. These tests are generally much easier to carry out, yield more information, and are easier to interpret than nondestructive testing. Common Destructive test include Stress tests Crash tests Hardness tests Metallographic tests

spontaneous emission causes without any stimulation .In stimulated emission energy transfer is twice the energy transfer of spontaneous emission.. Spontaneous emission is the process by which a light source such as an atom, molecule, nanocrystal or nucleus in an excited state undergoes a transition to a state with a lower energy
it is not a random process coherent emission it can provide mono chromatic radiation. 3

Non-destructive test Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage It is a highly-valuable technique that can save both money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research. Common NDT methods include ultrasonic, magnetic-particle, liquid penetrate, radiographic, remote visual inspection (RVI) and eddy-current testing 4

3 Single mode fiber and Multimode fiber Single mode fiber Single Mode cable is a single strand (most applications use 2 fibers) of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. Single Modem fiber is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed Example:- step index fiber The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type. Multimode fiber Multi-Mode cable has a little bit bigger diameter, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component Most applications in which Multi-mode fiber is used, 2 fibers are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fiber). Example:- multimode step index fiber multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission

4 a.c.Josephson effect and d.c.Josephson effect a.c.Josephson effect If a voltage is applied across the junction, a small oscillating current starts flowing back and forth through the junction, without equilibrating the two sides. This is known as the a.c. Josephson effect. When a potential difference V is applied between two side of a Josephson junction there is an oscillation of the tunneling current with angular velocity. d.c.Josephson effect If a constant current is made to flow through the junction, no voltage drop is detected across it, as long as the current stays below some critical value. This is known as the d.c. Josephson effect. The tunneling of electrons across the insulator in a Josephson junction result in a net current which flow even in the absence of a potential difference

OR Write short notes on Free electron theory of metals Classical free electron theory of metals This theory was developed by Drude and Lorentz and hence is also known as Drude-Lorentz theory. According to this theory, a metal consists of electrons which are free to move about in the crystal like molecules of a gas in a container. Mutual repulsion between electrons is ignored and hence potential energy is taken as zero. Therefore the total energy of the electron is equal to its kinetic energy. Drift velocity:- If no electric field is applied on a conductor, the free electrons move in random directions. They collide with each other and also with the positive ions. Since the motion is completely random, average velocity in any direction is zero. If a constant electric field is established inside a conductor, the electrons experience a force F = -eE due to which they move in the direction opposite to direction of the field. These electrons undergo frequent collisions with positive ions. In each such collision, direction of motion of electrons undergoes random changes. As a result, in addition to the random

motion, the electrons are subjected to a very slow directional motion. This motion is called drift and the average velocity of this motion is called drift velocity vd. - Consider a conductor subjected to an electric field E in the x-direction. The force on the electron due to the electric field F = eE. (Neglect sign.) - By Newtons law, eE = mdvd/dt (F=ma) dvd = eEdt/m Integrating, Vd = eEt/m + Constant When t = 0, vd = 0 Therefore Constant = 0 Vd = eEt/m --------------- (1) Electrical conductivity:-

Consider a wire of length dl and area of cross section A subjected to an electric field E. If n is the concentration of the electrons, the number of electrons flowing through the wire in dt = nAvddt. - The quantity of charge flowing in time dt = nAvddt.e - Therefore I = dq/dt = neAvd - Current density J = I/A = nevd Substituting the value of vd from (1), So, J = nee Et/m = ne2Et/m --------------- (2) By Ohms law, J = s E (where s=electrical conductivity) Therefore s = J/E = ne2t/m -------------- (3) Mobility of a charge carrier is the ratio of the drift mobility to the electric field. = vd/E m2/Volt-Sec Substituting vd from (1), = et/m -------------- (4) Substituting this in equation (3), s = ne ------------- (5)

Application of LASER in different field.

Scientific:- A wide variety of interferometer techniques - Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy - Investigating nonlinear optics phenomena - Holographic techniques employing lasers also contribute to a number of measurement techniques. - Laser based Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) technology has application in geology, seismology, remote sensing and atmospheric physics. Spectroscopy:- Most types of laser are an inherently pure source of light; they emit near-monochromatic light with a very well defined range of wavelengths. By careful design of the laser components, the purity of the laser light (measured as the "line width") can be improved more than the purity of any other light source. This makes the laser a very useful source for spectroscopy Military:- military uses of lasers include applications such as target designation and ranging, defensive countermeasures, communications and directed energy weapons.

Medical:- Cosmetic surgery - Eye surgery and refractive surgery - Soft tissue surgery: CO2, Er:YAG laser - Laser scalpel (General surgery, gynecological, urology, laparoscopic) - "No-Touch" removal of tumors, especially of the brain and spinal cord.

Industrial and commercial:Lasers used for visual effects during a musical performance. - Cutting and peening of metals and other material, welding, marking, etc. - Laser engraving, Laser bonding, Laser pointers, Holography - Extensively in both consumer and industrial imaging equipment. - Diode lasers are used as a light switch in industry, with a laser beam and a receiver which will switch on or off when the beam is interrupted, and because a laser can keep the light intensity over larger distances than a normal light, and is more precise than a normal light it can be used for product detection in automated production
3 Types of biomaterials and their applications in the medical field 4

Biomaterials can generally be produced either in nature or synthesized in the laboratory using a variety of chemical approaches utilizing metallic components or ceramics The development of biomaterials, as a science, is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.

They are classified as follows: - Metal and alloy - Polymers - Ceramics - Composites - Natural Application:-

Biomaterials are used in:


Joint replacements Bone plates Bone cement Artificial ligaments and tendons

Dental implants for tooth fixation Blood vessel prostheses Heart valves Skin repair devices (artificial tissue) Cochlear replacements Contact lenses Breast implants

Biomaterials must be compatible with the body, and there are often issues of biocompatibility which must be resolved before a product can be placed on the market and used in a clinical setting. Because of this, biomaterials are usually subjected to the same requirements of those undergone by new drug therapies. All manufacturing companies are also required to ensure traceability of all of their products so that if a defective product is discovered, others in the same batch may be traced.
4 Properties of Smart Memory Alloys Mainly there are two properties. shape memory effect 3

The shape memory effect is observed when the temperature of a piece of shape memory alloy is cooled to below the temperature Mf. At this stage the alloy is completely composed of Martensite which can be easily deformed. After distorting the SMA the original shape can be recovered simply by heating the wire above the temperature Af. The heat transferred to the wire is the power driving the molecular rearrangement of the alloy, similar to heat melting ice into water, but the alloy remains solid. The deformed Martensite is now transformed to the cubic Austenite phase, which is configured in the original shape of the wire.

Pseudo-elasticity

Pseudo-elasticity occurs in shape memory alloys when the alloy is completely composed of Austenite (temperature is greater than Af). Unlike the shape memory effect, pseudo-elasticity occurs without a change in temperature. The load on the shape memory alloy is increased until the Austenite becomes transformed into Martensite simply due to the loading; this process is shown in Figure 5. The loading is absorbed by the softer Martensite, but as soon as the loading is decreased the Martensite begins to transform back to Austenite since the temperature of the wire is still above Af, and the wire springs back to its original shape.