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TypesofElectricMotors

ElectricMotors

DCMotors Shunt h motor SeparatelyExcited motor SeriesMotor PermanentMagnet DC(PMDC) Compoundedmotor

ACMotors

OtherMotors

Steppermotor Induction motor BrushlessDCmotor

Hysteresismotor Synchronous motor Reluctancemotor Universalmotor

DCMotors
1.ShuntDCmotor:Therotorandstatorwindingsareconnectedinparallel.
2.Sparately Excitedmotor:Therotorandstatorareeachconnectedfromadifferentpower supply,thisgivesanotherdegreeoffreedomforcontrollingthemotorovertheshunt. 3.Seriesmotor:thestatorandrotorwindingsareconnectedinseries.Thusthetorqueis proportionaltoI2 soitgivesthehighesttorquepercurrentratiooverallotherdcmotors. Itisthereforeusedinstartermotorsofcarsandelevatormotors(p.563Chapman,4e, 2005McGrow Hill). Hill) 4.PermanentMagnet(PMDC)motors:Thestatorisapermanentmagnet,sothemotoris smallerinsize. Disadv:onlyusedforlowtorqueapplications

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brushed_DC_electric_motor

DCMotors
5.Compouned motor:thestatorisconnectedtotherotorthroughacompound
ofshuntandserieswindings,iftheshuntandserieswindingsadduptogether, themotoriscalledcomulatively compounded.Iftheysubtractfromeach other,thenadifferentiallycompoundedmotorresults,whichisunsuitablefor anyapplication.

A:shunt B:series C:compound f=field(stator)coil http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_motor

DisadvantagesofDCmotors
1. Brushwear:Sincetheyneedbrushestoconnecttherotor winding.Brushwearoccurs,anditincreasesdramatically inlowpressureenvironmet.Sotheycannotbeusedin artificialhearts. Ifusedonaircraft,thebrusheswould need dreplacement l tafter ft oneh hourof foperation. ti 2. Sparksfromthebrushesmaycauseexplosionifthe environmentcontainsexplosivematerials. 3. RFnoisefromthebrushesmayinterferewithnearbyt.v. sets,orelectronicdevices,..etc Ref.Chapmanp.674675

ACMachines
InductionMotor:Socalledbecausevoltageisinducedin therotor(thusnoneedforbrushes),butforthistohappen, therotormustrotateatalowerspeedthanthemagnetic fieldtoallowfortheexistance ofaninducedvoltage. Thereforeanewtermisneededtodescribetheinduction motor:theslip. SynchronousMotor:Socalledbecauserotortriestolineup withtherotatingmagneticfieldinthestator.Ithasthe statorofaninductionmotor,andtherotorofadcmotor.
SquirrelcageInductionMotor Seeiton: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induction_motor Note:Figureismisleading.Thenumberofpolesmust beanevenintegerofthenumberofphasesused used. Thusthisdiagramshouldhave6coils,butthatwould preventonefromimaginingtherotation.

ACMachines
Accuraterepresentationof a6pole3phaseAC inductionmotor http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /File:Rotatingfield.png

SynchronousMachines
4-17 THREE-PHASE ROTATING FIELDS require three pairs of windings 120 120 apart, apart energized by voltages that also have a 120 120degree phase displacement. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS are specifically designed to maintain constant speed speed, with the rotor synchronous to the rotating field field. Synchronous motors require modification (such as squirrel-cage windings) to be self-starting.
Textandfiguresontophalfofpagefrom
http://www.tpub.com/content/neets/14177/css/14177_101.htm

DC

AC

http://www.motcointernational.com/sy_motors.htm

Dave Polka Chapter 3 of AC Motors: IEC Ratings

Reluctancemotors
1. 2. 3. 4. Reluctancemotor:Asynchronousinduction motor.Therotorhassalientpolesandacage sothatitstartslikeaninductionmotor motor,and runslikeasynchronousmotor. Usessoftmagnetrotorthatismagnetizedby pp ofcurrentinthestatorcoils theapplication Themagnetisspunbya3phaseACmotor withnorotorvoltage Thegearteetharedesignedtoincreasethe magneticfluxdrivingtherotorwhile providingasymmetrythatgivesitthe rotationalacceleration http://wapedia.mobi/en/File:Switched_rel Permeabilityoftherotorprovidesa uctance_motor_64.svg significantincreaseininductivepower FullsolutionofFaradayslawwithtimeand velocitydependence.

5 5. 6.

Othermotors
1. 2. 3. 4 4. 5. Reluctancemotor:Asynchronousinduction motor.Therotorhassalientpolesandacage ,and sothatitstartslikeaninductionmotor, runslikeasynchronousmotor. Hysteresismotor:hysteresisproducesthe torque,canbeverytiny,usedasthedriver forelectricclocks(Chapman, (Chapman p.669). p 669) Steppermotor:aspecialtypeofsynchronous motors.Rotatesanumberofdegreeswith eachelectricpulse. B hl DCmotor:aclose Brushless l cousin i of fa permanentmagnetsteppermotorwith electroniccontrollers Universalmotor:Ifaseried dcmotorhasa laminatedstatorframe,itcanruneffectively fromanacsupplyaswellasdc,thisisthe universla motor.
BrushlessDC (actuallya pulsed l dAC C motor)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Poles.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/67 htt // l d iki di / iki di / /6/67 /StepperMotor.gif

QuizYourself
Question:atthesamepower power,Wwhich hasa higherefficiency,thesynchronousmotoror theinductionmotor? Sol:thesynchronousmotor,becausethelack ofbrushestoconnecttherotorofthe inductionmotormakesitsmagneticfieldrun throughanairgap gap,whichhasamuchhigher reluctance.