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Rubber Handbook

Struktol Rubber Handbook Table of Contents


About Struktol Company of America Introduction Function of Processing Additives What are Processing Additives? History of Processing Additives Classification of Processing Additives Lubricants Fatty Acids Fatty Acid Esters Metal Soaps Fatty Alcohols Fatty Acid Amides Organosilicones Polyethylene and Polypropylene Waxes Other Products Properties and Mode of Action of Lubricants Processing with Lubricants Struktol Products and their Use Applications with STRUKTOL ZB 47 Physical and Chemical Peptizers What are the Benefits of Peptizing Agents? Low Viscosity Natural Rubber Processing with Peptizing Agents Struktol Products and their Use 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 24 25 25a 26 31 32 33 33

Table of Contents

Homogenizing Agents Hydrocarbon Resins Coumarone Resins Petroleum Resins Copolymers Terpene Resins Asphalt and Bitumen Rosins Phenolic Resins Lignin Processing with Homogenizing Agents Struktol Products and their Use Dispersing Agents Processing with Dispersing Agents Struktol Products and their Use Tackifiers Processing with Tackifiers Struktol Products and their Use Plasticizers Processing with Plasticizers Struktol Products and their Use Preparations Struktol Products and their Use Metal Oxide Preparation Sulphur Preparations Activators Processing with Cure Activators

35 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 44 45 45 46 49 49 50 52 52 52 54 59

Table of Contents

Silane Coupling Agents Properties An Overview Rubber Industry Applications Parting Agents Parting Agents for Uncured Compounds and In-process Materials Mold Release Agents Dusting Agents Organic Mold Release Agents Silicone Oils Semi-permanent Mold Release Agents Compound Lubricants Struktol Products and their Use Mandrel Release Agents Semi-permanent Mold Release Agents Struktol Permalease Grades Silicone Oils Mold Cleaning Compounds The Influence of Processing Additives on Discoloration Peroxide Disperisons Peroxide Demand Rubber to Metal Adhesion Test Methods Assessment of Processing Additives Dispersion and Homogeneity Rheological Tests Mooney Shearing Disc Viscosimeter Defo Tester

60a 60a 60c 60f 61 61 62 63 64 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 69 70 70 70a 71 72 72 73 73 74 74

Table of Contents

High Pressure Capillary Rheometer Torsion Strain Rotorless Shear Rheometer Rubber Processability Analyzer Oscillating Disc Cure Meter Laboratory Extruder Plasticorder Laboratory Open Mill and Spiked Roller Rheo-vulcameter Transfer Sprial Test Building Tack Mold Release Processing Additives in Pharmaceutical Articles Ecology and Toxicology of Processing Additives Application of Processing Agents - Examples Lubricants Peptizers Homogenizing and Tackifiers Plasticizers Metal Oxide Preparations Sulphur Preparations Vulcanization Activators Mold Release Agents Mold Release Agents / Shaped Hose Release Agents Mold Cleaning Compounds Lubricants in Selected Elastomers Higher Extrusion Rates with STRUKTOL WB 16 STRUKTOL WS 280 Paste in FKM STRUKTOL WB 42 Bloom Study

74 74 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 82

84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 112 114 116

Table of Contents

STRUKTOL ZP 1014 Curative for XNBR STRUKTOL ZEH vs. Stearic Acid in NR Homogenization Study Mold Cleaning with STRUKTOL MC-A Additional Useful Information Crazing Frosting

119 120 123 124

125 126

Revision Sept. 2004 STP0206 /rca

Table of Contents

About Struktol Company of America

Struktol Company of America is a member of the Schill & Seilacher family of companies, with representation in over 100 countries around the world. A global organization with over a century of specialty chemical expertise, Schill & Seilacher markets most of their polymer processing products under the brand name STRUKTOL - a name that has become synonymous with both quality and performance. Struktol chemicals are found in rubber and plastics as well as manmade fibers, textiles and leather and paper products. Since the late 1970s, Struktol has become North Americas dominant force in performance additives for the polymer industry. Struktol has committed its research and development, ISO Certification and premier customer service to establishing a leadership role with engineered additives for the rubber and plastics compounder.

The Struktol approach to the polymer additive business is by no means typical or ordinary. Chemistry is as the heart of everything we do. Providing Intelligent Additive Solutions for polymers and compounds, Struktol products are designed to meet the challenges and exacting demands of our customers. Our technical specialists, R&D chemists and compound laboratory are dedicated to creating innovative solutions for the ever-changing polymer industry; solutions that keep you ahead of your competition with increased productivity, better quality parts and lower overall cost.

In addition to premium product performance, Struktol customer service initiatives have become the industry benchmark.

www.struktol.com

About Struktol Company of America

Struktol Products and their Use STRUKTOL WB 222 is an ester of saturated fatty acids. It is a highly effective lubricant and release agent predominantly used for polar elastomers. STRUKTOL WB 212 is based on high molecular, hydrophilic fatty acid ester. The product serves as a dispersing agent for powdered materials and has excellent release properties. STRUKTOL WB16 is an excellent lubricant mainly for non-polar rubbers. As a mixture of calcium soaps and amides of saturated fatty acids it can exhibit an activating effect. STRUKTOL HPS 11 is composed of fatty acid derivatives, which have been designed and selected to give maximum polymer to additive interactions. HPS 11 is effective in increasing flow, promoting release, and improves overall processing. STRUKTOL WB 42, a blend of fatty acid derivatives, provides improved flow in a wide range of elastomers. STRUKTOL W A 48 is successfully used in epichlorohydrin rubber as an effective release agent and lubricant. STRUKTOL W 34 is a dispersing agent and lubricant for nearly all elastomers. Faster filler incorporation and avoidance of filler agglomeration in highly filled compounds can be achieved. STRUKTOL WS 180 and STRUKTOL WS 280 are organosilicone compounds which combine outstanding release performance with good flow properties. STRUKTOL WS 180 can drastically reduce mold contamination. STRUKTOL ZB 47 is a formulated zinc soap that can be used for masticating NR compounds. Also offers heat stability (Reversion Resistance). Very effective in mineral filled NR compounds. STRUKTOL A 50, and A 60 are zinc soaps of unsaturated fatty acids. They are mainly used as physical peptizers in NR compounds STRUKTOL EF 44 A is a blend of fatty acid derivatives with zinc soaps predominating. The product is especially suitable for extrusions. It acts as a cure activator. STRUKTOL HM 97 is a mixture of low viscosity polyethylene waxes. Due to their special lubricating effect, HM 97 is highly recommended in EPMD compounds.

*For further information on ZB 47 contact Struktol for our new ZB 47 Brochure and CD.

Lubricants

25

Struktol Company of America


201 E. Steels Corners Road P. O. Box 1649 Stow, Ohio 44224-0649 Producers of Specialty Chemicals

Struktol Rubber Lab


Project 04003
February 3, 2004
(addition April 20, 2004)

Project: Evaluate STRUKTOL ZB 47 in a black / silica natural rubber tread compound with and without silane coupling agent. Conclusion: The combination of 1 phr disulfide silane (added as STRUKTOLSCA 985 PL) with ZB 47 (added at 2.5 and 5 phr) showed both processing and physical property synergism. When the silane was added it was at a level of 5% of the silica. The mixing curves show that most of the processing improvements came from the addition of ZB 47. There is a faster incorporation and lower mixing torque. The resulting Mooney viscosity of the compounds was significantly improved with a drop of about 40 points with the initial viscosity, and 10-15 points with the ML (1+4). In addition, the scorch delay shows significant improvements with the combined products. The rheometer cure reflects the viscosity improvements as well as the cure delay. The final T90 was increased about 1 to 2 minutes with the combination. There were only minor shifts in max torque. The reversion resistance was the greatest for the combination. Cured physicals showed an increase in modulus with the silane and even a greater increase with the combination. The ZB 47 by itself gave a slight increase in state of cure. On air aging the retention of physicals was good. The combination gave the lowest % change. Tear resistance (Die C) was improved with all stocks over the noncoupled control. The dynamic properties as measured by rebound, Firestone Flexometer, and tan delta were all improved by the combination of additives. The biggest change is seen in the long-term dynamic distortion on the Flexometer where the combination was shut off before the sample failed. The compounded stock was aged 11 weeks and then tested for processing as stored. There was an increase in initial viscosity of 40 to 50 Mooney units for the ZB 47 containing stocks. The initial reading for the blank and the silane stock was off scale. The ML (1+4) for these two stocks was higher than the initial readings for the ZB 47 stocks. The ZB 47 stocks showed only a 5-6 point increase for ML (1+4). The extruder results also showed that the ZB 47/silane decreased the pressure and torque, and increased the rate. The quality of the extrudate was the best with the combination of ZB 47 and silane.

25a

Lubricants

Formulae
1 SMR 5 STRUKTOL A 86 N220 SILLCA VN3 STEARIC ACID ZNO 6PPD FLECTOL H STRUKTOL 40 MS STRUKTOL SCA 985PL STRUKTOL ZB 47 2ND PASS TBBS SULFUR TOTAL: 1.5 1.5 179.25 1.5 1.5 181.25 1.5 1.5 181.75 1.5 1.5 184.25 1.5 1.5 183.75 1.5 1.5 186.25 100 .25 40 20 2.5 4 2.5 1 6 0 0 2 100 .25 40 20 2.5 4 2.5 1 6 2 0 3 100 .25 40 20 2.5 4 2.5 1 6 0 2.5 4 100 .25 40 20 2.5 4 2.5 1 6 0 5 5 100 .25 40 20 2.5 4 2.5 1 6 2 2.5 6 100 .25 40 20 2.5 4 2.5 1 6 2 5

First Pass
Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Note: 70% fill factor Temperature (C) 140 137 140 136 139 135 Energy (WH) 217 197 202 183 190 176

Lubricants

25b

Rheometer Data
Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 160C; 3 arc; 100 Range; 30 minutes Min Max Ts2 T50 Torque Torque 19.59 76.01 3.75 7.29 18.92 16.23 15.75 16.29 15.15 80.45 75.74 72.98 78.16 75.74 4.00 3.75 3.83 4.08 4.33 7.08 8.13 8.58 8.00 8.42 T90 8.63 8.33 9.63 10.29 9.50 10.25 T-2 Reversion 13.29 13.71 15.29 18.00 18.00 25.92

Mooney Viscosity
ML (1+4) @ 100C Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB47, 5 Initial Viscosity 147.5 150.7 123.8 113.2 125.5 113.6 Initial Viscosity aged 11 weeks 196.6 154.5 177.4 161.4 ML (1+4) 86.6 85.8 76.0 74.0 74.5 70.7 ML (1+4) Aged 11 weeks 213.5 218.4 83.7 79.4 80.7 75.4

Extruder Data Brabender Plasti-Corder


Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB47, 5 Torque 66.6 54.3 56.0 54.2 56.8 51.0 Garvey Die, 3:1 Meeting Screw Cold feed 19 mm roller feeder Weight (g) RPM Temp PSI 10 inch 26 108 864 25.98 26 26 26 26 27 108 117 115 112 107 726 736 733 747 690 25.44 26.93 27.06 26.82 25.64 One minute Extrudate 24.58 26.29 26.76 27.41 25.93 26.47 Surface Rating B B A A A A Edge #6 #7 #8 #8 #9 #9

25c

Lubricants

Mooney Scorch
ML @ 125C Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Min Torque 72.1 72.5 65.8 63.9 64.3 60.6 T5 24.41 29.95 28.75 33.41 33.72 37.66 T35 40.95 38.24 45.84 49.19 46.23 47.82 Cure Index 16.54 8.29 17.09 15.78 12.51 10.16

Tensile Data
Unaged Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Cure Time 160C 9 8 10 10 10 10 Shore A Duro 62 67 65 65 69 67 Tensile (MPa) 24.0 25.2 22.9 23.6 24.8 26.6 Elongation (%) 635 620 597 643 612 605 100% Mod. (MPa) 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.7 2.1 2.3 200% Mod. (MPa) 4.0 5.0 4.2 4.0 5.3 5.6 300% Mod. (MPA) 8.1 9.8 8.3 7.6 9.8 10.2

Oven Aged 70 Hrs @ 100C


Cmpd 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shore Points A Change Duro 71 +9 76 75 77 75 76 +9 +10 +12 +6 +9 Tensile (MPa) 21.7 22.3 23.8 19.8 23.5 22.5 Pct. Change -9.6 -11.5 3.9 -16.1 -5.2 -15.4 Elong (%) 498 477 495 454 510 471 Pct. Change -21.6 -23.1 -17.1 -29.4 -16.6 -22.1 100% Mod. (MPa) 3.3 3.8 3.9 3.4 4.0 4.1 Pct. Change 106 90 117 100 90 78 200% Pct. Mod. Change (MPa) 8.1 103 9.4 9.2 8.0 9.6 9.5 88 119 100 81 70 300% Mod. (MPa) 13.7 15.2 15.1 13.1 15.1 15.0 Pct. Change 69 55 82 72 54 47

Lubricants

25d

Firestone Flexometer
Heat Build-up
250 lb. Weight; 0.325 Throw; 45 min. test Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Cure Time @ 160C 36 32 40 40 40 40 Duro 57 64 58 61 63 64 Temp. C 164 129 141 139 133 127

Blow Out
250 lb. Weight; 0.325 Throw; test until sample fails Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Time 1 Hr 5 Min 11 Hrs 20 Min 3 Hrs 50 Min 14 Hrs 42 Min >103 Hrs > 143 Hrs 51 Min

Tear Strength
ASTM D-624 Die C Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Tear Strength (N/mm) 92.6 132.5 95.2 102.2 113.3 108.3

25e

Lubricants

Rebound
Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 0C 18 16 16 15 17 15 Room Temp 35 34 33 33 34 32 100C 50 53 51 52 54 55

MER / COMPRESSION / CYLINDRICAL / 1 HZ / 23C


Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Complex Power .3198 .2016 .2556 .2145 .2052 .1841 Loss Power .05150 .02703 .04223 .03164 .02953 .02400 Tan Delta .163 .135 .167 .149 .145 .131 Stiffness 37.21 15.54 12.23 14.63 15.35 16.94

MER / COMPRESSION / CYLINDRICAL / 1 HZ 100C


Compound 1 - Control 1 2 SCA 985PL 3 ZB47, 2.5 4 ZB47, 5 5 SCA985PL, ZB47, 2.5 6 SCA985PL, ZB 47, 5 Complex Power .1534 .4330 .5836 .5043 .4400 .4257 Loss Power .0656 .0482 .0796 .0597 .04452 .04041 Tan Delta .131 .112 .152 .119 .102 .095 Stiffness 6.118 7.219 5.403 6.18 7.154 7.341

Lubricants

25f

Mix Data-Control/Si
10 9 8 350

Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) Si Temperature (F) Control Temperature (F) Si
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250

Energy (KW)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Time (Sec.)

Figure 1

Mix Data-Control/2.5ZB
10 9 8 7 350

Motor (KW) Motor (KW) 2.5ZB Temperature (F) Temperature (F) 2.5ZB
300

Temperature (F)
200 150 100 50 0

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200

250

Time (Sec.)

Figure 2

25g

Lubricants

Temperature (F)

250

Energy (KW)

Mix Data-Control/5.0ZB
10 9 8 7
Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) 5.0ZB Temperature (F) Control Temperature (F) 5.0ZB

350 300 250 200 150 100 50

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200

0 250

Time (Sec.) Figure 3

Mix Data-Control/2.5ZB, Si
10 9 8 7 350

Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) 2.5ZB, Si Temperature (F) Control Temperature (F) 2.5ZB, Si
300

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200

200 150 100 50 0 250

Time (Sec.)

Figure 4
Lubricants 25h

Temperature (F)

250

Energy (KW)

Temperature (F)

Energy (KW)

Mix Data-Control/5.0ZB, Si
10 9 8 350

Motor (KW) Control Motor (KW) 5.0ZB, Si Temperature (F) Control Temperature (F) 5.0ZB, Si
300

Energy (KW)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0

200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250

Time (Sec.)

Figure 5

25i

Lubricants

Temperature (F)

250

STRUKTOL ZB 47
Developed for high natural rubber compounds, both black and mineral-filled, ZB 47 allows for: Lower compound viscosity Lower heat build-up Higher compound modulus Improved permanent set Improved physical properties Improved dynamic properties Improved blowout resistance Improved heat aged properties Improved cut growth resistance

With STRUKTOL ZB 47 you will have lower mixing temperatures, faster filler incorporation, and faster mixing cycles!

Contact Struktol Company of America now for our new brochure on ZB 47. Phone: 800-327-8649 or 330-928-5188 E-mail: customerservice@struktol.com

Lubricants

25j

Processing with Homogenizing Agents The homogenizing agents are usually added at the beginning of the mixing cycle, particularly when elastomer blends are used. They exhibit optimum effectiveness at around their softening temperature. The recommended dosage is between 4 and 5 phr. Difficult to blend elastomers will require an addition of 7 to 10 phr.

Struktol Products and their Use STRUKTOL 40 MS FLAKES is a mixture of dark, aromatic hydrocarbon resin which has a very good compatibility with most standard elastomers, such as SBR, NR, NBR, CR, IIR, BIIR, EPDM and BR and is used in elastomer blends and homopolymer compounds. Blending of elastomers with different polarities and/or viscosities are significantly facilitated. In particular difficult to process tire tube and innerliner compounds have been significantly improved with STRUKTOL 40 MS FLAKES. STRUKTOL 60 NS FLAKES is a mixture of light-colored aliphatic hydrocarbon resin. It is designed for light-colored compounds where non-staining is specified. Its action is comparable with that of STRUKTOL 40 MS FLAKES. This product has proven its value, particularly in compounds based on NBR/EPDM blends. STRUKTOL TH 10 A is a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic resins. It is a processing additive that gives good tack and homogeneity in row compounds. Due to the balanced combination of the tackifying resins and homogenizing agent, an optimum dispersion of the ingredients in the raw compound is achieved which maintains its greet tack for several weeks under normal storage conditions. STRUKTOL TH 64 is a mixture of low molecular weight resins. It can be used as a tackifier for natural and synthetic elastomers for improving long-term building tack. STRUKTOL STRUKREZ 110 is a polymeric resin blend. Blending of elastomers with different polarities or viscosities are significantly facilitated. STRUKTOL STRUKREZ 220 is a molecular assembled resin designed for unique qualities in polymer processing. Green tack is improved with STRUKREZ 220.

42

Homogenizing Agents

Silane Coupling Agents


Struktol Silane Coupling Agents are used in rubber compounding. They provide coupling of non-black pigments to the polymer backbone allowing for: Improved abrasion resistance, Higher compound modulus, Lower hystersis, Improved compression set, Improved rolling resistance in tire tread compounds.
Product name: STRUKTOL SCA 98 Chemical composition: Bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide Features: Improves reinforcing capabilities of fillers with silanol groups Improves abrasion resistance Provides higher compound modulus Improves rolling resistance in tread compounds STRUKTOL SCA 98CB Typical data: Sulfur content: 21-23% Product form: Yellow liquid

Specific gravity: 1.089

Same as SCA 98

Same as SCA 98

Sulfur content:

10-12%

Black powder

Specific gravity: 1.34 STRUKTOL SCA 98PL

Same as SCA 98

Same as SCA 98

Sulfur content:

10-12%

Pale yellow pastille

Specific gravity: 1.00 STRUKTOL SCA 98WT

Same as SCA 98

Same as SCA 98

Sulfur content:

7.5-16%

Off white powder

Specific gravity: 1.43 STRUKTOL SCA 984

3-Thiocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane

Improves compound modulus Improves compression set Improves abrasion resistance

Sulfur content:

12%

Amber colored liquid

Specific gravity: 1.03

STRUKTOL SCA 985

Bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide

Improves reinforcing capabilities of fillers with silanol groups Improves abrasion resistance Provides higher compound modulus Improves rolling resistance in tread compounds

Sulfur content:

12-14%

Yellow liquid

Specific gravity: 1.04

Silane Coupling Agents

60a

Silane Coupling Agents


Product name: STRUKTOL SCA 985PL Chemical composition: Bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) disulfide Features: Same as SCA 985 Typical data: Sulfur content: 6-7% Product form: Pale orange pastille

Specific gravity: 1.00 STRUKTOL SCA 989 95%

3-Mercaptopropyltriethoxy silane

Improves tensile strength Improves tear strength Improves abrasion resistance

MPTES content

Clear liquid

Specific gravity: 0.98

STRUKTOL SCA 989 WT 3-Mercaptopropyltriethoxy silane

Same as SCA 989

SCA 989 content: 70% Specific gravity: 1.20

Light gray powder

STRUKTOL SCA 960

-Glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxy silane

Mainly used in glass reinforced epoxy resin, ABS, nylon and PBT Improves tensile strength Improves tear strength Improves relative extensibility

SCA 960 content: >95.0%

Clear liquid

Density:

1.070+0.050

STRUKTOL SCA 972

Vinyl tri(2-methoxyethoxy) silane

Improves the reinforcing capability of fillers with silanol groups in peroxide cured compounds Improves tensile strength Improves tear strength Improves abrasion resistance

SCA 972 content: >98.0% Density: 1.040+0.020

Clear liquid

STRUKTOL SCA 974

-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane

Improves coupling of fillers SCA 974 content: >97.0% Clear liquid with silanol groups, and fiberglass in the resin/ 1.040+0.020 Density: polymer matrix

STRUKTOL SCA 974WT Same as SCA 974

Same as SCA 974

SCA 974 content: 70.0+2.0 Density: 1.598+0.020

Clear liquid

STRUKTOL SCA 1100

Aminopropyl triethoxy silane

Improves the reinforcing Colorless Min. purity: 98.0% properties of fillers liquid containing hydroxyl groups Specific gravity: 0.941+0.01

(07/07/04)AAC/rca

60b

Silane Coupling Agents

STRUKTOL SCA 98 & SCA 985 An Overview

STRUKTOL SCA 98 and SCA 985 are silane coupling agents for use in rubber compounding. When used in rubber compounding, they provide coupling of non-black pigments to the polymer backbone allowing for: Improved abrasion resistance Higher compound modulus Lower hysteresis Improved compression set Improved rolling resistance in tire tread compounds The theory for their effectiveness is that the silane portion of the molecule couples with OH groups on the silica and silicate surfaces in non-black pigments. The sulfur portion of the molecule is available for curing activity and can enter into the vulcanization mechanism. The SCA 98 is a tetra-sulfide silane while the SCA 985 is a di-sulfide silane. When the SCA 985 is used as a 1:1 replacement for the SCA 98, a reduction in the cured modulus and maximum tensile may be noticed. This can usually be regained by increasing the sulfur level in the final mix pass.

THE REINFORCEMENT OF NON-BLACK FILLERS IS ENHANCED BY STRUKTOLSCA 98 & SCA 985

Silica, ppt Clay Calcium Stearate Magnesium Silicate (talc) Fumed Silica

Suggested Dosage phr Levels per 100 phr filler 3 13 0.3 1.0 67 14 3 - 15

Silane Coupling Agents

60c

MIXING AND DUMP TEMPERATURE Part or all of the non-black filler should be dispersed with the STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985 in the first mixing stage. The remaining ingredients should be added after the silane coupling agent and the filler have been incorporated. Curatives should be added in the last mixing stage.

SUGGESTED TYPICAL MIX SCHEDULE

0' ' 2' 3' 4' 5'

Rubber to all non-black pigment STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985 Black, if present, oil, stearic acid, zinc oxide AO2 , AO3 Clean Dump

Because of the sulfur present in the STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985, it is necessary to control the maximum mixing temperature.

The following are recommended dump temperatures:

Natural Rubber SBR NBR

150C 150-160C 140C

60d

Silane Coupling Agents

POLYMERS AND STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985 EFFECTIVENESS

ACM IIR CM XNBR EPDM ECO FKM HIIR HALOBUTYL CSM NATURAL RUBBER CR NBR BR IR SBR URETHANTE VAMAC

NDA GOOD GOOD GOOD EXCELLENT EXCELLENT NDA GOOD EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT EXCELLENT GOOD GOOD

Excellent - STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985 favorably influences properties, producing significant improvements in physical properties and state of cure. Good - STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985 has an effect on physical properties producing enhanced modulus and improved abrasion. NDA - No data available in actual experience with STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985.

Silane Coupling Agents

60e

AREAS OF RUBBER INDUSTRY WHERE STRUKTOL SCA 98/SCA 985 WOULD BE BENEFICIAL

Footwear

- abrasion resistance - cutting and chunking resistance - flex life improvement

Rolls

- abrasion resistance - aging resistance - processing - set reduction (better load bearing) - reduced water swell - lower hysteresis

Mechanical Molded Goods

- increased modulus - better heat aging - compression set reduction - dynamic property improvement - reduced swell to polar liquids - filler substitution (non-black for black)

Hose

- improved abrasion on cover - better heat aging - increased modulus - lower compression set - improved adhesion to reinforcing elements

Solid Tires

- improved abrasion - lower hysteresis - higher modulus - improved processing

60f

Silane Coupling Agents

Tires

- treads for abrasion, hot tear, improved rolling resistance, - lower hystersis - carcass for adhesion and/or filler substitution - breaker (belt) stocks for adhesion

Belts - Flat Belts

- increased abrasion - improved reversion resistance - reduced cost with clay substitution for black - improved cord adhesion - increased flex life and modulus

Belts - V Belts

- increased modulus - improved abrasion - longer flex life - improved adhesion to reinforcing elements

Silane Coupling Agents

60g

Struktol Silane Coupling Agents

Struktol silane coupling agents are for use in rubber compounds, particularly mineral-filled, and allow for:

Lower compound viscosity Higher compound modulus Improved abrasion resistance Lower hysteresis Improved compression set Improved rolling resistance in tire tread compounds Improved dispersibility Faster incorporation

Contact Struktol Company of America now for our Silane Coupling Agents brochure with CD. Phone: 800-327-8649 or 330-928-5188 E-mail: customerservice@struktol.com

60h

Silane Coupling Agents

Peroxide Dispersions
Struktol peroxide dispersions are widely used in crosslinking several polymers in the rubber industry, as well as acting as a viscosity reducer in polypropylene. The proprietary carriers aid in dispersing the peroxide and will reduce incorporation time.

Product name: STRUKTOL Peroxide DCP 70

Chemical composition: 70% active Dicumyl

Features: Higher peroxide content FDA sanctioned Improved dispersion Easy handling

Typical data: Melting point: Specific gravity: 30-40 C 1.071

Product form: white pastille

STRUKTOL Peroxide DBDB 60

60% active ,-bis (tert-butylperoxy)diisopropylbenzene

Higher peroxide content Improved dispersion Easy handling

Dropping point: Specific gravity:

73-82 C 0.955

off-white pastille

Peroxide Dispersions

70a

MOLD CLEANING WITH STRUKTOL MC-A

Moving Die Rheometer Cavity

Press Mold

124

Examples for the Application of Processing Agents