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An GhnIornhaireachturn ChaornhnUCornhshaoil

WASTEWATER TREATMENT MANUALS

PRELIMINARY

TREATMENT

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WASTE WATER TREATMENT

MANUALS

PRELIMINARYTREATMENT

Environmental Protection Agency

Ardcavan, Wexford, Ireland.

Telephone: +353-53-47120 Fax:+353-53-47119

©Environmental Protection Agency 1995

Partsofthis

publication may be reproduced withoutfurther permission, provided the

source is acknowledged.

WASTEWATER TREATMENTMANUALS

PRELIMINARYTREATMENT

Published by the Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland.

The

wereMs.AnneButler,

Agency personnel involved in the preparation

and

ofthis manual

production

Mr. GerryCarty,

Ms.MarionLambert (wordprocessing).

Dr. MattCrowe, Dr.

Paddy Flanagan and

ISBN 1-899965-22-X

Price IRL15.OO

12/95/1000

IFC

LISTOF FIGURES

LISTOFTABLES

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CONTENTS

1

5

6

7

8

ABBREVIATIONS

9

1. PRETREATMENT OFWASTEWATER

11

1.1 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

11

1.2 NATURE OF WASTEWATER

1.3 STORMWATER IN SEWAGE

1.4 TYPICAL SEWAGE LOADS

13

1.4.1 HYDRAULIC LOADING

13

1.4.2 ORGANIC LOADING

13

1.4.3 LOAD VARIATION

13

1.5 OVERVIEW OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT

14

1.6 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT PROCESSES - OVERVIEW

14

1.7 ROLE OF PLANT OPERATOR

16

2. HYDRAULIC DESIGN, STORM OVERFLOWS ANDFLOW BALANCING

2.1 TREATMENT PLANT FLOWS

19

19

2.1.1

FLOW TOTREATMENT

19

2.1.2 FLOW

CONTROLSANDOVERFLOWS

19

2.2

COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW - DISCHARGE CRITERIA

24

2.2.1 STORM WATER OVERFLOW SETTING

24

2.3 STORM OVERFLOW STRUCTURES

25

2.4 OPERATIONS ANDMAINTENANCE OF OVERFLOWS

25

2.5 STORM FLOW BALANCING

25

3. SCREENING

33

3.1 DEFINITION

33

2

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

3.3 SOURCES OF SCREENINGS

3.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF SCREENINGS

3.5 QUANTITY OF SCREENINGS

3.6 TYPES OF SCREEN

3.7 MANUAL BARSCREENS

3.8 COARSE SCREENS

3.8.1 TRASH RACKS

3.8.2ROTATING BARINTERCEPTORS (R.B.I.)

3.9 MEDIUM SCREENS

3.9.1 CURVED BARSCREENS

3.9.2VERTICAL AND INCLINED SCREENS

3.10 FINE SCREENS

3.10.1 INCLINED BARSCREENS

3.10.2BAND SCREENS 3.10.3DRUM SCREENS

3.10.4ROTOMAT, SCREEZER.CONTRA-SHEAR

3.10.5 DISCREEN

3.10.6DISPOSABLE BAGS

3.11 SCREEN DESIGN

3.11.1 SELECTION

3.11.2STANDARDS

3.l1.3DESIGN

3.12 SCREENINGS DEWATERING

3.12.1 HYDRAULIC PRESS

3.12.2SCREWCOMPACTORS

3.12.3WASHER DEWATERERS

3.12.4CENTRIFUGE

3.13 SCREENINGS DISPOSAL

3.14DISINTEGRATION

3.14.1 COMMINUTORS

3.14.2MACERATORS

3.14.3MUNCHERS

3.15 MAINTENANCE

3.16 COMMON OPERATING PROBLEMS

4. GRITREMOVAL

4.1 DEFINITION

4.2 SOURCES

.

4.3 QUANTITIES OF GRIT

4.4 PROBLEMS

4.5 SETTLEMENT THEORY

4.6 CONSTANT VELOCITY GRIT CHANNELS

4.6.1 PARABOLIC CHANNEL

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CONTENTS

3

4.6.2CHANNEL WITH SUTROWEIRCONTROL 4.6.3LENGTHOFCONSTANT VELOCITY CHANNEL

4.7 DETRITUS TANK

4.8 VORTEX GRIT SEPARATORS

4.9 AERATED GRIT TRAPS

4.10CROSS-FLOW DETRITER

4.11 GRITDEWATERING/WASHING

4.12 DISPOSAL OF GRIT

4.13 MAINTENANCE

4.14 COMMON PROBLEMS

5. OILS,GREASES & FATS

5.1 DEFINITION

5.2 SOURCES

5.3 NATURE ANDEFFECTS

5.4 REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES

5.4.1 PHYSICAL REMOVAL METhODS- GENERAL 5.4.2BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT 5.4.3 CHEMICAL REMOVAL METHODS 5.4.4DISPOSALOF OIL, FAT AND GREASE SLUDGES.

5.5 OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS

6. FLOWMEASUREMENT

6.1 PRINCIPLES OF FLOW MEASUREMENT

6.1.1 INTRODUCTION

6.1.2BASIC PRINCIPLESOFFLOW MEASUREMENT

6.1.3UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

6.1.4 STANDARDS 6.1.5LOCATIONSOFFLOW MEASUREMENT DEVICES 6.1.6VARIATION AND ACCURACY

6.2 MEASUREMENT DEVICES ANDSTRUCTURES

6.2.1 TYPESOFMEASUREMENT DEVICE

6.2.2STANDINGWAVEFLUME

6.2.3PARSHALL FLUME 6.2.4PALMER BOWLUS FLUME 6.2.5WEIRS - RECTANGULARAND VEENOTCH 6.2.6 VENTURI METER

6.2.7FLOW NOZZLE AND ORIFICE PLATE METERS

6.2.8ELECTROMAGNETICFLOWMETER

6.2.9ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER

6.2.10 OTHER DEVELOPMENTS (ELECTROMAGNETIC AND ULTRASONIC)

6.3 SELECTION OFAPPROPRIATE FLOW MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

 

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4 PRELIMINARYTREATMENT

6.5 CALIBRATION ANDMAINTENANCE

6.5.1 INTRODUCTION

6.5.2OPENCONDUIT FLOWMETERS 6.5.3CLOSEDCONDUIT FLOWMETERS

7. CONTROLOF NUISANCE

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 SOURCES OF NUISANCE

7.2.1 ODOURS

7.2.2ODOURCONCENTRATIONS

7.2.3NOISE

7.2.4VISUALAPPEARANCE

7.3 CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES/ PERFORMANCE

7.3.1 ODOUR NUISANCECONTROL

7.3.2NOISE NUISANCECONTROL

7.3.3 VISUALNUISANCECONTROL

7.4 GASCONTROLS

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REFERENCES

93

GLOSSARY

95

APPENDIX A: SCHEMATIC DRAWING OF PRETREATMENT WORKS

101

USERCOMMENT FORM

103

RECENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCYPUBLICATIONS

105

CONTENTS

5

Figure 1.1: Wastewater Treatment Process Figure 1.2: Typical Wastewater Preliminary TreatmentProcesses

Figure2.1: High Side Weir Overflow

Figure 2.2:

Figure 2.3.

2.4:

Figure

Figure 2.5: Stilling

2.6:

Figure

Figure 2.7: On-lineand

Figure 3.1: QuantitiesofScreenings

Figure 3.2: Rotating Bar

Figure

Figure

Figure

Figure 3.6:

Figure 3.7:

Figure 3.8:

Figure3.9: Hydraulic

Figure 3.10: SolidWaste

Figure3.11:In-line Disintegrator(Muncher)

Figure 4.1:

Figure 4.2:

Figure 4.3:

Figure

Pond

VortexRegulatorThrottle Device Throttle PipeDesign

TypicalHigh Side Weir Criteria

Overflow Criteria

Vortex Chamber in Circular Shaft

Off-line Storage

Interceptor

3.3: CurvedBarScreen

3.4:

3.5:

4.4:

Figure 5.1:

Figure

Figure 5.3:

Figure

Figure 6.2:

-

Collected from Mechanically Cleaned BarRacks

Inclined Mechanic ily RakedBarScreen Screens

Step

Screezer

Drum Screen- Rotamat

Discreen

Type

Screenings Press Detail

Screenings - Top FeedPress

ofParabolicConstant-

Cross-section

Velocity DetritusChannel Weir)

FlowPlate Weir (Sutro

Proportional

HelicalFlowPattern in anAeratedGritChamber

Grit Washerand Classifer

Glass-Reinforced Plastic (G.R.P.) Grease Trap

Separator

5.2: Grease

Aerated Skimming Tank

graph

6.1: Flow-time

FlowMeasurement Locations

Figure 6.3: Typical

Diurnal Flow Pattern in Dry Weather

Figure 6.4: FlowMeasurement Devices

Figure

Figure

7.1: WetOxidation about Ozone 7.2: Section Through PeatBed Biofilter

15

17

20

21

22

27

28

29

32

35

37

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42

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49

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87

88

6 PRELIMINARYTREATMENT

Table2.1: Flow ControlDevices atStormwater Oveiflows - Options Table2.2: Recommended Storm Overflow Structures Table3.1: Typical Screen Applications Table3.2: Screen Selection

Table3.3: Screen

Table3.4:

Table4.1:

Table 4.2:

Table 4.3:

Design Operational Problems atScreens

Settling Velocityof Grit

Typical Design Problems atGrit Plants

Factors

Data

Table 5.1. Operational Problems with Grease

Table 6. I:Typesof FlowMeasurement Devices andtheir Operation

Table 6.2: Application

Table 6.3:

Table

Table 6.5: Typical Flow Metering Accuracy

Table 7.1:

of FlowMeasurement inWastewater Treatment

Typical 6.4: Evaluation of Various

Criteria Used intheSelection of Flow Metering Devices (Ref 1).

Typesof FlowMetering in WasrewaterPreliminaryTreatment

SulphurCompound Concentrations inGas Emissions at

TypicalRangesof Odourand

PretreatmentWorks

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26

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52

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58

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79

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84

PREFACE

7

TheEnvironmentalProtection Agency was established in 1993 to licence,

the

it is

purposes of environmental protection.

procedures,

regulate and controlactivities for

Agency Act, 1992,

In Section 60 ofthe Environmental Protection

stated that "the Agency may, and shall if so directed by the Minister, specify and publish criteria and

which in the opinion of the Agency are reasonable and

desirable for the purposes of

environmental protection, in relationto the management, maintenance, supervision, operation or use of all

or

specified classes ofplant, sewers or drainagepipes vestedin orcontrolledorused by a sanitaryauthority

disposal ofany sewage or other effluent

in anumberofmanualsunderthe

are published by the

and practices whichshouldbefollowed

in the

It provides criteria and

it will provide practical guidance to those

forthe

to any waters". Criteriaand procedures inrelationtothe

treatment and disposal of wastewater are being published by the Agency

general heading: 'WastewaterTreatment Manuals'. Where criteria and procedures

Agency, a sanitary authority shall, inthe performance ofitsfunctions, have regard tothem.

This manual on Preliminary Treatment setsoutthe general principles

procedures for the proper

management, maintenance, supervision, operation and use ofthe processes and equipment required

preliminary treatment of wastewater.

Furthermanuals are planned

for secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater. Wherereference is madein the document to proprietary

equipment,

excluding any particular manufacturer or system.

which users of the manual wish to make. Theseshouldbe returned

tothe Environmental Management and Planning Divisionat the Agency headquarters on the enclosed User Comment Form.

indicating equipment type and is not to be interpreted as endorsing or

involved in plant operation, use, management, maintenance and supervision.

by those involved in the treatment of wastewater.

The Agency hopes that

this is intended as

welcomes

The

Agency

any suggestions

8 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

The Agency wishesto acknowledge thosewho contributed to and reviewed this manual. The draft manual

was prepared undercontract to the

Agency by M.C. O'Sullivan& Co. Ltd. A review panel was established

by the Agency to assist inthe finalisation ofthe manual and we acknowledge belowthose persons who took

the time to offervaluable information, advice andin

draftmanual. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance

casescomments and constructive criticism on the

many

offered by the following persons:

M. Beirne, Environmental HealthOfficers Association

Professor T. Casey, University College, Dublin.,

R. Dunne, Dept. oftheEnvironment

J.

P.

J.

Fenwick, Dublin Corporation

Fullam, Dublin Corporation

O'Flynn, Waterford County Council (representing the County and City Engineers Association)

P. Ridge, Galway County Council

The

Agency

also

wishes to acknowledge

Sanitary

Services

the assistance of

Engineering Inspectors

ofthe

Department

of the

Environment and the

commented onthedraftmanual.

sub-committee of the Regional Laboratory, Kilkenny,

both of whom

DOE

WRc

EPA

BOD

COD

DWF

CCTV

EEC

RBC

UV

p.e.

PLC

HMSO

S.!.

HMIP

RB!

rpm

Department oftheEnvironment

WaterResearch Centre, U.K.

Environmental Protection Agency

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Chemical Oxygen Demand

Dry Weather Flow

Closed CircuitTelevision

European Economic Community

Rotating Biological Contactor

Ultra Violet

Population Equivalent

Programmable Logic Controller

Her Majesty'sStationary Office Statutary Instrument

Her Majesty'sInspectorate ofPollution

Rotating Bar Interceptor revolutions per minute

ABBREVIATIONS

9

10 PRELIMINARYTREATMENT

11

1.1 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

Section 60 of the Environmental Protection

AgencyAct, 1992 permits the agency (EPA) to

procedures,

opinion reasonable and desirable for the

environmental protection, in relation to the management, maintenance, supervision, operation

specify

which

and

in

publish criteria

the

of

and

the

Agency

purposes

are

of

oruse ofall or specified classesof plant vested in

or controlled or used

thetreatment or disposal

any accordance with the foregoing,

by

a

of

sanitary

sewage

is

authority for or effluent to in

prepared

in

respect of

waters.

This

document

wastewater

preliminary

properly

or use

treatment. Its

is to provide criteria and

objective, therefore, to

supervise,

procedures

maintain,

and

equipment required in the preliminary treatment of wastewater.

manage,

operate

the processes

In interpreting these requirements, it is considered

appropriate that criteriabe evolvedin relationto

the following topics:

management: criteria for the establishment of

preliminary treatment including siting,design,

process and equipment

organisational

performance objectives;

meet

selection and

to

management

and

upkeep of equipment, approach channels and

maintenance:

criteria

for

servicing

acconmodation

works,

renewal

of

consumable items, servicing and repair;

supervision: superintendence of the works, maintenance of detailed performance records

monitoring to check compliance with

service objectives, avoidance of nuisance and

and

assessment of

operating costs;

operation or use:

criteria

for

optimised

of

operational

plant including disposal

environmentally

performance

and efficiency

of by-products in an

safe manner, minimisation of

nuisance from odours, flies, aerosols

social impacts eitherat the plant or disposal

or other

site.

These criteria are considered from the

view of the purpose, functioning and load

point

of

PRETREATMENT OFWASTEWATER

conditions which apply. Therefore, the criteriafor

equipment are reviewed,

together withthe

selection of

process

and

issueswhich arisein day to day

operation.

In

considering these issues,

regard

mustbehad to

the variations

subject with daytime peaks and night-time low flows. The effects of rainfall can increase flows

substantially and result in greater loadsof grit and

screenings

must,

therefore,

cater for a range of flow conditions

between minimum and maximum.

gullies. Preliminary

sewers through

characteristics. Foul flows are

flow and other tovariation

in wastewater

brought

into

the

treatment

processes

1.2

NATURE OFWASTEWATER

is derived from domestic,

commercial and industrial wastestreams together

from faecal

with stormwater run-off. Apart

matter, sewage contains a variety of suspended

and floating debris including grit and other inert

solids

Municipal foul sewage

washed

in

from

pavement

and

roof

surfaces, paper,plastics,rags and otherdebris.

Other constituents of sewage are derived from

commercial

undertakings. Thesecan give rise tothe following constituents:

process

water from

industry

or

slaughter house and butcher wastes can include animal hair, bone fragments, blood and offal;

creameries result in milk and milk fat wastes

high carbohydrate load operational problems in

which can result in

which constitute a

activated sludge plants;

food processing and catering establishment wastes can include grease, heated effluents

and organic solidswitha

highbiological load;

filling stations,

and other service

centrescan resultin discharge of used oil and

garages

other hydrocarbon products in sewage;

industries involved in metal plating,

computers levels of heavymetals which can be toxic to critical organism species in activated sludge.

and related areas canhave elevated

12

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

They may also restrictthe disposal options for

the sludge; and

in general. many industries use detergents, dyes and solvents which may give rise to

nutrient

the

treatment process and final effluent.

loadings and other problems

operationalproblems, foaming, high

affecting

These characteristics into account in the

of sewage must be taken and

operation of sewage treatment works. The

monitoring

which

operation

would

sufficient to identify the characteristics

design,

management

should

of

incoming

the

In

sewage

and

be

affect

perfonnance

efficiency of the plant.

processes, significant issuesinclude:

relation to pretreatment

the amount of

will influence the amount of

floating and suspended matter

and

screenings

grit

to

be

removed,

the nature

of these

materials andthe

potential and disposal difficulties associated withthem;

for odour nuisance

similarly, grease, oils and fat in the sewage

stream will require removal if the levels

for the downstream

constitute

treatment process; and

a problem

high organic loading, for example milk or

bloodwastes, require more stringent standards

in relation to stormwater overflows to protect

receiving waters.

In accordance with the Urban Wastewater

of the

"Polluter

emphasis on treatment ofindustrial wastewater at

source. The

many industriallcominercial facilities will be obliged to

treatment

the

is increased

Directive, and arising from the application

Pays" principle,

there

practical application

will

be

their

of Schedule 4of

that

Directive

install/upgrade

facilities before discharge to the municipal sewer

wastewater

to "ensure that the

operation of

a wastewater

treatment plant and the treatment of sludge are

nor impeded".

Where pretreatment of industrial wastewaters is

discussed,

treatment atthe municipal plant.

appropriate pre-treatment

prior to discharge Nevertheless, the

provided

the contrary,

it is not intended to advocate such

On

should

be

to the local authority sewer.

municipal

treatment

plant

operator effluent streams and their

implications works, in the event of treatment failures at the

for his

should be aware of the nature of such

source plant due to break-down or overloading. In

particular circumstances, the Local Authority may

provide behalfofthe industry, by agreement.

for treatment of industrial effluents on

1.3 STORMWATER IN SEWAGE

All

sewerage

systems receive some level

The

of

stormwater inflow.

network are asfollows:

three types of sewer

combined systems: the traditional system

where allfoul and stormflows discharge to a

common

sewage

rainfall with

30timesthe average flow(DWF);

following

pipe

flows

network.

can

In

this

system,

dramatically

increase

peak

flows of

up to

partiallyseparate: used during the 1960's

and early 1970's, the partially separate

system

from

footpaths to the foul system

the rear

separate

roadand

storm

involved

draining

the storm run-off

and

with a

the backs of houses

drainage

network in the roads to take

frontof house run-off; and

a dedicated

foul sewer is provided for foul flows only,

separate

storm sewers. In all systems, a degree

misconnection occurs and some storm run-

off inevitably discharges

Typically, 5-10m2 per

system.

separate system: in this system.

with all stormrun-offdirectedto the

the foul

to the foul

of

house is connected to

sewer, even in nominally separate

flows of 4-5 times

systems, producing peak DWF.

Increased storm flows can havea

upon the sewerage system bringing

stale

the earlyperiod of a storm. This is known as the

and debris to thetreatment works in

flushing effect

a quantity

of

sewage

"first foul flush" and can give rise to

very strong

sewage with very high loading on the treatment

increased level of grit

plant and a substantially

and other debris and the

resulting from the flushing of

resuspension of bed sediment

gulley pots

in sewers. One effectis an increased level of grit

and screenings content.

As the storm continues,

foul flush

to

stage.

of the

strength and can result in a

longerstorms,

winter rainfall. It follows that

waters should be

practicable, during the first

the

sewage reduces significantly

relatively dilute sewage

typically during

overflows

prevented, as far as

inflow for

receiving

13

The

increased flow to the works which, if allowed

pass to the treatment

hydraulic overloading. it will cause flushing

biomass

possible

of the biomass is

washed

Carryover sedimentation tanks will

negative impact

biomass in the process reactorcan lead to long-

the

failure, if a large percentage

major

effect

of

rainfall,

therefore,

is

process, will result in

sludge plants, out of the activated sludge

to

also have an immediate

In activated

giving rise to plant upset and

out.

of

biomass

on effluent quality. Loss of

term plant failure until such time as the biomass

grows back. Excess flows might also result in

flooding of theworks depending on pipe capacity

between thedifferent elements.

For this reason,

it is necessary to restrict the

plant. This requires

forward flow to the treatment

overflowing

prevent pollution of the receiving streams from

these overflows, arrangements arc

required to limit the frequency and volume of

of excess storm flows. In order to

the effects of

overflow spillby the useof

carryover

screens. This aspect Chapter 2.

storage and toprevent

of solids by effective use of baffles and

is discussed in detail in

It is particularlyimportant that overflows should

not occur during the period of first flush. If the

screenings removal equipment is under designed

of the

screens

premature

couldhave potentially due to

very

high concentrations of BOD, ammonia and the

potential

very serious pollution consequences

overflows. Such overflows

carried down the sewer,

or inadequately

may

maintained,

"blinding"

occur fromtheextra

for

hydrogen

resulting

in

sulphide

screenings load

which

is

extremely toxicto aquatic life.

In this document, flows to the treatment plant are

weather

expressed

sewage

which follows7 days without rain

in terms of

multiples

of

dry

of

flow (DWF). This is the total volume

during a day

and

flow in dry weather.

may also be describedas an average daily

1.4 TYPICALSEWAGE LOADS

1.4.1 HYDRAULIC LOADING

As already stated, the flow or

works

is

usually expressed

as a multiple of dry

contributing include the following elements:

sewage

to the

of dry

in terms

weatherflow (DWF). Peakflowisthen described

weather flow (e.g. 3 times

DWF). Dry weatherflow will

the natureof the

to

vary according catchment and will

PRETREATMENT OFWASTEWATER

domestic sewage which is typically in the

180-200 1/head. This isbasedon normal

per capita water consumption of 150 1/day,

range

plus some leakage

include

and sewer

infiltration.

Frequently, the domestic flow is taken to

normal commercial discharges from

premises such as public houses, restaurants

figure

and similar establishments and a total

of the order of 225 l/hd per day may be

appropriate

based on major flow

surveys

carriedout in Ireland. Actualflows shouldbe

verified in each case, however;

the

subject of effluent licence conditions which

industrial effluent flows are

normally

for

include

metering.

metered,

providing

hospitals, schools or from hotelscan be estimated from

resident

measurement.

direct

Accordingly,

a

requirement

these flows can be

average

details of

and peak values.

Flows from institutions such as

population

or

from

newwastewatertreatment plant; and

Such site measurements are

alwaysnecessary prior to the design stage ofa

infiltration results from

leakage sewers and will tend to be at a maximum in

wintertime when the

into the

table is at

groundwater Infiltration is a function of the

its

highest. condition of the sewer system and can be

significant

in

older

systems

involving

culvertsor in newer systems where

masonry

poor construction practices are employed

resulting in leaks at joints and at manholes.

of infiltration

established from flow

particularly

CCTV surveys canalso assistinidentification

measurement.

measurement,

The quantity

can

only be

base night flow

ofinfiltration.

1.4.2 ORGANIC LOADING

Urban wastewateris characterised in the Urban Wastewater Directive (91/271/EEC) as having 60

g

of

BOD per population equivalent (p.e.) per

may give somewhat

be used

Field

day.

investigations

lowervalues, in

to

estimate the

practise. This value may

pollution load from the domestic

Surveys

are

usually

or

population

required

institutional development.

of a catchment.

to establish the loadfromcommercial

14

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

1.4.3 LOAD VARIATION

A further

complication variations. For

major

seasonal

example, increase in foul flows in seaside towns

tourism can result in a

arises

from

resulting in markedly increased flows to the treatment plant. This can present serious

require

treatment difficulties and

peak

flows.

may

mobilisation of standby equipment

seasonal

must be catered for inthe design and operation of

a plant.

to meet the

conditions

Therefore, peak

Where permanent measurement facilities are not

available, inflows

full

flow

with

the

organic

flow

measurement device. This can be combined

shouldbe monitored over the

fitting

of

sampling

a

to

suitable

establish

cycle,

by

proportional

loadofthe plant.

1.5 OVERVIEW

TREATMENT

OF

WASTEWATER

Wastewater treatment processes can involve

physical, chemical and biological processes

depending

effluent standards, the

on the

required

nature of the wastewater and the scale of the

works

may

following:

(Fig.

arise

1.1). Among the processes which

the

in

wastewater treatment

are

preliminary processes: physical processes

ahead of the treatment Section 1.6:

stage as described in

primary sedimentation: nowadays generally

of at least 5000

confined to larger plants

population equivalent (p.c.);

biological

treatment: in fixed or suspended

using

biological

processes

biofiltration, activated

sludge or extended aeration or variants on

these.

rotating biological

include

contactors (RBC) and the

media reactors

Other

use ofconstructedwetlands forfull treatment

wastewater.

NitnficationlDenitification

forto reduce the nitrateconcentrations where theeffluentis discharged toa sensitive marine environment;

may be provided

or

final

polishing

of

chemical treatment: may be used to adjust

the

wastewater prior to

biological treatment (e.g. pH adjustment,

reduction

adjustment).

nutrient

in

parameters

in

It

of

heavy

may

metals

also

or

be

used

conjunction

phosphate removal:

final sedimentation: used to separate the

with

biological

treatment

for

effluent.

sludge Typically, this is carried out in radial flow sedimentation tanks, though horizontal flow

rectangular tanksare used in olderworks;

solids

from

the

final

tertiary systems: sand or microfiltration

to enhance the

of final effluents, where necessary.

tertiary treatment processesmay include

or ozone

treatment; and

disinfection

Other

quality

systems may

be

employed

using UV

radiation

sludge treatment: as discussed below.

Further handling and treatment

processes are

surplus the treatment works.

may include the following

generally employed within

These

processes

elements:

sludge generated

to deal with the

sludge

pumping;

draw-off,

flow

balancing

and

gravity thickening of sludge in circular tanks

a rotating picket fence

Mechanical

thickening is also an option. increasingly

and

usually

assisted by

scraper

Europe;

mechanism.

usedin

stabilisation treatment of sludge may include aerobic or anaerobic digestion treatment;

volume reduction of sludge mechanical dewatering in centrifuge system; and

is achieved by

belt

press

or

inter-stage transfer of sludge is achieved using positive displacement pumps, screw and belt conveyors.

1.6

PROCESSES

PRELIMINARY

- OVERVIEW

TREATMENT

The purpose of preliminary

a satisfactory quality

sludge

process

treatment is to ensurt

of final effluent and final

treatment

product and

from

to protect the

malfunction associated with

accumulation of screenings, debris, inorganic grit,

efficiency

associated with grease or oil films or fat

accumulations.

excessive scum formation or loss of

15

Settled Storm

Water Bypass

Receiving

Water

PRETREATMENT OFWASTEWATER

Prefreatment

Works

Biological

Treatment

Tertiary

Treatment

(ifrequired)

Sludge to

Recovery

\ Disposal

FIGu11.1: WASTEWATER TREATMENTPROCESS

Wastewater preliminary treatment processes

essentially comprise physical processes required

can cater

satisfactorily for the "pass-through" flows.Their

produce

to ensure

that the treatment

enables the

plant

plant

to

satisfactory operation

required final

the

qualityof