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construction management

BFC 3163

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

ABD. ZAKI WAHID

construction management BFC 3163

Contents:
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Climate change Green house effect Facts and challenges Built environment and sustainability Sustainable development principles Construction and the environment

vii. Managing strategies for sustainable construction viii. The challenges of sustainable construction

Climate change
Long-term climate changes have been observed across the globe; global temperature increase: +0.75C over the past century with 2000-2009 the warmest decade on record rainfall patterns: wet regions of the world are getting wetter, and dry regions getting drier humidity: increases over the last two to three decades make extreme rainfall and flooding more likely warming oceans: temperature increases in the last 50 years in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans are not linked to natural variations salinity: increased evaporation is making the Atlantic saltier in sub-tropical latitudes sea-ice: summer Arctic sea-ice is declining by 600,000 km per decade (the area of Madagascar), a long-term trend only explicable by human influences
(source: IPCC)

changes are happening as a result of human activity, including man-made greenhouse gas emissions

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The Greenhouse Effect


natural process of the atmosphere letting in some of the energy we receive from the Sun (ultraviolet & visible light) and stopping it being transmitted back out into space (infrared radiation or heat) this makes the Earth warm enough for life for thousands of years the atmosphere has been balanced - levels of greenhouse gases stable. human influence has now upset that balance - we are seeing climate change. since the Industrial Revolution, the amount of CO2 has increased by 35 per cent; concentration of CO2 is now higher than at any point in the past 650,000 years

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Causes of greenhouse effect


Human activity is changing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in three important ways Burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas for energy, for; heating / cooling homes and buildings growing, transporting and cooking food travelling (by car, plane, bus and train) treating water to make it drinkable manufacturing, using and transporting products

Deforestation; forests are cut down faster than they are replaced: causes 5.9 billion tones of CO2 per year accounts for 20 % of the worlds carbon emissions fewer trees are left to absorb CO2 the agriculture and industry that replace the forests

growing world population: more people who need food, livestock and energy produce more waste use more natural resources leads to more emissions

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Climate Change; The World in Crisis

From the system Model: the environment is past the tipping point, and that the human population will collapsed by 80% by 2100. that global warming is likely to be twice as severe as previously thought. these kinds of temperature changes mean the catastrophic collapse of planetary ecosystems, and the total breakdown of current social and economic structures.
MIT Integrated Global System Model

There is significantly more risk than we previously estimated. This increases the urgency for significant policy action. Theres no way the world can or should take these risks.
Ronald Prinn, the co-director of the MITs Centre for Global Change Science program.

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Climate Change; The World in Crisis


if emissions continue to grow at present rates, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is likely to reach twice by around 2050 unless we limit emissions, global temperature could rise as much as 7 C push many of the worlds great ecosystems (coral reefs and rainforests) to irreversible decline. even if global temperatures rise by only 2 C, 20 30% of species could face extinction expect to see serious effects on our environment, food and water supplies, and health

Map showing how the world will warm by early, mid, late 21st century for a mediumhigh emissions scenario (IPCC)

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Climate Change; The World in Crisis


Climate change will mean warmer temperatures which will change rainfall patterns, cause snow and ice to melt and affect the intensity of extreme weather such as storms and heat-waves. We have already begun to experience some of these impacts : Water and food Around 1.5 billion people currently live in water-stressed regions. Climate change and population growth increase this to seven billion by the 2050s, intensifying competition. Some areas could become more fertile; others more barren. This may lead to regional food shortages, mass migration and poverty. Malnutrition is expected to increase in developing countries. (Source: IPCC 2007). Health Our well-being will be threatened by more frequent and intense heat-waves, floods, storms, wildfires and droughts. However, deaths from cold-related diseases will reduce. Patterns of disease will also change, with wide areas of the world at risk from major diseases (such as Dengue). Environment Coastal areas will experience more flooding from rising sea-levels, especially large river deltas which tend to be highly populated (e.g. Nile Delta). Meanwhile, some areas will attract more tourism as their climates alter. Ecosystems Amazonia is already damaged by deforestation. Climate change may magnify this impact by increasing the risk from fire. Other precious areas of high biodiversity, such as in South Africa, may see major losses of species as habitat conditions change. Around the world, some animals and plants may benefit and flourish in a changing climate, while others are likely to suffer.

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Climate Change; World CO emissions

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Failure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will lead to acceleration of climate change.

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Design

Demolition & Disassembly

Building materials

Building Maintenance

Building Use

Construction Process

Sustainable Built Environment


Can we maintain and improve life quality whilst radically improving the effectiveness in how we use all our resources, and reducing pollution and waste?

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Sustainable development; the principles

UK Framework for Sustainable Development

Economics

Environmental

Social

Cultural

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Sustainable development; the principles

Resources minimization within the carrying capacity of the Earth Technological progress should be efficiency increasing rather than resource use increasing Clean technology; pollution reduction at source Renewable resources, in both their source and sink functions, should be utilized Protect and restore the integrity of Earth's ecological systems

The process of sustainable development is a set of institutional, technology, infrastructure and value system

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by, a. zaki

The Facts & Challenges

The Facts & Challenges


The built environment presents us with a major challenge. It is considered the most environmental unfriendly human activity because it consumes large amounts of natural resources and produces a great deal of pollutants.

40%
materials

40%
energy

16%
water

35%
landfill waste

smog

Reducing the Footprints of Built Environment

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Built Environment and Sustainability


sustainability is a vision of the future that provides us with a road map and helps us to focus our attention on a set of values, ethical and moral principles by which to guide our actions Viederman in Munier 10

mumbai, india

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Built Environment and Sustainability


Sustainability
meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

Achieving sustainability
requires us to live within the limits of the earths capacity to provide the materials for our activities and to absorb the waste and pollution that our activities generate Built environment operations a huge factor in human impact on the environment directly

through materials and energy consumption and the pollution and waste

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Built Environment and Sustainability

rochinca ,rio de jene1ro, brazil

there is an urgent need to promote a wider notion of sustainability in order to improve the environmental performance as well as creating a greater impact of sustainability upon the lives of the community Environmentally friendly and energyefficient; life-sustaining, safe and healthy revolving tower, dubai

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Built Environment and Sustainability


We need to minimize resource throughputs, waste and pollution, and to fulfill our responsibility to protect other species and environments.

Enhance biodiversity
not use materials from threatened species or environments and improve natural habitats where possible through appropriate planting and water use

Support communities
identify and meet the real needs, requirements and aspirations of communities and stakeholders and involve them in key decisions

Use resources effectively


not consume a disproportionate amount of resources, including money and land during material sourcing, construction, use or disposal; not cause unnecessary waste of energy, water or materials due to short life, poor design, inefficiency, or less than ideal construction and manufacturing procedures buildings have to be affordable, manageable and maintainable in use

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Built Environment and Sustainability

Minimize pollution
create minimum dependence on polluting products and materials, management practices, energy, power and forms of transport

Create healthy environments


enhance living, leisure and work environments; and not endanger the health of the builders or occupants, or any other parties, through exposure to pollutants, the use of toxic materials or providing host environments to harmful organisms

Manage the process


stewardship of projects is a vital and overarching aspect in delivering sustainable projects, both in the first instance and also in ensuring their performance over time; this requires us to identify appropriate targets, tools and benchmarks, and manage their delivery

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The impact of the construction industry


impact can be mitigated through changes in the practices of the construction industry tends to focus on the relationship between construction and human development, often marginalizing the environmental aspects Material KWh/Kg KWh/m3 Coal (Kg)

Environmental impact
construction industry; the biggest factors impacting on the biophysical environment enormous demands on global resources the production of construction materials construction and demolition waste

Sawn timber Cement Concrete Bricks Steel PVC Plastic Aluminum

0.7 1.4 0.3 0.8 5.9 18.0 52.0

350 1 750 700 1 360 46 000 24 700 141 500

0.8 260 25 140 1 000 1 800 4 200

Social impact

Energy consumption in the production of construction materials

labor-intensive nature of construction activities; opportunities for poverty alleviation largest industrial employer in the world play a major role in human development and improving the quality of life

Economic impact
has the potential to enhance economic sustainability through its structure, conduct and performance; normally more than half of total national capital investment an economically efficient construction industry enhances environmental sustainability by ensuring least-cost methods of construction ; encourage optimal allocation of resources & discourage waste

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Construction and the environment


construction extension, installation, repair, maintenance, renewal, removal, renovation, alteration, dismantling or demolition not an environmental friendly industry & major contributor to environmental disruption and pollution
Construction players and their involvement in the various phases of construction development.

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Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Land degradation
involve extensive land disturbance due to erosion, soil acidity, alkalinity and salinity, water-logging and wind erosion removal of vegetation and reshaping the topography - erosion sedimentation in the water bodies can result in floods landslides and slope failure can occur at unstable slopes

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Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Loss of flora and fauna
the distribution and abundance of the various species and the habitats of communities ensure minimal losses during the implementation stages plan and protect

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Restoration Project: Seoul, Korea

The restoration of Cheong Gye Cheon a project that converted 5.8kms of freeway through the heart of Seoul back to a river

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Cost : US$ 281 million Completed: September 2005

Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Solid wastes
construction projects generally generate tonnes of waste include demolition material, concrete, bricks, timber, plastic, glass, metals, bitumen, etc usually disposed to a landfill

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Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Air pollution
burning of waste, the emission of dust and smoke, and the emission of chemical impurities such as heavy metals, acid and other toxic bases effects are on human health, aesthetic values (sight and smell) adjacent land uses, temperature modification and humidity changes increased dust and airborne particulates emissions of construction equipment and vehicles

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Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Water pollution

potential for soil erosion and impacts on water quality removal of vegetation for initial clearing/grading activities exposes soil, susceptible to erosion

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Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Depletion of resources
loss of important natural assets and imposes severe stress on the environment agricultural land is often lost through urbanization many raw materials used in construction are limited resources

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Impacts Of Construction Activities On The Environment


Noise and vibration
noise and vibration would be generated by various activities and equipment adverse impact resulting from construction noise and vibration are expected

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Sustainable Construction
A shift from standard practices to best practices Standard practices, guided by short-term economic considerations, often demonstrate little regard for energy efficiency or the larger economic, environmental or social impacts of the built environment. Sustainable building strategies attempts to break with these practices.

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Sustainable construction

Sustainable construction practice;


addressing the complex problem of construction and the environment, efforts towards sustainable construction are fundamentally an attempt to put in place practices that restore the balance between the natural and built environments providing education and guidance on construction methods and practices that amplify and ensure sustainable requirements and goals are achieved in projects sustainable construction as a concept extends beyond the biophysical impact of the built environment - transcends environmental sustainability to embrace economic and social sustainability sustainable projects address issues of the environment, energy use and people, in addition to traditional project goals of cost, quality and schedule what may appear to be minor decisions, may have long lasting negative effects

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Sustainable construction strategies

Procurement
Specific procurement strategies to ensure sustainable construction requirements are addressed

Goal ; provide guidelines for procurement practices & contracting strategies to be implemented on projects in an attempt to raise awareness & increase performance contractors, managers, sub-contractors, vendors, etc

Benefits ; reduce risks when contracting increased awareness & participation of parties involved improved understanding of responsibilities

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Sustainable construction strategies

Site / Environment
Methods to reduce the environmental impact of construction on the project site and surrounding environment are identified Goal ; lower the impact of construction on the site and surrounding environment to be implemented on projects in an attempt to raise awareness & increase performance contractors, managers, sub-contractors, vendors, etc benefits ; preserving the natural environment of the site mitigate and manage the storm water impacts of impervious surfaces at contaminated sites

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Sustainable construction strategies

Material Selection

Identifies environmentally friendly building materials as well as harmful and toxic materials that should be avoided Goal ; educate and familiarize individuals to environmentally friendly materials as well as those which cause the most harm to our environment Benefits ; reduce pollutants and resources consumed from material production reduce fuel and transportation cost reduce solid waste problems, cut energy consumption in manufacturing, and save on natural resource use Sustainable materials are ; durable reused or salvaged high recycled contents rapidly renewable biodegradable locally manufactured reusable

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Sustainable construction strategies

Waste Prevention
Methods to reduce and eliminate waste on construction projects are identified Goal ; eliminate waste produce on jobsite Benefits ; reduction in expenditures for materials & less material necessary lower labor cost results in less material to be handled decrease in disposal costs, landfill wastes

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Sustainable construction strategies

Recycling
Identifies materials to recycle at each phase of construction and methods to support the onsite recycling effort Goal ; divert waste from landfill by recycling most of the construction debris Benefits ; reduction of waste at the landfill avoidance of tipping fees decrease in disposal costs, landfill wastes Action & methods ; Assess probable waste stream prior to construction. The waste management hierarchy: reduce the waste generated reuse materials and products recycle as much as possible composting burning landfill

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Sustainable construction strategies

Energy
Methods to ensure and improve the buildings energy performance, reduce energy consumed during construction, and identify opportunities to use renewable energy sources Goal ; reduce consumption of energy during construction and operation of the building use energy efficient products and practices Benefits ; lower general condition cost savings on utility bills reduced air pollution reduced reliance on natural resources

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Sustainable construction strategies

Building and Material Reuse


Identifies reusable materials and methods to facilitate the future reuse of a facility, systems, equipment, products and materials Goal ; enable and maximize the reuse of facilities, systems, equipment, products and materials Benefits ; reduce future renovation cost saves money with used materials divert valuable materials from landfills and save on waste disposal fees improves building / facility value; easy to renovate, demolish etc

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Sustainable construction strategies

Health and Safety


Methods to improve the quality of life for construction workers are identified Goal ; to improve the quality of life for construction workers and the surrounding community Benefits ; minimized use of harmful products on the jobsite in order to reduce harmful effects to workers and occupants increases awareness of harmful products and ingredients in order to protect workers and minimize use increased use of personal safety apparatus

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Sustainable construction strategies

Indoor Environment Quality


Methods to ensure indoor environmental quality measures during construction are managed and executed properly Goal ; ensure the proper management of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measures during construction Benefits ; improved IAQ for occupants healthier working environment for construction workers minimized risk of mold and other IAQ related issues Key issues; moisture intrusion dust build up and intrusion off-gassing of harmful materials flush-out period before occupancy

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Challenges of sustainable construction

Quiz 1
Despite the efforts taken by the government / authority to intensify sustainable principles into the construction industry, there are still lack of awareness among the practitioners. Discuss the challenges and also the approach that can be taken to make sustainability a main practice in the construction industry.

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