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WCDMA Access Procedure

Review

Access is associated with the call setup success rate of the network. Mastering the access procedure can increase this KPI with the access parameters optimization.

Objectives

Upon completion of this course,you will be able to:

Know

the

detailed

access

procedure in UMTS Know how to optimize the

access procedure

Course Contents

Random access procedure RRC setup procedure RAB setup procedure

Random access procedure

Physical channel about access

Random access procedure

Parameters optimization

PRACH access slot


radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips Access slot #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 radio frame: 10 ms

Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission

Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission

UE can start the random-access transmission at the beginning of a access slot There are 15 access slots per two frames what access slots are available is given by higher layers

Structure of the random-access transmission


P r ea m b le 4 0 9 6 ch ip s P r ea m b le P r ea m b le M essa g e p a r t 1 0 m s (on e r a d io fr a m e) P r ea m b le P r ea m b le M essa g e p a r t 2 0 m s (tw o r a d io fr a m es)

P r ea m b le 4 0 9 6 ch ip s

Each random-access transmission consists of one or several preambles of length 4096 chips and a message of length 10 ms or 20 ms. Each preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips.

Structure of the random-access transmission


One access slot AICH access slots RX at UE
Acq. Ind.

p-a
PRACH access slots TX at UE
Preamble Preamble Message part

p-p

p-m

The preamble-to-preamble distance p-p shall be larger than or equal to the minimum preamble-to-preamble distance p-p,min .

Structure of the random-access transmission


when AICH_Transmission_Timing is set to 0 p-p,min = 15360 chips (3 access slots) p-a = 7680 chips p-m = 15360 chips (3 access slots) when AICH_Transmission_Timing is set to 1, then p-p,min = 20480 chips (4 access slots) p-a = 12800 chips p-m = 20480 chips (4 access slots) The parameter AICH_Transmission_Timing is

signalled by higher layers.

Random access procedure

Physical channel about access

Random access procedure

Parameters optimization

Concepts in random access procedure


Preamble Signature

AC (Access Class)

ASC (Access Service Class)

RACH sub channels

Access slot set

Preamble Signature
The preamble signature corresponding to a signatures consists of 256 repetitions of a length 16 signature Ps(n) shown as the following table. UE gets signature from system info type5.
Preamble signature P0(n) P1(n) P2(n) P3(n) P4(n) P5(n) P6(n) P7(n) P8(n) P9(n) P10(n) P11(n) P12(n) P13(n) P14(n) P15(n) 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 2 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 3 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 4 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 5 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 6 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 Value of n 7 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 9 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 10 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 11 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 12 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 13 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 14 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 15 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1

Access Class
The SIMs/USIMs of all the UEs are allocated with one of Access Class 0~9. In addition, one or more special access classes (Access Class 11~15) might be allocated to the SIM/USIM storage information of the UEs with high priority, as shown below: Access Class 15 --- PLMN Staff; Access Class 14 --- Emergency Services; Access Class 13 --- Public Utilities; Access Class 12 --- Security Services; Access Class 11 --- For PLMN Use.

Different from Access Class 0~9 and 11~15, the control information of Access Class 10 is sent to UEs by means of air interface signalling, indicating whether the UEs belonging to Access Class 0~9 or without IMSI can be accessed to the network in case of emergency calls. For the UEs with Access Class 11~15, they cannot initiate the emergency calls when Access Class 10 and Access Class 11~15 are all barred.

Access Service Class


The PRACH resources (access timeslots and preamble signatures in FDD mode) can be classified into several ASCs. One ASC defines a partition of certain PRACH resources. The ASCs are numbered within the range 0<= i <=7, and the maximum number of ASCs is 8. "0" indicates the highest priority and "7" indicates the lowest priority. AC to ASC mapping. In case the UE is member of several ACs it shall select the ASC for the highest AC number.

AC ASC

09 1 IE
st

10 2 IE
nd rd

11 3 IE
th

12 4 IE
th

13 5 IE
th

14 6 IE
th

15 7 IE

Access Slot Set


Access slot set 1 contains PRACH slots 0 7 and starts p-a chips before the downlink P-CCPCH frame for which SFN mod 2 = 0. Access slot set 2 contains PRACH slots 8 - 14 and starts (p-a 2560) chips before the downlink P-CCPCH frame for which SFN mod 2 = 1.

AICH access slots p-a #0 #1

SFN mod 2 = 0 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8

SFN mod 2 = 1 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14

#0 PRACH access slots

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#12

#13

#14

Access slot set 1

Access slot set 2

10 ms

10 ms

RACH sub channels


A RACH sub-channel defines a sub-set of the total set of uplink access slots. There are a total of 12 RACH sub-channels.

SFN modulo 8 of corresponding PCCPCH frame

Sub-channel number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 12

1 13

2 14

7 8 9 6 10 7 8 11

0 9 6 10 7 8 3 4 5 9 6 11 12

1 13

2 14

0 10 7 8 9 11 12

1 13

2 14

0 10 11 12

1 13

2 14

Random access procedure

Random access procedure


Before random-access procedure, Layer 1 shall receive the following information from the RRC layers:
The preamble scrambling code. The message length in time, either 10 or 20 ms. The AICH_Transmission_Timing parameter [0 or 1]. The set of available signatures and the set of available RACH sub-channels for each ASC. The power-ramping factor Power Ramp Step. The parameter Preamble Retrans Max. Preamble_Initial_Power. The Power offset P p-m = Pmessage-control Ppreamble. The set of Transport Format parameters, This includes the power offset between the data part and the control part of the random-access message for each Transport Format.

Random access procedure

Layer 1 shall also receive the following information from the MAC layers : The Transport Format to be used for the PRACH message part. The ASC of the PRACH transmission. The data to be transmitted .

Random access steps


1. Derive the available uplink access slots in the next full access slot set and Randomly select one access slot . 2. Randomly select a signature from the set of available signatures within the given ASC . 3. Set the Preamble Retransmission Counter to Preamble Retrans Max. 4. Set the parameter Commanded Preamble Power to Preamble_Initial_Power.

Random access steps


5. Transmit a preamble using the selected uplink access slot, signature, and preamble transmission power. 6. Check the corresponding AI, if received positive AI, send the message part and set L1 status RACH message transmitted. If received negative AI, set L1 status Nack on AICH received. 7. If no AI received, select the next access slot, signature and decrease the preamble retransmission counter by one, increase the preamble power by power ramp step. Check if the counter more than 0 and the preamble power less than the maximum allowed. If true, send a preamble again. Otherwise, set L1 status No ack on AICH .

Random access procedure

Physical channel about access

Random access procedure

Parameters optimization

ConstantValue
Preamble_Initial_Power = DL_Path_Loss + UL_interference + Constant_Value. This parameter is used for the UE to estimate the initial PRACH transmission power according to the open loop power. Influence on the network performance: If this parameter is set too big, the initial transmission power will be too big, but the access process will become shorter; if it is set too small, the access power will satisfy the requirements, but the preamble requires multiple ramps, which will lengthen the access process.

PRACH Power Ramp Step


PRACH PowerRampStep is the ramp step of the preamble power by the UE before it receives the NodeB capture indication. Influence on the network performance: If this value is set too big, the access process will be shortened, but the probability of wasting power will be bigger; if it is set too small, the access process will be lengthened, but some power will be saved. It is a value to be weighed.

Maximum Preamble Retransmit Times


PreambleRetransMax is the maximum preamble

retransmission times of the UE within a preamble ramp cycle. Influence on the network performance: If this value is set too big, the access process will be shortened, but the probability of wasting power will be bigger; if it is set too small, the access process will be lengthened, but some power will be saved. It is a value to be weighed.

Maximum Preamble Cycle Times


Mmax defines the maximum times of the random access preamble cycle. When the UE transmits a preamble and has reached the maximum retransmit times (PreambleRetransMax), if the UE has not received the capture indication yet, it will repeat the access attempt after the specified waiting time; but the maximum cycle times cannot exceed Mmax. Influence on the network performance: If this parameter is set too small, the UE access success rate will be influenced; if it is set too big, the UE will probably try access attempt repeatedly within a long time, which will increase the uplink interference.

Course Contents

Random access procedure RRC setup procedure RAB setup procedure

RRC Setup Procedure

Parameters optimization
T300 and N300 DPDCH Power Control Preamble Length (PCPreamble) Successive Synchronization Indication Times (NInSyncInd) Successive Out-of-sync Indication Times (NOutSyncInd) Radio Link Failure Timer Duration (TRLFailure) N312 and T312 N313, N315, T313

T300 and N300


After the UE transmits RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message, the T300 timer will be started, and the timer will be stopped after the UE receives RRC CONNECTION SETUP message. Once the timer times out, if RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message is retransmitted less than the number of times specified by the constant N300, the UE repeats RRC CONNECTION REQUEST; otherwise it will be in the idle mode. Influence on the network performance: The T300 setting should be considered together with the UE, UTRAN processing delay and the propagation delay. The bigger T300 is, the longer time the UE T300 will wait for. The bigger N300 is, the higher success probability of the RRC connection setup will be, and the longer RRC setup time will probably be. It will likely be that a UE repeats the access attempt and the connection setup request transmission, and consequently other users will be influenced seriously.

PCPreamble
PCPreamble defines the lasting time of DPCCH transmission by the UE before the UE transmits DPDCH. Influence on the network performance: At first, this parameter has been originally used in the uplink and downlink power control convergence to prevent the uncontrollable power of the UE at the beginning. Later, it was considered in some proposals that NodeB needs some time to find the uplink signal after the UE starts DPCCH transmission. This delay depends on the searching process and the propagation delay. It makes no sense to start the uplink DPDCH transmission process before the end of this process, because the data cannot be received normally at this time, and data loss will occur; or, if it is the confirmation mode, the retransmission may cause more serious data delay. If this parameter is set improperly, it will lead to data loss and retransmission delay, which will consequently influence the service rate and the transmission delay.

NInSyncInd
This parameter defines the successive synchronization indication times required for the NodeB to trigger the radio link recovery process. The radio link set remains in the initial state until it receives NInsyncInd successive synchronization indications from L1, then NodeB triggers the radio link recovery process, which indicates that the radio link set has been synchronized. Once the radio link recovery process is triggered, the radio link set is considered to be in the synchronized state. Influence on the network performance: The bigger this parameter is, the stricter the synchronization process will be, and the more difficult the sync will be; the smaller it is, the easier the synchronization will be. However, if the link quality is bad, a simple synchronization requirement will lead to the waste of the UE power and the increase of uplink interference; in the radio link maintenance process, this parameter is used together with the successive outof-sync indication counter.

NOutSyncInd
NOutSyncInd defines the successive out-of-sync indication times that are required to receive to start the timer TRlFailure. When the radio link set is in synchronized state, the NodeB will start the timer TRlFailure after it receives NOutsyncInd successive out-of-sync indications. The NodeB should stop and reset the timer TRlFailure after receiving NInsyncInd successive sync indications. If the timer TRlFailure times out, the NodeB will trigger the radio link failure process, and indicate the radio link set that is out-of-sync. Influence on the network performance: If this parameter is set too small, the link out-of-sync decision will be likely to occur; if it is set too big, out-of-sync will not be likely to occur, but, if the link quality is bad, it will result in waste of the UE power and increased uplink interference. In the radio link maintenance process, this parameter is adopted together with the successive synchronization indication counter.

TRLFailure
This value defines the timer TRlFailure duration. When the radio link set is in synchronized state, NodeB should start the timer TRlFailure after it receives NOutsyncInd successive out-of-sync indications; and NodeB should stop and reset the timer TRlFailure after receiving NInsyncInd successive sync indications. If the timer TRlFailure times out, NodeB will trigger the radio link failure process, and indicate the radio link set that is out-of-sync. Influence on the network performance: If the timer is set too short, there will few chances for link synchronization; if it is set too long, the radio link failure process will probably be delayed, and the downlink interference will be increased.

N312 and T312


When the UE starts to set up the dedicated channel, it starts the T312 timer, and after the UE detects N312 synchronization indications from L1, it will stop the T312 timer. Once the timer times out, it means that the physical channel setup has failed. Influence on the network performance: The bigger N312 is, the more difficult the dedicated channel synchronization will be; the longer T312 is, the bigger the synchronization probability will be, but the longer the synchronization time will be.

N313, N315, T313


After the UE detects N313 successive out-of-sync indications from L1, it will start the T313 timer. And after the UE detects N315 successive sync indications from L1, it will stop the T313 timer. Once the timer times out, the radio link fails. Influence on the network performance: The bigger N313 is, the more difficult it will be to start T313, which will reduce the out-of-sync probability; the smaller N315 is, the longer T313 will be, and the bigger the link recovery probability will be. These three parameters should be used together.

Course Contents

Random access procedure RRC setup procedure RAB setup procedure

RAB Setup Procedure

Appendix: MOC signaling process


UE N ode B S e rving R N S C C C H : R R C C o n ne c t io n R e q u e s t R a d io L ink S e tup R e q ue s t NBAP S e rving RNC CN

RRC

RRC

N BAP

S ta rt R X N BAP R a d io L ink S e tup R e s p o ns e NBAP

Q .A A L 2 Q .A A L 2 D C H -F P D C H -F P S ta rt T X

E s ta blis h R e q ue s t E s ta blis h C o nf irm

Q .A A L 2

Q .A A L 2

D o w n link S y nc h ro nis a t io n U p link S y nc h ro n is a t io n

D C H -F P D C H -F P

C C C H : R R C C o n ne c t io n RRC D C C H : R R C C o nne c t io n RRC RLC RRC D C C H : R R C C o nne c t io n DCCH :

S e tup

RRC RRC RLC RRC

S e tup C o m p le te S e tup C o m p le te a c k

In ita l D ir e c t T ra ns fe r

Appendix: MOC signaling process


UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN

RRC

DCCH : Inital Direct Transfer

RRC Initial UE Message RANAP RANAP (CM Service Request) Direct Transfer (CM Service Accept) RANAP RANAP

RRC RRC RRC

DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer

RRC RRC RANAP RANAP Direct Transfer (Setup) Direct Transfer (Call Proceeding) RANAP RANAP

RRC RRC

DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer

RRC RRC

Appendix: MOC signaling process


UE Node B Serving RNS DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RAB Assignment Request RANAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare NBAP NBAP ( Establishment ) Establish Request Establish Confirm Q.AAL2 RANAP Serving RNC CN

RRC RRC

RRC

Q.AAL2

NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready

Appendix: MOC signaling process


UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN

Q.AAL2

Establish Request Establish Confirm

Q.AAL2

Q.AAL2
NBAP

Q.AAL2
NBAP

Downlink Synchronisation Uplink Synchronisation Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit

NBAP

NBAP NBAP RRC

NBAP
RRC

DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup


Apply new transport format set

RRC RLC

DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Complete DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Complete ack

RRC RLC RANAP RAB Assignment Response RANAP

Establishment ) (

Appendix: MOC signaling process


UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN

RANAP
RRC

DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer

Direct Transfer (Alerting) Direct Transfer (Connect)

RANAP

RRC RANAP RANAP

RRC

DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer

RRC RRC RANAP Direct Transfer (Connect Acknowledge) RANAP

RRC

RRC

DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer

RRC RANAP RANAP Direct Transfer (Disconnect) Direct Transfer (Release) RANAP RANAP

RRC RRC

DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer

RRC RRC

RANAP

Direct Transfer (Rlease Complete)

RANAP

Appendix: MOC signaling process


UE Node B Serving RNS Serv ing RNC CN

RANAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 DCCH : RRC Connection Release DCCH : RRC Connection ReleaseComplete NBAP Radio Link Deletion NBAP Radio Link Deletion Complete Release Request Release Complete NBAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 RANAP

Iu Release Command Release Request Release Complete

RANAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2

NBAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2

Iu Release Complete

RANAP

Summary

Random access procedure: physical channels, detailed random access procedure, access parameters optimization. RRC setup procedure and parameters optimization. RAB setup procedure and the whole UE outgoing call procedure.