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List of map projections - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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List of map projections


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This list/table provides an overview of the most significant map projections, including those listed on Wikipedia. It is sortable by the main fields. Inclusion in the table is subjective, as there is no definitive list of map projections.

Contents
1 Table of Projections 2 Key 2.1 Type of Projection 2.2 Properties

Table of Projections
Projection Images Type Properties Creator Year Notes Simplest geometry; distances along meridians are conserved. Cylindrical Compromise Marinus of Tyre 120 AD Plate carre: (c.) special case having the equator as the standard parallel. Lines of constant bearing (rhumb lines) are straight, aiding navigation. Areas inflate with latitude, becoming so extreme that the map cannot show the poles. This transverse, ellipsoidal form of the Mercator is finite, unlike the equatorial Mercator. Forms the basis of the Universal
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Equirectangular
= equidistant cylindrical = rectangular = la carte paralllogrammatique

Mercator
= Wright

Cylindrical

Conformal

Gerardus Mercator

1569

GaussKrger
= Gauss conformal = (Ellipsoidal) Transverse Mercator

Carl Friedrich Gauss Cylindrical Conformal Johann Heinrich Louis Krger 1822

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Transverse Mercator system. Intended to resemble the Mercator while also displaying the poles. Standard parallels at 45N/S. Braun is horizontally stretched version with scale correct at equator. Intended to resemble the Mercator while also displaying the poles. Standard parallel at the equator. Aspect ratio of (3.14). Base projection of the cylindrical equalarea family. Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert equalearea. Has standard parallels at 30N/S and an aspect ration of 2.36. Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert Equal area. Very similar are Trystan Edwards and Smyth equal surface (= Craster rectangular) projections with standard parallels at around 37N/S. Aspect ratio of ~2.0.
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Gall stereographic
similar to Braun

Cylindrical

Compromise James Gall

1885

Miller
= Miller cylindrical

Cylindrical

Compromise

Osborn Maitland Miller

1942

Lambert cylindrical equalarea

Cylindrical

Equal-area

Johann Heinrich Lambert

1772

Behrmann

Cylindrical

Equal-area

Walter Behrmann 1910

Hobo-Dyer

Cylindrical

Equal-area

Mick Dyer

2002

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GallPeters
= Gall orthographic = Peters

James Gall Cylindrical Equal-area (Arno Peters) 1855

Horizontally compressed version of the Lambert equalarea. Standard parallels at 45N/S. Aspect ratio of ~1.6. Similar is Balthasart projection with standard parallels at 50N/S. Meridians are sinusoids; parallels are equally spaced. Aspect ratio of 2:1. Distances along parallels are conserved. Meridians are ellipses.

Sinusoidal
= Sanson-Flamsteed = Mercator equalarea

1600 Pseudocylindrical Equal-area (Several; first is unknown) (c.)

Mollweide
= elliptical = Babinet = homolographic

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

Karl Brandan Mollweide

1805

Eckert II

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

Max EckertGreifendorff

1906 Parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; outer meridians are semicircles; other meridians are semiellipses. Parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; meridians are half-period sinusoids. Hybrid of Sinusoidal and Mollweide projections. Usually used in interrupted form.
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Eckert IV

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

Max EckertGreifendorff

1906

Eckert VI

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

Max EckertGreifendorff

1906

Goode homolosine

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

John Paul Goode

1923

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Kavrayskiy VII

Pseudocylindrical Compromise V. V. Kavrayskiy 1939

Evenly spaced parallels. Equivalent to Wagner VI horizontally compressed by a factor of . Computed by interpolation of tabulated values. Used by Rand McNally since inception and used by NGS 198898. A family of map projections that includes as special cases Mollweide projection, Collignon projection, and the various cylindrical equalarea projections. Equivalent to Kavrayskiy VII vertically compressed by a factor of . Depending on configuration, the projection also may map the sphere to a single diamond or a pair of squares. Hybrid of Collignon + Lambert cylindrical equalarea Meridians are parabolas. Standard parallels at 3646!N/S; parallels are
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Robinson

Pseudocylindrical Compromise

Arthur H. Robinson

1963

Tobler hyperelliptical

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

Waldo R. Tobler

1973

Wagner VI

Pseudocylindrical Compromise K.H. Wagner

Collignon

Pseudocylindrical Equal-Area

douardCollignon

1865 (c.)

HEALPix

Polyhedral

Equal-area

Craster Parabolic
=Reinhold Putni P4

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

John Craster

1929

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unequal in spacing and scale; 2:1 Aspect. Standard parallels at 3345!N/S; parallels are unequal in spacing and scale; meridians are fourth-order curves. Distortion-free only where the standard parallels intersect the central meridian. Parallels are unequal in spacing and scale. No distortion along the equator. Meridians are fourth-order curves. Standard parallels 45N/S. Parallels based on Gall orthographic, but with curved meridians. Developed for Bartholomew Ltd., The Times Atlas. From the designated centre, lines of constant bearing (rhumb lines/loxodromes) are straight and have the correct length. Generally asymmetric about the equator. Stretching of modified equatorial azimuthal equidistant map. Boundary is 2:1
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Flat Polar Quartic


= McBryde-Thomas #4

Pseudocylindrical Equal-area

Felix W. McBryde and Paul Thomas

1949

Karl Siemon Quartic Authalic Pseudocylindrical Equal-area Oscar Adams

1937 1944

The Times

Pseudocylindrical Compromise John Muir

1965

Loximuthal

Pseudocylindrical

Karl Siemon, Waldo Tobler

1935, 1966

Aitoff

Pseudoazimuthal Compromise David A. Aitoff

1889

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ellipse. Largely superseded by Hammer. Modified from azimuthal equalarea equatorial map. Boundary is 2:1 ellipse. Variants are oblique versions, centred on 45N. Arithmetic mean of the equirectangular projection and the Aitoff projection. Standard world projection for the NGS 1998present. Boundary is a circle. All parallels and meridians are circular arcs. Usually clipped near 80N/S. Standard world projection of the NGS 1922-88.

Hammer
= Hammer-Aitoff variations: Briesemeister; Nordic

Pseudoazimuthal Equal-area

Ernst Hammer

1892

Winkel tripel

Pseudoazimuthal Compromise Oswald Winkel

1921

Van der Grinten

Other

Compromise

Alphons J. van der Grinten

1904

Equidistant conic projection


= simple conic

Conic

Equidistant

Based on Ptolemys 1st Projection

Distances along meridians are conserved, as is 100 (c.) distance along one or two standard parallels[1]

Lambert conformal conic

Conic

Conformal

Johann Heinrich Lambert

1772

Albers conic

Conic

Equal-Area

Heinrich C. Albers

1805

Two standard parallels with low distortion between them.

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List of map projections - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Werner Pseudoconical Equal-area Johannes Stabius

1500 (c.)

Distances from the North Pole are correct as are the curved distances along parallels.

Bonne
= Cordiform (heartshaped)

Pseudoconical

Equal-area

Bernardus Sylvanus

1511

Parallels are equally spaced circular arcs and standard lines. Appearance depends on reference parallel. General case of both Werner and sinusoidal

Alternative to the Bonne projection with simpler overall shape Bottomley Pseudoconical Equal-area Henry Bottomley 2003 Parallels are elliptical arcs Appearance depends on reference parallel. Distances along the parallels are preserved as are distances along the central meridian. Used by the USGS in the National Atlas of the United States of America. Distances from centre are conserved.

American polyconic

Pseudoconical

Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler

1820 (c.)

Azimuthal equidistant
=Postel zenithal equidistant

Azimuthal

Equidistant

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Gnomonic

Azimuthal

Gnonomic

Thales of Greece (possibly)

All great circles map to straight 580 BC lines. Extreme distortion far (c.) from the center. Shows less than one hemisphere.

Lambert azimuthal equalarea

Azimuthal

Equal-Area

Johann Heinrich Lambert

1772

The straight-line distance between the central point on the map to any other map is the same as the straight-line 3D distance through the globe between the two points.

Stereographic

Azimuthal

Conformal

Hipparchos (deployed)

Map is infinite in extent with outer hemisphere inflating severely, so it is often used as two 200 BC hemispheres. (c.) Maps all small circles to circles, which is useful for planetary mapping to preserve the shapes of craters.

Orthographic

Azimuthal

Hipparchos (deployed)

200 BC View from an (c.) infinite distance.

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List of map projections - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Vertical perspective

Azimuthal

Matthias Seutter (deployed)

1740

View from a finite distance. Can only display less than a hemisphere.

Two-point equidistant

Azimuthal

Equidistant

Hans Maurer

1919

Two "control points" can be arbitrarily chosen. The two straight-line distances from any point on the map to the two control points are correct.

Peirce quincuncial

Other

Conformal

Charles Sanders Peirce

1879

Guyou hemisphere-in-asquare projection Adams hemisphere-in-asquare projection

Other

Conformal

mile Guyou

1887

Other

Conformal

Oscar Sherman Adams

1925

B.J.S. Cahill's Butterfly Map


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Polyhedral

Bernard Joseph Compromise Stanislaus Cahill


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List of map projections - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Waterman butterfly projection quadrilateralized spherical cube Dymaxion map

Polyhedral Polyhedral

Compromise Steve Waterman Equal-area Buckminster Fuller

Polyhedral

Compromise

1943 Projects the globe onto a myriahedron: a polyhedron with a very large number of faces.[2][3]

Myriahedral projections

Polyhedral

Jack van Wijk

Craig retroazimuthal
= Mecca

Retroazimuthal

James Ireland Craig

1909

Hammer retroazimuthal, front hemisphere

Retroazimuthal

Ernst Hammer

1910

Hammer retroazimuthal, back hemisphere

Retroazimuthal

Ernst Hammer

1910

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List of map projections - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Littrow

Retroazimuthal

Joseph Johann Littrow

1833

Key
Main article: Map_projection The designation deployed means popularisers/users rather than necessarily creators. The type of projection and the properties preserved by the projection use the following categories:

Type of Projection
Cylindrical: In standard presentation, these map regularly-spaced meridians to equally spaced vertical lines, and parallels to horizontal lines. Pseudocylindrical: In standard presentation, these map the central meridian and parallels as straight lines. Other meridians are curves (or possibly straight from pole to equator), regularly spaced along parallels. Pseudoazimuthal: In standard presentation, pseudoazimuthal projections map the equator and central meridian to perpendicular, intersecting straight lines. They map parallels to complex curves bowing away from the equator, and meridians to complex curves bowing in toward the central meridian. Listed here after pseudocylindrical as generally similar to them in shape and purpose. Conic: In standard presentation, conic (or conical) projections map meridians as straight lines, and parallels as arcs of circles. Pseudoconical: In standard presentation, pseudoconical projections represent the central meridian as a straight line, other meridians as complex curves, and parallels as circular arcs. Azimuthal: In standard presentation, azimuthal projections map meridians as straight lines and parallels as complete, concentric circles. They are radially symmetrical. In any presentation (or aspect), they preserve directions from the center point. This means great circles through the central point are represented by straight lines on the map. Other: Typically calculated from formula, and not based on a particular projection Polyhedral maps: Polyhedral maps can be folded up into a polyhedral approximation to the sphere, using particular projection to map each face with low distortion. Retroazimuthal: Direction to a fixed location B (by the shortest route) corresponds to the direction on the map from A to B.

Properties
Conformal: Preserves angles locally, implying that locally shapes are not disorted. Equal Area: Areas are conserved. Compromise: Neither conformal or equal-area, but a balance intended to reduce overall distortion. Equidistant: All distances from one (or two) points are correct. Other equidistant properties are mentioned in the notes. Gnomonic: All great circles are straight lines.
1. ^ Carlos A. Furuti. Conic Projections: Equidistant Conic Projections (http://www.progonos.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/ProjCon/projCon.html#EqdCon)
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2. ^ Jarke J. van Wijk. "Unfolding the Earth: Myriahedral Projections". [1] (http://www.win.tue.nl/~vanwijk/myriahedral/) 3. ^ Carlos A. Furuti. "Interrupted Maps: Myriahedral Maps". [2] (http://www.progonos.com/furuti/MapProj/Normal/ProjInt/projInt.html#MyriahedralMaps)

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