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T1/FT1 Testing

T1/FT1 Testing with the FIREBERD 4000 and FIREBERD 6000

Overview
The demand for high-quality T1 circuits requires consistent maintenance and circuit analysis. To provide clean, error-free transmissions, the personnel who test the performance of T1 circuits demand reliable instruments. The TTC (Telecommunications Techniques Corporation) FIREBERD Communications Analyzers are ideal for T1 installation, acceptance testing, ongoing maintenance, and fault isolation, all of which are essential to providing quality T1 service. This Application Note describes various T1 and Fractional T1(FT1) fundamentals, and the impairments that can degrade transmission service. It then describes using the FIREBERD for in-service monitoring and out-of-service testing.

Part A of Figure 1, on the next page, shows a simple point-to-point circuit connecting two pieces of customer premise equipment (CPE) such as channel banks or multiplexers. There are no intelligent devices such as digital cross-connect systems (DCSs) or higher rate multiplexers (e.g., M13) along the transmission link. This figure represents a typical small private network connecting two sites, or pieces of equipment. Part B of Figure 1, on the next page, shows a network configuration that includes channel service units (CSUs), metallic local loops, span repeaters, digital signal patch bays (DSXs), and transmission devices such as DCSs and M13 multiplexers. The CSU acts as a network interface between the customer premises equipment (CPE) and the service providers T1 network. Test access is often provided through physical connections or loopback features. Span repeaters, placed at least every six thousand feet along the local loop, regenerate the signal in both directions. Office repeaters terminate the local loop and often feed the T1 signal to either a DSX patch bay or an electronic DCS. The DSX patch bay is used for manual signal routing and test access. The DCS enables multiple T1 circuits to be routed through the office electronically, and also provides test access. Before being sent to the long-haul facilities, the T1 circuits are typically multiplexed to an even higher rate. To do this, M13 multiplexers combine 28 T1 signals into one T3 signal (44.7 Mb/s). When the T3 signal reaches the far office, it is demultiplexed so that each T1 signal may be transmitted across the desired loop and into the far-ends CPE. The T1 signal is then transmitted across another local loop, or is transmitted to another central office (CO) by long-haul facilities (e.g., microwave, satellite, fiber optics).

T1 Background
T1 circuits provide digital transmission of voice, data, and video signals at 1.544 Mb/s. They are used by common carriers, telephone companies, private networks, and government agencies. T1 circuits are primarily used to transmit multiple voice and data signals that are multiplexed and transmitted over a single communication path. These circuits are found in both point-to-point and network environments, as shown in Figure 1, on the next page.

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T1/FT1 Testing

DSX-1 MON O R O R

CPE

CSU

CSU

CPE

Customer Premises

Local Loop

Central Office

Local Loop

Customer Premises

A. Point-To-Point Circuit

DSX-1 MON O R DCS 28 M13

Figure 1 T1 circuit environments.

CSU

Customer Premises

Metallic Local Loop

Central Office

Long-Haul Facilities

(Fiber Optic, Satellite, Radio) DSX-1 MON M13 28 DCS O R

CSU

Central Office

Metallic Customer Local Loop Premises

CSU - Channel Service Unit - Span Repeater OR - Office Repeater CPE - Customer Premise Equipment

DSX-1 - Digital Signal Patch Bay DCS - Digital Cross-Connect System M13 - DS-1 TOS-3 Multiplexer

B. Network Configuration

FT1 Background
Many users need the capabilities of a T1 network, but few need a full complement of 24 DS0 channels running into their facility. For these users needing bandwidth of less than 1.544 Mb/s, FT1 allows them to select DS0 channels individually, rather

than in groups of 24. For example, 4 channels can be leased for video applications, 2 for voice and 2 for data communications. As a result, users can meet all of their communication needs with FT1 service, instead of under-utilizing a full T1 circuit. Three main choices must be made when implementing FT1 service: bandwidth, Nx64 or Nx56 DS0s, and contiguous vs. noncontiguous channels.

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T1/FT1 Testing
Figure 2 Contiguous or non-contiguous bandwidth.

Bandwidth
First, users must select the amount of bandwidth thats needed. FT1 service typically offers DS0s in groups of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 at rates of 56 or 64 kb/s per channel. The most common fractional data rates offered are listed below: Nx56 kb/s 56 kb/s (x1) 112 kb/s (x2) 224 kb/s (x4) 336 kb/s (x6) 448 kb/s (x8) 672 kb/s (x12) Nx64 kb/s 64 kb/s (x1) 128 kb/s (x2) 256 kb/s (x4) 384 kb/s (x6) 512 kb/s (x8) 768 kb/s (x12)

problems caused by different routing paths through a digital area cross-connect system (DACS). If the service users application is data oriented and requires Nx64 kb/s service, the service providers T1 network must support B8ZS line coding. If not, contiguous bandwidth cant be used for the application. Non-contiguous bandwidth refers to individual DS0s that are not adjacent, but are routed together through a DCS. Non-contiguous DS0 service fills alternating timeslots of a T1 frame with a fixed eightbit word, referred to as the idle code. The idle code must contain at least two ones within each eight bit word. If Nx64 needs to be used for voice applications, and the service provider doesnt offer B8ZS line coding, non-contiguous service must be used because it maintains the T1 ones density requirement. However, it is not appropriate for fractional data applications because bandwidth for data must be contiguous (see Figure 2). The T1 span between the customer premises and the service provider office remains physically and electrically the same for FT1 service. FT1 service uses the same coding and framing techniques as standard T1 service. The customer installs T1 multiplexers to bring their individual DS0s up to T1 (1.544 Mb/s) speed. If future channels are needed, the service provider can provision as needed.

Nx56 kb/s or Nx64 kb/s


Users must select between Nx56 or Nx64 kb/s, depending on the line coding supported by the service provider. Nx56 kb/s is typically offered if the service provider uses alternate mark inversion (AMI) line coding, in which only 56 kb/s of the 64 kb/s DS0 is used for customer data. The remaining bandwidth is filled by the forced insertion of ones to maintain ones density. This reduces throughput, but allows fractional service to be provided on a T1 span using AMI. Nx64 kb/s service is offered if the provider has incorporated bipolar eight zero substitution (B8ZS) line coding into their T1 network. B8ZS allows for utilization of the entire FT1 bandwidth by eliminating the forced insertion of ones.

Contiguous
F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
*Inactive Channels (5-24) are filled with an idle code (00110000)

Contiguous or Non-Contiguous DS0s


Finally, users must select either contiguous or non-contiguous DS0s. Contiguous bandwidth is DS0s that are routed together end-to-end to support applications greater than 56 or 64 kb/s. Applications such as data and video often require contiguous bandwidth throughout the T1 network, eliminating any delay

Non-Contiguous
F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
*Inactive Channels (2, 4, 6, 8-24) are filled with an idle code (00110000)

Active Channel:

Inactive Channel:

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T1/FT1 Testing

Causes of T1 Impairments
There are four main causes of T1 impairments: 1. Faulty Equipment. Any T1 equipment can cause errors when components fail or operate outside of specification. Errors that may suggest faulty equipment include bipolar violations (BPVs), bit errors, frame errors, jitter, slips, and excess zeros. For example, BPVs can occur due to faulty clock recovery circuitry in span repeaters. These errors occur as the equipment becomes older and begins to drift out of specification. 2. Improper Connections. Transmission errors are created by improper connections or configurations. For example, intermittent errors can occur when component or cable connections are loose, and timing errors can occur when improper or conflicting timing sources are connected together. Dribbling errors are often caused by loose or unconnected shield ground cables and by bridge taps. Further, upon installation, the circuit may not work at all due to mislabeled pins on terminating cable blocks and to crossed wires: transmit-to-transmit instead of transmit-to-receive. These errors are typically discovered upon circuit installation and possibly during circuit acceptance when end-to-end tests are performed. 3. Environmental. Electrical storms, power lines, electrical noise, interference, and crosstalk between transmission links can cause BPVs as well as bit, frame, and CRC errors. Typically, these conditions cause intermittent, bursty errors, which are among the most difficult to locate. Although the cause of these impairments is obvious, the one thats difficult to pinpoint is crosstalk. Crosstalk is sometimes caused by improperly separated cable pairs. Transmit and receive pairs should be between 25 and 100 pairs apart.

4. Data Specific. Data characteristics, such as repetitive patterns, can force equipment to create pattern-dependent jitter and code errors. These errors may not exist when testing the transmission path with standard pseudorandom patterns. For example, span repeaters regenerate the digital signal and recover timing from the bipolar signal. To facilitate timing recovery, there must be a sufficient number of transitions (e.g., no more than 15 consecutive 0s), otherwise, the repeater cant properly recover timing from the signal.

Techniques and Measurements


To analyze a T1 circuits performance and to isolate the causes of degraded service, the test instrument must perform these four basic types of measurements. 1. Installation. When installing a T1 circuit, out-of-service testing helps verify equipment operation and end-to-end transmission quality. Begin by testing the equipment (e.g., channel banks, multiplexers), and then verifying cable connections, timing source selections, and frequency outputs. After qualifying the circuit end-to-end, each CSU is looped back to ensure that it responds to both loopup and loop-down codes and to verify that the circuit operates properly at each end. 2. Acceptance Testing. In addition to the tests performed during installation, stress tests and timed tests should be performed to ensure that the T1 is operating according to the relevant T1 circuit specifications. Stress the equipment by injecting errors, jitter, and data patterns (either pseudorandom or fixed) into T1 equipment. The same procedure may be performed end-to-end to stress the entire T1 circuit. Timed tests with printouts should be performed over a 24- or 48-hour period using standard pseudorandom patterns to simulate live data. This is described more fully in Application 2.

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T1/FT1 Testing
CSU

3. Preventive Maintenance. Once live data is transmitted across the T1 circuit, preventive maintenance tests are strongly recommended. Preventive maintenance can alert technicians to degrading service before it disrupts normal operations, and involves monitoring the live data for BPVs, frame errors, CRC errors, and signal frequency measurements that provide information about the performance of the T1 circuit. These tests should be performed with printouts over a 24- or 48-hour period to detect time-specific or intermittent errors. This is described more fully in Application 1. 4. Fault Isolation. Fault isolation is required once excessive error rates disrupt service. This can be performed using both in-service and outof-service tests. In-service testing provides general information, and can be used before out-ofservice analysis to localize problems and minimize circuit downtime. Monitoring the circuit at various points enables technicians to analyze the results and determine the source of problems. Performing standard out-of-service tests (e.g., loopback and end-to-end tests) enables technicians to stress the equipment, find sources of errors, and verify proper operation once the trouble is repaired.

Application 1: In-Service Analysis of Live Traffic


This application describes using the FIREBERD 6000 to evaluate the general performance of a T1/FT1 span. This application is useful for the following: Performing periodic maintenance, and when looking for transmission degradations before they affect service. Analyzing the span for intermittent errors that are caused by faulty equipment or environmental influences. Analyzing the data stream for data-specific errors (i.e., impairments caused by the data itself). Analyzing T1/FT1 circuits that cant be taken outof-service. Localizing the problem and minimizing circuit downtime. To derive all of these benefits, the FIREBERD 6000 may be configured to monitor the T1 circuit from nearly any T1 access point. Figure 3 shows a typical circuit and possible monitoring locations. Once monitoring

Figure 3 Possible FIREBERD monitoring locations.

DSX-1 MON O R

DSX-1 MON O R

CSU

T1 Network

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T1/FT1 Testing

begins, look for BPVs, bit slips, frame errors, CRC errors (for ESF framed circuits), associated rates, and alarm conditions. These results are helpful in isolating the cause of the problem. See Appendix B, on page 19, for information on configuring the FIREBERD for in-service analysis.

Other In-Service Tests


Identifying Active and Idle Channels
You may also perform installation tests with the T1/FT1 Interface Module. With the AUTO CHANNEL function, you can verify the active and idle channels of a FT1 circuit. To do this, program the DCSgenerated idle code into the 41440As IDLE code function and then select AUTO CHANNEL in the FT1 mode menu. This function then scans all 24 channels for the idle code and determines which channels are active and which are idle.

Check for Proper Operation


Now that the FIREBERD 6000 is monitoring the T1 span, verify that its operating properly and providing accurate results by observing the two indicators on the right side of the front panel. Table 1 highlights common error indications, along with possible reasons and solutions.

Indicator GEN CLK illuminated SYNC not illuminated

Reason No receiver clock detected by the FIREBERD circuitry. FIREBERD isnt synchronized to the incoming pseudorandom pattern.

Solution Check cabling. Verify proper connections to a valid T1 circuit. Try new cable. If performing an end-to-end test with two FIREBERDs, verify that both sets are transmitting the same data pattern. Check FRM SYNC, MK, and SP indicators. If they still dont illuminate, perform SELF TEST. Check cabling. Verify connections.

SYNC LOST illuminated FRM SYNC not illuminated

Indicates history of signal loss when in LIVE mode. Signal is unframed, or synchronization to the specified framing hasnt been achieved.

Verify all control settings (especially the framing format) and connections. If unit still doesnt achieve synchronization to the framed signal, perform SELF TEST.

Table 1 Common alarm and error indications.

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T1/FT1 Testing

Monitoring Performance Report Messages


The T1/FT1 Interface Module with ANSI T1.403 PRM Option (Option 6009) also enables the FIREBERD to transmit and decode ANSI T1.403 Performance Report Messages (PRMs). ANSI standard T1.403 (1989) is a technical report that addresses ESF performance monitoring. In T1.403 mode, in-service performance results can be monitored from end-toend of the terminated T1 line. Overhead bits from the extended superframe (ESF) form an 8 kb/s data link channel that provides performance results. The ESF datalink enables scheduled PRMs, unscheduled priority messages, and command/ response messages to be transmitted and received across the T1 line without interfering with the DS0 channels. ANSI T1.403 PRMs allow both carrier and service users non-intrusive tests, and provide reports on the previous three seconds and the current second, by using the information contained in the ESF datalink. PRMs are scheduled messages that provide continuous T1 signal performance monitoring between terminating devices. They provide information on CRC error events, severity of frame errors, the occurrence of BPVs, controlled slips, and whether the far-end or near-end is in payload loopback. PRMs are recalculated at each terminating device (e.g., MUX, DSU, CSU, etc.). Therefore, they dont indicate end-to-end performance they indicate performance between the user and the next piece of equipment. This analysis is useful for sectionalizing a problem to the transmit or receive leg of a line. Most CSUs can be configured to transmit PRMs, but they dont have the facilities to decode and present the received PRM information. This is left up to T1.403 compatible test sets like the FIREBERD 6000, or devices such as T1 monitor units (MU). The FIREBERD 6000 connects to the DS1 through the DSX monitor jack to

analyze the T1 signal, decode the PRMs, and present performance information on its front panel. Refer to the T1 ESF PRM Network Testing Application Note for more information on PRMs.

Results Analysis
The FIREBERD 6000 will accumulate all results simultaneously. The desired results can be achieved using the appropriate CATEGORY and RESULTS switches. Refer to Figure 4, on the next page, to find your location along the T1 span, and check your location with Table 2, on the following page, to find possible causes of problems. Every T1 system is different, and may not be susceptible to the noted cause.

Application 2: Out-of-Service Testing


This application provides performance information about a T1/FT1 circuit using pseudorandom data. It is useful for the following: Installing T1/FT1 circuits and verifying end-toend continuity. Isolating T1/FT1 circuit faults by inserting pseudorandom patterns and interpreting results. Performing acceptance tests, including timed and stress tests. Errors found through this analysis may be caused by faulty equipment, improper connections, environmental influences, or data content. To find these errors, monitor bit errors, average bit error rate (AVG BER), bit slips, error-free seconds (EFS), percent error-free seconds (% EFS), etc., results that are all measured simultaneously. These results will help in isolating the cause of the problems.

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T1/FT1 Testing

DSX-1
MON

DSX-1
MON

CSU

O R

T1 Network

O R

CSU

Figure 4 Monitoring Locations.

Location For Figure 4 (A)

Results Bipolar Violations

Results Displayed Problem/Solution By FIREBERD BPVs Local problem. Possibly bad cabling connections between test set and circuit, corroded dirty cable plugs, or a defective CSU. Frequencies that are out-of-range may affect jitter tolerance and noise margins, or they may cause error bursts and timing slips. Network problem, due to inconsistent timing through out the network. Check timing recovery in the DCS. Also may be due to incorrect optioning on CSUs and channel banks. Local T1 span problem. Possible faulty repeater, span line noise, crosstalk, poor cabling, or defective DSX jacks.

(A) or (B) or (C)

Receive Frequency Offset Bit Slips

RCV FREQ Offset 75 b/s

(B)

BIT SLIPS

(B) or (C)

Bipolar Violations, Frame Errors, or CRC Errors Bipolar Violations, Frame Errors, CRC Errors, or Excess Zeros

BPVs FRA ERR, CRC ERR

(B) or (C) Table 2 Correlation of results and problem causes.

BPVs FRA ERR, CRC ERR XS0s

Local T1 span problem due to marginal timing recovery during periods of excess zeros. Check repeaters, multiplexers.

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T1/FT1 Testing
Table 2 Correlation of results and problem causes. (Continued)
O R CSU Rx Tx FIREBERD 6000

Location For Figure 4 (C)

Results

Results Displayed Problem/Solution By FIREBERD Local T1 span problem.

Bipolar BPVs, No FRA Violations, ERR, CRC ERR No Frame Errors, or CRC Errors No Bipolar Violations, Frame Errors, or CRC Errors No Bipolar Violations, Frame Errors, CRC Errors, or Excess Zeros No BPVs, FRA ERR, CRC ERR

(C)

Typically far-end span line problem. Sectionalize further. Potential for light guide, radio, or Violation Monitor Removal (VMR) equipment in network.

(C)

No BPVs, FRA ERR, CRC ERR, XS0s

Typically far-end span line problem, often due to signal generator transmissions that dont meet pulse density specifications. First, verify signal generator operation, then check repeaters and multiplexers.

There are basically two methods of performing out-of-service testing: loopback testing and end-to-end testing. The FIREBERDs configuration is similar for both types of testing. The two major differences are: equipment needed and the establishment of a loopback, addressed in the following sections.

End-to-End Testing
End-to-end testing is performed with two FIREBERDs so that analysis may be performed simultaneously in both directions. Figure 5 shows that basic setup of an end-to-end test. This method provides advantages over loopback testing because the direction of errors can be more quickly isolated, and it allows you to determine whether the transmit or receive leg is faulty.

Figure 5 Basic setup for an end-to-end test.


DSX-1 MON O R DSX-1 MON

CSU

T1 Network

Tx Rx FIREBERD 6000

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T1/FT1 Testing

Loopback Testing
Loopback testing is performed with one FIREBERD. Figure 6 shows the basic setup of a loopback test. If CSU loopbacks are established to perform the test, its important to realize that the far-end CSU in loopback affects the results. By design, most CSUs (like many other pieces of transmission equipment) remove received BPVs, frame errors, and other errors before transmitting the data. This affects analysis interpretation because the nearend technician wont be aware of BPVs on the far-ends metallic loop, and may draw inconclusive results. NOTE: If excessive jitter exists on either side of the T1 circuit, synchronization to the pseudorandom pattern may be impossible. Instead, use the end-toend technique. A variety of devices may be looped with the T1/FT1 Interface Module, such as the (NIU) smart jack or the CSU. Another loopback used for testing a FT1 circuit is the V.54 loopback. This allows the FIREBERD to loop up only certain channels in a FT1 circuit. A CSU loopback loops all 24 channels, eliminating the isolation of certain DS0s from a fractional circuit. Instead, a V.54 loopback only loops back specific channels. For example, assume there is a problem with video conferencing on a circuit that contains both video and Private Branch Exchange (PBX) traffic. The PBX traffic must remain in-service, therefore you only want to test your video circuit (channels 1-4). This can be accomplished by setting only these channels for TX/RX in a FT1 Insert Mode and then choosing a V.54 loop type. Now a BERT can be performed on channels 1-4 without disrupting traffic on the remaining DS0s.

Creating a Loopback
There are three methods of creating a loopback: 1. Press the LOOP UP switch on the FIREBERD front panel (loop-up code 1:4, also referred to as 1000). The LED within the switch will be illuminated while the loop-up code is being sent. When the FIREBERD detects a successful loop, the LED is extinguished and the FIREBERD stops sending the loopcode. This prevents the near-end CSU from looping up and locking the FIREBERD out of the span under test. 2. Program and send a facility or special, equipment-specific loop-up code such as 2:2 (also referred to as 1100) or 1:5 (also referred to as 100000). Use AUX function 33 and the PGRM DATA switch to program and send codes. 3. Manually enable a loopback at the far-end CSU. After testing is completed, remove the loopback on the remote CSU by one of three methods: 1. Press the LOOP DOWN switch on the FIREBERD front panel (loop-down code 1:2, also referred to as 100). 2. Program and send a facility or special, equipment-specific loop-down code such as 3:1 (also referred to as 1110) or 1:3 (also referred to as 100). Use AUX function 33 and the PGRM DATA switch to program and send codes. 3. Manually disable a loopback at the far-end CSU.

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T1/FT1 Testing

DSX-1 MON O R

DSX-1 MON O R

CSU

T1 Network

CSU

Tx Rx FIREBERD 6000

Figure 6 Basic setup for a loopback test.

FIREBERD Testing Modes


Use the T1/FT1 Interface Module to configure the FIREBERD to operate in a variety of different testing modes, such as Full T1 (FULLT1) or FT1. For FT1 testing, the FIREBERD can be configured to test in FRACT1 or FT1INS mode depending on the application.

Test Loopback Mode


The FIREBERD can be optioned to behave as a repeater or CSU for end-to-end testing. In the Test Loopback (TLB) mode, the FIREBERD emulates a CSU or a channel bank in digital loopback. All received data is echoed on the transmitter output and the received signal is analyzed by the FIREBERD data receiver. BPVs and B8ZS coding are stripped from the received signal, and the outgoing signal is re-timed and re-encoded with AMI or B8ZS according to the CODE menu selection.

Fractional T1 (FRACT1) Mode


This mode allows data to be transmitted and received at any FT1 rate of Nx64 kb/s or Nx56 kb/s (N = 1 to 24) on any selection of contiguous and noncontiguous timeslots. In this mode, you can configure individual channels to transmit, receive, or both.

Line Loopback Mode


In Line Loopback Mode (LLB), the FIREBERD emulates a repeater. All data received is echoed unchanged on the transmitter output. The received data is analyzed, but no re-coding or error insertion is available. Performing an end-to-end BER test in both TLB and LLB mode determines the direction of faulty equipment. If errors occur in LLB, but not in TLB, then the transmit leg of FIREBERD No. 1 is faulty. Likewise, if FIREBERD No. 1 sees errors while FIREBERD No. 2 is in the TLB mode, then the receive leg of FIREBERD No. 1 is faulty.

Fractional T1 Insert (FT1INS) Mode


This mode enables the insertion of a BERT pattern on any combination of selected Nx64 kb/s or Nx56 kb/s timeslots without disrupting traffic on the remaining timeslots. FT1INS differs from FRACT1 operation because it doesnt disturb live data on the unselected timeslots, whereas in FRACT1 idle codes are sent over these unused timeslots. The AUTO selection is disabled in the FT1INS MODE.

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T1/FT1 Testing

Additional Applications
1. Once transmission level tests have been performed, further analysis can be performed by a protocol analyzer. By setting the T1/FT1 Interface Module to operate in a RS-232 mode, access is provided to either a 64 kb/s DS0 channel (CHAN mode) or to the ESF data link (DATLINK mode). The desired channel may then be dropped and inserted to an external device. 2. The FIREBERD can perform payload and datalink BER tests. Out-of-band Data Link Line Loopback (DL-LLB) loop codes can also be transmitted and recognized by the FIREBERD on the ESF data link. These codes are transmitted to the far-end equipment to place the far-end equipment into a line loopback. In contrast, out-of-band Data Link Payload Loopback (DL-PLB) loop codes are transmitted and recognized by the FIREBERD on the ESF data link. This code is transmitted to the farend equipment to place the far-end equipment into a payload loopback. The CSU loops back the payload data, reframes the signal, and recalculates the CRCs. 3. Monitoring voice traffic may also be accomplished with the FIREBERD in VOICE mode. The user may now check the integrity of the circuit by inserting and monitoring voice traffic and monitoring and transmitting signaling bits on individual channels within the T1/FT1 bit stream. Using this mode gives a quick check of the integrity of the circuit and verifies proper signaling sequences. This is accomplished by dropping an analog signal from an external device with the handset connector. For example, you may set the signaling bits for on-hook and then verify that proper off-hook bits are being returned. When monitoring ABCD signaling bits, the FIREBERD extracts the ABCD signaling bits from a single DS0 in the incoming data.

Timing Analysis
Reference T1
The T1/FT1 Interface Module also allows you to determine bit slips, using the REFT1 connector. Bit slips are determined by comparing the timing of the T1 span under test with a reference T1 span on the other side of the network. REFT1 allows you to select the input impedance and signal conditioning for the T1 reference signal: the two input impedances are terminating (TERM) and bridge (BRDG). TERM is used when terminating the T1 reference input with 100 and accepting a relatively unattenuated (+6 through -6 dB) T1 reference. BRDG, which allows monitoring of reference T1 lines that are already terminated, uses an impedance greater than 1000 . These results are helpful in isolating timing problems within the network.

Results Analysis
As long as the indicators are illuminated as shown in Figure 7 , the FIREBERD will accumulate all results simultaneously. The desired results can be retrieved using the appropriate CATEGORY and RESULTS switches. Once the results are known, its possible to isolate the cause of degraded service. Every T1 system is different, so it is nearly impossible to list all of the causes. Table 3 shows various result combinations and possible problem causes.

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T1/FT1 Testing
Table 3 Correlation of out-of-service results and problem causes.

RECEIVER MK SP SYNC SYNC LOST

FRM SYNC CODE ALM 1 ALM 2 LOOP UP LOOP DOWN

Illuminated for framed circuits only

Illuminated for B8ZS only

Figure 7 Indicators.

Indicates signal present

Result

Results Displayed By FIREBERD

Problem

Bit Errors Bipolar Violations Bit Errors

BIT ERRs BPVs BIT ERRs

Check the entire span by isolating sections and testing. Check the last repeatered span before your present location. BPVs are present only on metallic loops and are removed before the data is retransmitted by practically every piece of transmission equipment except repeaters. Frequencies that are out of range may affect jitter tolerance, temperature tolerance, and noise margins; they may also cause error bursts, cyclic frame losses, and timing slips. Indicates an out-of-frame (OOF) condition, declared when two out of five framing bits are missed. A Red Alarm is declared when an OOF condition exists for more than 2.5 seconds and is defined as a locally detected failure. A Yellow Alarm is transmitted in the opposite direction. If youre counting clock slips and not frame losses, youre observing a controlled slip typical of DCS and other buffering equipment that maintains framing integrity. Frequency offsets may also cause controlled slips. Observe the FRA LOSS and RCV FREQ measurements. Check timing sources and verify that multiplexing and demultiplexing equipment is operating properly.

Generator Frequency Offset Receiver Frequency Offset Frame Sync Loss Bit Errors Synchronization Loss

GEN FREQ Offset 75 b/s RCV FREQ Offset 75 b/s FRA LOSS BIT ERRs SYN LOSS

Bipolar Violations Clock Slips Receive Frequency Offset No Frame Sync Losses Slips

BPVs CLK SLIPS RCV FREQ Offset 75 b/s No FRA LOSS BIT SLIPS

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T1/FT1 Testing

Result

Results Displayed By FIREBERD

Problem

Frame Sync Loss Clock Slips Bit Slips

FRA LOSS CLK SLIPS BIT SLIPS

If youre measuring frame losses and clock slips, youre observing an uncontrolled slip typical of satellite downlink receivers and other buffering equipment that doesnt distinguish between frame and data bits. Verify that multiplexing and demultiplexing equipment is operating properly. Check the last repeatered span before your present location. Problems may be caused by faulty clock recovery circuitry in repeaters. Sectionalize further. Check circuits specifications and tariff for BER standards. For some carriers, the BER should not exceed 1 x 10-2 for more than 2.5 seconds. This equals 38,600 bit errors in 2.5 seconds for a 1.544 Mb/s circuit. Check circuits specifications and tariff for error performance standards. For some carriers, 15 minute intervals with more than 300 errored seconds may be reported as trouble. Check circuits specifications and tariff for performance level standards. A common, acceptable level is 95% EFS over a 24-hour period.

Bipolar Violations Clock Slips Excess Zeros Bit Error Rate

BPVS CLK SLIPS XS0s BER

Errored Seconds Table 3 Correlation of out-of-service results and problem causes. (Continued)

ERR SEC

Percent Error-Free Seconds

% EFS

Fault Isolation
To localize problems, break the T1 circuit into manageable sections, one step at a time, as shown in Figure 8. In Stage 1, verify that errors are occurring somewhere in the circuit. In Stage 2, test a section of the circuit and circle in on the source (or sources) of

errors. If errors still occur at Stage 2, at least one of the sources is between your location and the far- end. Test the span section between Stage 1 and Stage 2 to make sure you havent missed any sources of errors. Before determining that the circuit is good, test it one more time endto-end for verification.

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T1/FT1 Testing
FIREBERD 6000

DSX-1 MON O R

DSX-1 MON O R

CSU

T1 Network

CSU

Tx Rx FIREBERD 6000 Stage 1

Rx Tx FIREBERD 6000 Stage 2

Rx Tx FIREBERD 6000 Stage 3

Figure 8 Sectionalizing a T1 circuit.

Testing Options
To fully evaluate the performance of your circuits, there are three additional testing options you can perform. These are Live Data Emulation, Stress Testing, and Transmission Delay Analysis.

Stress Testing
The live data emulation procedure doesnt necessarily stress the T1 circuit. Whether or not errors were found using the QRSS pattern, the T1 circuit should be tested from one end to the other with various stress patterns to see how the T1 circuit reacts. Equipment thats operating on the borderline of specification may prove faulty when stressed with one of the patterns listed in Table 4. This table lists stress patterns that may also be used for out-of-service testing, and the purpose for using each pattern. If errors occur using these stress patterns, use the isolation technique described previously in Fault Isolation to break the circuit into sections and pinpoint the cause to a specific span section or piece of equipment.

Live Data Emulation


When transmitting the quasi-random signal source (QRSS) pattern, the FIREBERD emulates digitally-encoded voice signals across all 24 channels of the T1 circuit. The QRSS pattern is a 220-1 pseudorandom pattern with 14-zero suppression. Other pseudorandom patterns may be used to stress clock recovery and other T1 equipment circuitry.

16
T1/FT1 Testing

Pattern 2047 215-1

Description 2047-bit (211-1) pseudorandom pattern that generates a maximum of 10 sequential zeros and 11 sequential ones. Used to test DDS circuits and other circuits operating at 56 kb/s. 32,767-bit pseudorandom pattern that generates a maximum of 14 sequential zeros and 15 sequential ones. Compatible with CCITT Recommendations O.151 (at 64, 1544, 2048, 3152, and 6312 kb/s) and G.703. Provides the maximum number of zeros allowed for framed, non-B8ZS testing. 1,048,575-bit pseudorandom pattern that generates a maximum of 19 sequential zeros and 20 sequential ones. Used on T1 applications to stress circuits with excess zeros. Pattern cannot be used to test asynchronous circuits. 8,388,607-bit pseudorandom pattern that generates a maximum of 22 sequential zeros and 23 sequential ones. This pattern cannot be used to test asynchronous circuits. Provides a fixed Mark only (All Ones) test pattern. The pattern is used as a keep alive, idle, or Red Alarm pattern in some circuits. Fixed pattern that generates 1 Mark for every 7 Spaces. The pattern is used to stress the 12.5% ones density requirement for T1-type circuits. This pattern cannot be used to test asynchronous circuits. Fixed pattern that generates 3 Marks separated by 3 Spaces and 15 consecutive Spaces in every 24 bits transmitted. The pattern generated appears as: 1000 1000 1000 0000 0000 0000. Its used to test the excess zeros requirement for T1-type circuits. This pattern can not be used to test asynchronous circuits. Long User 72-octet pattern. Useful for stress testing of the repeater preamplifier and automatic line build-out (ALBO) circuitry. Detects marginal equipment using rapid transitions from a low ones density to a high ones density. Long User 96-octet hex pattern. Used for empirical stress testing of T1 circuits and equipment. Variation on a Long User 54-octet hex pattern. Used for empirical stress testing of T1 circuits and equipment.

220-1

223-1

MARK

1:7

3 in 24

T1-1

T1-2 Table 4 Pseudorandom patterns for stress testing.

T1-3

17
T1/FT1 Testing
Table 4 Pseudorandom patterns for stress testing. (Continued)

Pattern T1-4 T1-5 T1-6

Description Long User 120-octet hex pattern. Used for empirical stress testing of T1 circuits and equipment. Long User 53-octet hex pattern. Used for empirical stress testing of T1 circuits and equipment. Long User 55-octet hex pattern. Used for empirical stress testing of T1 circuits and equipment. Not available in asynchronous timing mode. Test pattern commonly used in T1 installations and turn-ups. Long User 55-octet hex test pattern. Same as T1-6, except that byte 7 is 80 instead of 00. For this reason, the FIREBERD 4000 defaults its USER 1 pattern to the T1-6 stress pattern. T1 Milliwatt. Long User Pattern digitized 1004 Hz tone with a 0 dBm0 level on one DS0 channel. This pattern length is 238 bytes. Standard tone (-law) used in Voice Frequency (VF) testing. Long User Pattern of 100 octets with all ones (11111111), followed by 100 octets with all zeros (00000000). Stresses any DDS circuits minimum and maximum power requirements for signal recovery. Cannot be used in asynchronous timing mode. Long User Pattern of 100 octets of 01111110, followed by 100 octets of all zeros. Simulation of an HDLC packet frame. Cannot be used in asynchronous timing mode. Fixed pattern 01001100. Minimum stress test of a DDS circuit. Cannot be used in asynchronous timing mode. Fixed pattern 00000010. Moderate stress on DDS clock recovery circuits. Cannot be used in asynchronous timing mode. Long User Pattern, consisting of DDS patterns 1-4. A quick test for those wishing to test a circuit with DDS patterns 1-4. Long User Pattern, a 7-octet fixed pattern of 1111 1110 followed by 1 octet of 1111 1111. Simulates a DDS signal transition from IDLE mode to DATA mode. Detects marginal equipment in multipoint applications.

DALY

T1-mW

DDS-1

DDS-2

DDS-3

DDS-4

DDS-5

DDS-6

18
T1/FT1 Testing

Transmission Delay Analysis


Its helpful to measure the round-trip transmission delay of a long-haul T1 circuit. For example, voice echoes, protocol errors due to time-outs, and wander, are all impairments that may indicate changes in a T1 circuits transmission distance. For terrestrial T1 circuits, some carriers guarantee one-way absolute delay of no greater than 100 ms. Refer to your circuits specifications and tariff for details. The FIREBERDs delay measurement is helpful in determining changes to the T1 circuits transmission path. Utilizing the FIREBERDs round-trip delay function on individual DS0s of a FT1 circuit can help you determine which DS0s are being carried along different routes. The route of various DS0s and their associated delay is important for speed-sensitive applications such as video and data. To measure transmission delay, use either the QRSS or 223-1 pattern. Also, use the MENU switch to select the AUXILIARY function. With the keypad, enter the number 31 and press ENTER. This displays the delay function. Then, use the softkeys under each of the following selections: 1. Press START to access the start-of-measurement signal sources. 2. Press the MORE key twice to display additional selections. 3. Press GPATT to select the generator pattern sync pulse. 4. Press the key to return to the previous menu level. 5. Press STOP to access the end-of-measurement signal sources.

6. Press the MORE key twice to display additional selections. 7. Press RPATT to select the receiver pattern sync pulse. The delay measurement circuitry is armed immediately upon completion of the setup, and the DELAY result (available in the SIGNAL category of the ANALYSIS RESULTS switches and displays) is blanked until the measurement is complete. To initiate or repeat this measurement, press the RESTART switch. This setup measures round-trip delays up to 0.67 seconds. See the FIREBERD 6000 Reference Manual for more information.

Conclusion
Transmission testing does not have to be complicated. A T1 transmission test instrument should perform four basic types of measurements: Installation Acceptance testing Preventive maintenance Fault isolation The FIREBERD communications analyzers enable you to perform installation and acceptance tests, ongoing preventive maintenance, and fault isolation on the entire range of T1 and FT1 services. In-service and out-of-service testing are easy to perform by service personnel at all levels.

19
T1/FT1 Testing
RESP:NONE CSU FAC1 DL-PLB FAC2 PRGM MORE PRGM DN: UP/DN HELP 1000 INSERT DELETE LOOPCODE RESP:NONE AUTO NONE Enter 8 bit binary INTERFACE: CONFIG FT1/T1 INTERFACE: IDLE LOOP FT1/T1 RCVBYT idle code pattern 01

Appendix A: T1/FT1 Interface Module (Model 41440A) Menu Tree

INTERFACE: CONFIG

FT1/T1

INTERFACE: IDLE LOOP

FT1/T1 RCVBYT

MODE ERRINS

MORE

MODE: FULLT1

FT1 FRACT1 FT1INS

MODE:

FT1

MODE: VOICE TLB

FT1 LLB

MODE: ESFDL RS232

FT1 T1.403

LOOP:CSU TYPE

FULLT1 FRACT1 FT1INS

RESPND

MORE CH01:TX/RX CH#UP 01X64/01X64 TX/ RX CH01:TX/RX CH#UP AUTO (1...24) 12X64/12X64 TX/ RX 56/64 MORE VOICE SEL< SIG (24...1) TX:01 CH#UP RX:01 CH#DN

MORE RS232 SEL< TX:01<RX:01<64K CH#UP CH#DN T1.403 PRM EMUL: CARR CUST CARR

CH#DN

CH#DN CLRALL (24...1)

CLRALL 56/64

(1...24)

(1...24)

SIG TX:01 ABCD:1010 OFF/ON HELP

RS232 TX:01<RX:01<64K 56/64 DATLINK

LOOP: CSU DL-LLB V.54 MORE

MODE ERRINS

MORE CONFIG: ESF, AMI, TERM FRAME CODE INPUT CONFIG:STD, 0dB, TERM RESULT LBO REFT1 ERRINS: LOGIC OFF IDLE: HELP 01111111 RCVBYTE CHANNEL: CH#UP CH#DN

OFF SINGLE RATE BPV LOGIC L+BPV 1FRAME 2FRAME 3FRAME 4FRAME

MORE OFF ESF D4 SLC AMI B8ZS TERM BRIDGE DSX MON STD LIV 0dB -7.5dB -15dB TERM BRIDGE MORE Enter 8 bit binary idle code pattern

MORE (1...24)

(24...1)

NOTE: SHIFT Key can be used to reverse the direction of CHAN#. Entering of a new page will reset to increment direction.

20
T1/FT1 Testing

Appendix B: Configuring the FIREBERD for T1 In-Service Analysis of Live Traffic


Configure the FIREBERD before cabling to the T1 circuit to prevent T1 circuit disturbances and to obtain accurate measurements. If you perform this analysis frequently on similar circuits, use the STORE/ RECALL function to store all front panel and interface configurations. See the FIREBERD 6000 Reference Manual for more information on this function.

Front Panel Setup


The FIREBERD 6000 is shown in Figure 9 . The numbers in the figure correspond to the front-panel switches that control each configuration activity, as described in Table 5. This section describes only frontpanel switches that are used for in-service monitoring.

FIREBERD MC6000
MARK 1:1 63 511 2047 2047R 2 -1
20 15

COMMUNICATIONS ANALYZER

RECEIVER MK

JITTER MENU GRAPH LIST


MORE

RESTART

SP SYNC

% MASK: 54.0 3.1

BPV Rate E-07


DISPLAY HOLD

SYNC LOST

2 -1 2 -1(A) QRSS PRGM FOX USER DATA GEN CLK


23

ANALYSIS RESULTS

CONTINUOUS SINGLE FRM SYNC CODE ALM 1 ALM 2 LOOP UP LOOP DOWN

ERROR SYNTH INTF BNC 4 5 6 TEST INTERVAL CHAR FORMAT 1 2 3 JITTER PRINT EVENT SHIFT ENTER RECALL/STORE AUXILIARY VOLUME RESULT CATEGORY 7 8 9 SYNTH FREQ INTF SETUP PERFORMANCE TIME SIGNAL T-CARRIER ALARM

ANALYSIS MODE

PRINTER RESULTS

10

-3

SYNC ERROR INSERT SELF LOOP ASYNC RECOVD TIMING MODE

CONTROLS

AUX FUNC IN USE

MENU

OFF/ON

POWER OFF ON

Figure 9 FIREBERD 6000 front panel.

21
T1/FT1 Testing
Table 5 Setting up an in-service test.

Location In Figure 9 1

Switch SELF LOOP

Activity The SELF LOOP switch should be in the OFF position (the red LED within the switch should NOT be illuminated. Interface setup is accomplished by pressing the MENU switch to select the INTF SETUP function and then by selecting displayed parameters with the three softkeys and the MORE key beneath the display. The key on the keypad may be used to move to the previous menu level. After selecting the INTF SETUP function, press the softkey under each of the following selections: a. T1/FT1 to select the T1/FT1 interface. b. CONFIG to access the configuration menu. c. FRAME to select the appropriate framing of your T1 circuit. d. CODE to select the appropriate coding of your circuit. e. INPUT to select receiver termination mode, then: NOTE: This next selection is dependent upon the FIREBERDs cabling location. DSXMON - if cabling to a resistor-isolated monitor jack. BRIDGE - if cabling to wire-wrap pins. f. RESULT to set it to LIV. This eliminates unnecessary results for monitoring live traffic such as bit errors or CRCs.

MENU/INTF SETUP

g. LBO to set the cable loss for the T1 output signal level. 0 dB is recommended. h. REFT1 to set the input impedance to BRIDGE. (Used for monitoring, exhibits an impedance of 100). i. j. MODE to access the MODE menu. FULLT1 to select and monitor the full T1 bandwidth.

k. ENTER to return to the main menu. 3 ANALYSIS MODE Choose one of the two analysis modes: CONTINUOUS - Continuous test. SINGLE - Timed test. Set the test length using the TEST INTERVAL function of the MENU switch.

22
T1/FT1 Testing

Location In Figure 9 4

Switch MENU/TEST INTERVAL

Activity Use the TEST INTERVAL function of the MENU switch to set the BER block length. When the ANALYSIS MODE switch is in the SINGLE position, use the TEST INTERVAL function to set the time interval. Use the GEN CLK switch to select INTF timing. The FIREBERD recovers timing from the T1 signal. Use the PRINT EVENT function of the MENU switch to set the conditions under which a results printout will be generated (choose setting for a specific time interval or on the occurrence of an error condition). If desired, use the RECALL/STORE function of the MENU switch to save this configuration (and up to 10 FIREBERD test configurations) for future retrieval.

GEN CLK

MENU/PRINT EVENT

Table 5 Setting up an in-service test. (Continued)

MENU/RECALL /STORE

A Typical Performance Report Message Test


A typical ANSI T1.403 test is presented below: 1. Configure the T1/FT1 Interface Module. a. Select the appropriate framing (ESF), line coding, etc., for your application. b. Press the MODE softkey to access the MODE menu. c. Press the MORE softkey until T1.403 appears in the display, then select the mode by pressing the softkey below it. d. Press the CUST softkey to select customer generated PRMs. e. Press the key to return to the previous menu. f. Press the CONFIG softkey. g Press the INPUT softkey and select the DSX MON input impedance level.

h. Press the LBO softkey and select the appropriate output level (0dB, -7.5dB, or -15dB). i. Return to the main interface menu. If you perform this analysis frequently on similar circuits, use the STORE/RECALL function to store all front panel and interface configurations. See the FIREBERD 6000 Reference Manual for more information on this function.

Check for Proper Operation


Now that the FIREBERD is monitoring the T1 span, verify that its operating properly and providing accurate results by observing the frame synchronization (FRM SYNC) and pattern synchronization (PAT SYNC) indicators on the right side of the front panel. The FIREBERD is now ready to monitor a T1 circuit. The only remaining operation required is cabling the FIREBERD to the T1 circuit.

23
T1/FT1 Testing
6
RECEIVER MK MARK 1:1 63 511 2047 2047R 2 -1
20 15

Appendix C: Configuring the FIREBERD 6000 for a FT1 Out-of-Service Test


To verify that the FIREBERD 6000 is set up properly before cabling to the circuit, perform a self-loop test and check the indicators. NOTE: The GEN CLK switch must be set to the SYNTH position for proper self-loop operation.

Front Panel Setup


The FIREBERD 6000 is shown in Figure 10. The numbers in the figure correspond to the front-panel switches that control each configuration activity, as described in Table 6. This section describes only frontpanel switches that are used for an out-of-service test.

FIREBERD MC6000
JITTER MENU GRAPH LIST
MORE

COMMUNICATIONS ANALYZER

RESTART

SP SYNC

% MASK: 54.0 3.1

BPV Rate E-07


DISPLAY HOLD

SYNC LOST

2 -1 2 -1(A) QRSS PRGM FOX USER DATA GEN CLK


23

ANALYSIS RESULTS

CONTINUOUS SINGLE FRM SYNC CODE ALM 1 ALM 2 LOOP UP LOOP DOWN

ERROR SYNTH INTF BNC 4 5 6 TEST INTERVAL CHAR FORMAT 1 2 3 JITTER PRINT EVENT SHIFT ENTER RECALL/STORE AUXILIARY VOLUME RESULT CATEGORY 7 8 9 SYNTH FREQ INTF SETUP PERFORMANCE TIME SIGNAL T-CARRIER ALARM

ANALYSIS MODE

PRINTER RESULTS

10

-3

SYNC ERROR INSERT SELF LOOP ASYNC RECOVD TIMING MODE

CONTROLS

AUX FUNC IN USE

MENU

OFF/ON

POWER OFF ON

10

Figure 10 FIREBERD 6000 front panel.

24
T1/FT1 Testing

Location In Figure 10 1

Switch DATA

Activity Use the DATA switch to select the QRSS pattern. Other patterns may be used later to stress the T1 circuit. The ERROR INSERT switch should be in the OFF position (the red LED within the switch should not be illuminated). The SELF LOOP switch should be in the OFF position (the red LED within the switch should not be illuminated). Use the GEN CLK switch to select one of three sources: INTF: The FIREBERD recovers timing from the T1 signal. Use if the near-end mux or channel bank is slave to another clock source (e.g., DCS networks). SYNTH: Timing is generated from the FIREBERDs internal synthesizer. Select the particular frequency with the SYNTH FREQ function of the MENU switch. This is a required setting to perform SELF LOOP. BNC: The FIREBERD 6000 uses an external clock source via the rear panels BNC connector.

ERROR INSERT

SELF LOOP

GEN CLK

MENU/SYNTH FREQ

When the GEN CLK switch is in the SYNTH position, set the synthesizer frequency by using the MENU switch to select the SYNTH FREQ function. After the SYNTH FREQ LED is illuminated, press the MORE key until 1544 kHz is displayed. Press the softkey beneath the display that corresponds to 1544 kHz. Choose one of the following analysis modes: CONTINUOUS: Continuous test SINGLE: Block or timed test. Set the length of a timed test with the TEST INTERVAL function of the MENU switch.

ANALYSIS MODE

MENU/TEST INTERVAL

Use the TEST INTERVAL function of the MENU switch to set the BER block length. When the ANALYSIS mode switch is in the SINGLE position, set the time interval with the TEST INTERVAL function.

Table 6 Setting up a FT1 out-of-service test.

25
T1/FT1 Testing
Table 6 Setting up a FT1 out-of-service test. (Continued)

Location In Figure 10 8

Switch MENU/INTERFACE SETUP

Activity After selecting the INTF SETUP function, press the softkey under each of the following selections: a. T1/FT1 to access the T1/FT1 interface. b. CONFIG to access the configuration menu. c. FRAME to select the proper framing. d. CODE to select the proper line coding. e. INPUT to set receiver termination to TERM (selects 100 of input impedance). f. RESULT to set to STD. g. LBO to select the transmitters line build out. 0 dB is the recommended setting. h. REFT1 to set to BRIDGE (exhibits an input impedance of 100 or greater). key to return to the previous menu. i. MODE to access the MODE menu. j. FT1INS to select and monitor any selection of time slots at a rate of 64 or 56k. Use the CH# UP/DOWN softkeys, the 56/64 and the TX/RX softkeys, to configure each channel individually. k. ERRINS to select a form of error insertion or it may be turned off with the OFF key. key to return to the previous menu. l. MORE to access more of the configuration menu. m. LOOP to select the device to loopback. n. ENTER (on the keypad) to return to the main menu.

MENU/PRINT EVENT

Use the PRINT EVENT function to set the conditions under which a results printout will be generated at specific time intervals or on the occurrence of an error condition. Use the RECALL/STORE function to save this configuration (and up to 10 FIREBERD test configurations) for future retrieval.

10

MENU/RECALL/ STORE

26
T1/FT1 Testing

If you perform this analysis frequently on similar circuits, use the STORE/RECALL function to store all front panel and interface configurations. See the FIREBERD 6000 Reference Manual for more information on this function. Since the FIREBERD is now configured for an outof-service test, make sure that the transmit and receive cables are properly aligned as shown in Figure 11 .

Check for Proper Operation


Now that the FIREBERD is monitoring the T1 span, verify that its operating properly and providing accurate results by observing the FRM SYNC and PAT SYNC indicators on the right side of the front panel.

CSU MON Tx Rx FIREBERD 6000

CSU Tx Rx FIREBERD 6000

T1 Span

Equipment

FIREBERD 6000 Tx Rx

Figure 11 RX and TX cable alignment.


Tx Rx FIREBERD 6000 T R T1 R1 (Rx) (Tx)

27
T1/FT1 Testing
y1

Appendix D: Overview of Jitter Testing

This appendix provides an overview of T1/FT1 testing with the FIREBERD 6000s Jitter options. NOTE: The jitter options are available with the FIREBERD 6000 only. All references to the FIREBERD in this appendix are for the FIREBERD 6000 only. Jitter is the deviation in time between when the pulse transitions occur, when they ideally should occur, and when the digital decoding gear expects them to occur. It is unintentional phase modulation, having both an amplitude and frequency component. The jitters amplitude is the magnitude of the phase deviation; its frequency is a measure of how rapidly the phase changes. Continued and increased jitter can result in errors, bit slips, and total impairment of the digital line.

Jitter is a composite of many wave forms, not specifically sinusoidal. Figure 12 is an example of the various displaced jitter pulses. In this case, eight snapshots, each taken at a fixed interval between the markers y and y1 , form a three-dimensional composite diagram. This figure compares the differences in the position of the pulse over time. It reflects an early arrival time at snapshot 2, while 3 through 7 are late. The figure also reflects a developing cyclic pattern. There are three units by which jitter can be measured: time, phase angle, and digit period. The most convenient is the digit period known as the unit interval (UI), which is also the unit that the FIREBERD measures. UIs are not measured over a single pulse, but instead as they gradually accumulate over a number of pulses. One UI is equivalent to each of the following: 360 degrees, 648 nanoseconds, 100 percent, one bit, and one time slot.

The amount of displacement, which is the jitter, is measured in amplitude (U.I.) and frequency (Hz)

Subsequent Pulses in this case are displaced in accordance with a pattern which approximates a Sine Wave

8 7 6 5 4 3
Elapsed Time

The expected pulse position

2 1
The first observed pulse

Figure 12 Jitter pulses.

A theoretical view point

28
T1/FT1 Testing

(A) Data Sent

+ Threshold (B) Jittered T1 Threshold

Electromagnetic interference (EMI), far-end/ near-end crosstalk, imperfections in regenerators, and the bit stuffing/de-stuffing process can all produce jitter. A form of jitter called wander occurs with phase variations of less than 10 Hz. T1 bit stuffing, environmental impairments, clocking, and transmission path delay variation are normal causes of wander. Jitter causes errors because equipment cant accurately determine the decision threshold. A decision threshold is used to distinguish between a 1 or a 0, or the presence or absence of a pulse. Using midbit sampling, if the pulse is shifted by more than 50 percent of its width (0.25 UI), it will be sampled incorrectly. The validity of the pulse is affected by the amount of jitter. This is illustrated by Figure 13. Jitter analysis is essential to isolating problems on T1/FT1 links. Specific devices within a T1 network, particularly when faulty, tend to introduce jitter at unidentifiable frequencies. Jitter masks have been developed by organizations such as AT&T, Bellcore, and ITU-T, to ensure that transmission equipment vendors conform to jitter tolerance specifications. Jitter tolerance specifies the amount of jitter that can be tolerated at an input before errors start to occur. Performing a spectrum analysis, while simultaneously monitoring for degradation in error performance (bit errors, timing slips, etc.), can link a symptom to its cause. Figure 14 depicts a spectrum analysis plot.

(C) Decision Points

(D) Recovered Clock

(D) Recovered Data

Two Bit Errors

Figure 13 Received T1 signal and clock signals.

28.0

Jitter Amplitude (Unit Intervals Peak-to-Peak)

10.0 8.0 5.0

2.0 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 1 2 10 100 200 300 500 1,000 4K 8K 10K 32K 40K 50K

Figure 14 Widely used jitter masks.

Jitter Frequency (Hz)

29
T1/FT1 Testing

The three standard ways of measuring jitter are: tolerance measurements, intrinsic jitter measurements, and transfer characteristic measurements. When performing a tolerance test, the FIREBERDs jitter amplitude and frequency on the transmitted test pattern is increased in steps between 10 Hz and 40 kHz until the onset of bit errors occurs. If the mask limits are exceeded at every frequency tested, then the tested equipment has adequate jitter tolerance. Intrinsic jitter testing looks at the jitter output without a jitter input signal from the FIREBERD. The jitter output is plotted for frequencies between 40 kHz and 10 MHz. During a transfer characteristic test, jitter is injected at amplitudes of 50/75/100% of the MASK for which the equipment is specified, allowing you to see at what frequencies the mask is exceeded. These results allow you to isolate devices in the network that magnify the jitter they receive in the transmitted signal. Sinusoidal jitter modulation should be used when testing for compliance with specifications. Waveforms such as square and triangle-shaped waves contain harmonics that can exceed the mask, resulting in incorrect specification results.

In-Service Analysis
In-service analysis allows users to test live traffic without introducing disturbances on the lines. This testing method permits users to monitor information about the performance of the T1 system. When monitoring jitter in-service, a spectral analysis of the live data provides a more useful and accurate analysis than an out-of-service test. Figure 15 depicts in-service monitor points. The Wideband Jitter Option (Option 6001) enables the FIREBERD to analyze wideband jitter and look at wideband results, so the T1 that is monitored for alarms and other indications of faulty equipment can be monitored for jitter levels. This analysis of the entire spectrum gives results such as jitter hits (JTR HITs), maximum jitter (MAX JTR) and 1 SEC JTR to see where the timing jitter actually exceeds the user-selectable threshold. The 1 SEC JTR, MAX JTR, and JTR HITS results are found in the SIGNAL category. Wideband jitter analysis can be performed in a variety of ways. Filtering out frequencies less than 8 kHz can further identify the problem. This allows only the high frequencies to pass, giving further insight into problems associated with faulty or marginal span repeaters. Wideband results measure maximum peak-to-peak jitter in 40 frequency bands from 10 Hz to 40 kHz and displays the resulting UIs peak-to-peak. This measurement may be done in one of two ways:

Figure 15 In-service monitor points.

FIREBERD 6000

T1 MUX

CSU

Smart Jack

T1 Repeater

Office Rep.

Office Rep.

DSX-1 T1 NETWORK

MON

MON

MON

MON

Customer Premise

Local Loop

Local Exchange

IXC

30
T1/FT1 Testing

1. Continuously measure 1 of the 40 available frequency bands and constantly update the jitter amplitude at that frequency or, 2. Continuously sweep through all 40 frequency bands. When the sweep is enabled, each jitter value shown in the 40 frequency bands is compared to the measured value of the corresponding frequency. The maximum value is saved until the test restart occurs. The Jitter Spectral Analysis Option (Option 6002) enables the FIREBERD to perform spectral analysis (S/A). In addition to a spectral analysis, S/A and %MASK results can be viewed in the results window. The S/A measures the maximum peak-topeak UI over (N) discrete frequencies. N varies, based on a T1 circuit. The S/A option may be used for both in-service and out-of-service testing.

3. Press S/A to access the spectrum analysis results. a. SWEEP determines the range of the spectrum analysis. b. ON - if set ON, the analysis will cover the entire 10 Hz-40 kHz range. Selecting OFF enables you to select a frequency band. c. FREQ - if you want to look at one specific band in the 10Hz to 40 kHz range. SWEEP should be set to OFF if choosing a specific band. d. PEAK - to find peaks in the spectrum. Used only when SWEEP is enabled. e. PEAKUP - finds the next higher frequency jitter peak. f. PEAKDOWN - finds the next lower frequency jitter peak.

S/A Plot
A jitter S/A should be performed during the installation of a network. This provides a basis for comparison of any future degradations, to this initial jitter analysis. Deviations can then be isolated, subsequently assisting in identifying the problem. Below is an example of a typical intrinsic jitter test: The FIREBERD should be in a Line Loopback (LLB) Mode, if youre using the 41440A Interface. Scroll through the MENU selections and choose the JITTER function. Use the following softkeys: 1. Press HITS to set the decision threshold to count a jitter hit. The range is between 0.1 and 6.5 UI. 2. Press FILTER to determine the range over which the results should be complied. a. FULL softkey for the entire range. b. >8 kHz to isolate frequencies of 8 kHz or higher.

Out-of-Service Analysis
The DS1 Jitter Generation Option (Option 6003) enables the FIREBERD to phase-modulate a T1 signal (using an internally generated waveform, an external waveform, or a combination of both) to produce T1 jitter. Internal timing, the recovered clock, and an external clock source may be used with the jitter generator. Out-of-service testing enables users to accurately assess the quality of a T1 line. The data test pattern used is extremely important when testing jitter. When out-ofservice testing is performed, QRSS is typically used because it represents live data. Fixed patterns, such as 1:7 or 3 in 24, should be used to provide greater stress of clock-recovery circuits and to simulate marginal data content conditions. When testing for jitter tolerance, the error rate should be monitored while input jitter is varied. The FIREBERD may be used to generate jitter onto the T1 span, while performing a BERT test.

31
T1/FT1 Testing

Individual pieces of network equipment, such as muxes, may be tested for acceptance by performing a back-to-back test with a second FIREBERD. If more jitter is seen on the receive leg than the transmit leg, then the equipment is amplifying instead of deleting jitter to the signal. Likewise if the jitter received is less than that transmitted by the FIREBERD, the equipment is attenuating jitter from the signal. This kind of jitter test is further described in the example below. For a tolerance test, FIREBERD No. 1 should be in loopback mode.

5. Press AMP to set the amplitude of jitter inserted. a. UIp-p - to add jitter at a specific amplitude. b. MASK - to add jitter at the pre-chosen mask amplitude. c. XFR50% or XFR75% to add jitter at a percentage of the MASK level.

FIREBERD No. 2
The second FIREBERD can be optioned to work in a thru mode to obtain wideband jitter results. Follow the procedures for out-of-service testing. The FIREBERD should be in a Line Loopback (LLB) Mode, if you are using the 41440A Interface. Then, follow the jitter setup procedures for an intrinsic jitter test. Two of the most common problems caused by T1 jitter are bit errors, or an increase in BER, and timing slips. Bit errors occur when the receiving circuits incorrectly sample the incoming pulse. Refer to the table below for some frequently found results, their causes, and suggested solutions.

FIREBERD No. 1
Scroll through the MENU selections and choose the JITTER function. Use the following softkeys: 1. Press MASK to select the specification of the equipment under test. (Up Arrow). 2. Press GEN to access the jitter generation menu. 3. Press MOD to select a modulation source. a. ON if the modulation source is the FIREBERD. b. SINE for an accurate specificationcompliance result. c. EXT if the external BNC connector (labeled Jitter MOD IN) is the modulation source. If an additional waveform is mixed with the BNC signal, use a SINE wave for an accurate specification-compliance result. 4. Press FREQ to set the frequency band you want to test. a. SWEEP - to generate jitter at all 40 frequency bands. b. HZ - to generate jitter at a specific frequency band. c. to return to the previous menu level.

Results Pattern slips, framing errors, and frame loss.

Problem/Solution Signifies an uncontrolled slip. Usually caused by the overflow of a buffer within an M13 mux.

Pattern slips, Signifies a controlled slip. Usuno framing errors, ally a network timing problem. no frame loss.

Refer to the FIREBERD 6000 Reference Manual for more information on the FIREBERD jitter options.
1995 Telecommunications Techniques Corporation. Telecommunications Techniques Corporation, TTC, and FIREBERD are registered trademarks of Telecommunications Techniques Corporation. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective companies.

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T1/FT1 Testing

Notes

T1/FT1 Testing

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T1/FT1 Testing

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FB T1/FT1 AN - 10/97

SX-1 MON T1 Net work DSX-1 MON O R

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T1/FT1 Testing T1/FT1 Testing


Application Note

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