Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702)

Operating

EXPERIMENT- 1 AIM: -An Introduction to UNIX operating system.


1. UNIX Architecture 2. UNIX Characteristics 3. Types of Terminal 4. Types of Shell Objectives Learn to Introduction of Operating System. Learn about various UNIX architecture, Characteristics and types of terminal and types of Shell.

Tools / Preparation: In the system first required to install Unix/Linux Operating System with the proper drivers. Operating System : The operating system (OS) is the program which starts up when you turn on your computer and runs underneath all other programs - without it nothing would happen at all. In simple terms, an operating system is a manager. It manages all the available resources on a computer, from the CPU, to memory, to hard disk accesses. Tasks the operating system must perform: Control Hardware - The operating system controls all the parts of the computer and attempts to get everything working together. Run Applications - Another job the OS does is run application software. This would include word processors, web browsers, games, etc...

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702)

Operating

Manage Data and Files - The OS makes it easy for you to organize your computer. Through the OS you are able to do a number of things to data, including copy, move, delete, and rename it. This makes it much easier to find and organize what you have.

UNIX HISTORY The UNIX operating system was born in the late 1960s. It originally began as a one man project led by Ken Thompson of Bell Labs, and has since grown to become the most widely used operating system. In the time since UNIX was first developed, it has gone through many different generations and even mutations. Some differ substantially from the original version, like Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) or Linux. Others, still contain major portions that are based on the original source code.

UNIX architecture Hardware Kernel Shell (Command Interpreter) Tools ans Applications (Utilities)

UNIX characteristics Multi user Capability Multi tasking Capability Communication

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Security Portability

Operating

Types of Terminal

Dumb Terminal Consist of a Keyboard and display unit with no memory or disks of its own. Acts as Independent machines.

Terminal Emulation Software that makes PC work like a dumb terminal.

Dial In Terminals Are Telephone lines to connect with the host machines.

Types of Shell

Bourne Shell (sh) This is the original Unix shell written by Steve Bourne of Bell Labs. It is available on all UNIX systems. This shell does not have the interactive facilites provided by modern shells such as the C shell and Korn shell. You are advised to to use another shell which has these features.

C shell (csh)

This shell was written at the University of California, Berkeley. It provides a C-like language with which to write shell scripts - hence its name.

Korn Shell (ksh)

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702)

Operating

This shell was written by David Korn of Bell labs. It is now provided as the standard shell on Unix systems. It provides all the features of the C and TC shells together with a shell programming language similar to that of the original Bourne shell. It is the most efficient shell. Consider using this as your standard interactive shell.

Bourne Again Shell (BASH) Bash is a Unix shell written for the GNU Project. The name of the actual executable is bash. Its name is an acronym for Bourne-again shell, a pun on the name of the Bourne shell (sh) (i.e. Bourne again or born again), an early and important Unix shell written by Stephen Bourne and distributed with Version 7 Unix circa 1978. Bash was created in 1987 by Brian Fox. In 1990 Chet Ramey became the primary maintainer. Bash is the default shell on most Linux systems as well as on Mac OS X and it can be run on most Unix-like operating systems.

Evaluation Observation & Implementation(4) Timely Completion(2) Viva(4) Total(10)

Date:

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702)

Operating

EXPERIMENT- 2 AIM:-Execute Unix/Linux Command and Describe the Output.

Objectives Learn about various UNIX/LINUX command. Tools / Preparation: In the system first required to install Unix/Linux Operating System with the proper drivers. 1). TOUCH Options : No options.

Description: Used to create an empty file or to update the time stamp of an existing file. Output : TOUCH F1 Creates a blank file f1 in present directory. 2). CAT Options : -U: Cause output to be unbuffered. -V: prints normally non-printing characters like

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Space, tab, enter etc. Description: Concatenates and outputs the contents of the given files. Output : CAT F1 Gives the contents of file f1. CAT > F1 Used to enter data into file f1. Ctrl+d used to save the entered data. If a file f1 already exists than a new file is created overwriting previous file. CAT >> F1 Used to concatenate data into file f1 with Previous data. CAT F1 > F2 Used to copy entire content of file f1 to f2. Data of f2 is overwritten if it already exists. CAT F1 >> F2 Used to concatenate data of f1 to f2 with Previous content of f2 safe. 3). LS Options : -A : Display all files and directory including hidden file and directories. . : Current Directory.

Operating

.. : Parent Directory.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) -B : Display non-printing characters in Octal Notation. -D : Display only the directory Names. -L : List long Format of Directory with Time stamp. -M : List Files across Page Seperated by commas. -N : List long format showing user id no. instead of String. -R : List file in reverse alphabetic order or oldest first when used with -T. -T : List File Information stored by most Recent to oldest time stamp. Description: List directory content or file information. Output : LS Output is list of files and directories in present Working directory like D1 f1 f2 LS L Lists all the directories and files in the present Directory with time stamp, user privileges etc. 4). MKDIR Options : -M: Allow the mode to be specified. -P: allows creation of parent directories specified in

Operating

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Directory name. Description: Used to create Directory. Output : MKDIR D1 Creates a directory d1 in present working directory.

Operating

MKDIR -P D1/D2/D3 Creates directoris d1 d2 and d3 with d1 parent of d2 and d2 parent of d3. 5). RMDIR Options : -P: Removes directory and parent directories in all path of directory name. Description: Remove directory. Output : RMDIR D1 Removes directory d1 from present directory. 6). CD Options : No options.

Description: Change directory. Output : CD change present working directory to current directory. CD Path Change present working directory to the specified path. 7). CLEAR

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Options : No option.

Operating

Description: Clear the content of the screen. Output : CLEAR A new screen with prompt appears. 8). CP Options : -I : Prompts to avoid overwriting existing target. -R : Copies contents of directories file to directory target. Description: Copy files to target location. Output : CP F1 D2 Copy the file f1 into directory D2. CP F1,F2,F3 D2 Copy multiple files into directory d2. 9). CAL Options : No option.

Description: Print the calander. Output : CAL Print the calendar of current month. CAL 2008 Print calendar of the year 2008. CAL 03 Print calendar of the 3rd month of current year. 10). HISTORY

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Options : No option.

Operating

Description: Gives all the commands executed by current user in sequential manner. Output : HISTORY Gives all the commands executed till now on Current user. HISTORY || MORE Gives history page wise. 11). CHMOD Options : NNNN: provides absolute octal no. for read, write & Update. WHO: specifies that a user(a), group(g) or other(o) is to be changed. -PERM : Indicates deletion of permission. +PERM : indicates addition of permission. Description: Change the permission mode of the file. Output : CHMOD 777 F1 Gives all the permissions i.e read write and modify to user, group and other for the file f1 CHMOD 700 F1 Gives all the permissions i.e read write and modify to user and no permission to group and other for the file f1. 12).UMASK

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

10

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Options : No option.

Operating

Description: Used to change the default permissions for a file. Permissions calculated as (777 the specified Permissions) i.e 000 for all permission. Output : UMASK 000 Sets the default permissions i.e read write and modify to user, group and other. UMASK 077 Sets the default permissions to i.e read write and modify to user and no permission to group and other. 13). HEAD Options : No options.

Description: Display beginning <n> lines of the file. Output : HEAD F1 Display the beginning 10 lines of file f1. HEAD 2 F1 Display the starting 2 lines of file f1. 14). TAIL Options : No option.

Description: Display last <n> lines of the file. Output : TAIL F1 Display the last 10 lines of file f1.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

11

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) TAIL 2 F1 Display the last 2 lines of file f1.

Operating

15). DATE Options : No option.

Description: Display current date and time or modify the date. Output : DATE Displays the current date. 16). EXPR Options : No option.

Description: Used to do basic arithmetic operation i.e addition, Subtraction, multiplication, division. Output : EXPR 1 + 2 Gives 3 as output. EXPR $A + $B Gives the addition of values of variable A and B. EXPR 2 \* 4 Gives the product of 2 and 4 as output. 17). WHO Options : No option.

Description: Display all the current user who are currently logged on. Output : WHO

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

12

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Name of users which are currently logged into TELNET are displayed with port nos. WHO AM I Name of the user logged in on the same system with port no.

Operating

18). UNAME Options : No option.

Description: It display the version of Operating System. Output : UNAME Gives the version of OS currently being used. 19). FINGER Options : No option.

Description: Display all the detail of all the users. Output : FINGER Displays the additional details I any of the users logged on. 20).CMP Options : -C : Print differing bytes as characters. -I NUM : Ignore the first num bytes of input. -L :Print offsets and codes of all differing bytes. Description: Compares files. Use standard input if a file is - or missing.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

13

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) This command is normally used for comparing binary files, although files can be of any type. Output : CMP F1 F2 Compares file f1 and f2 and returns 0 if files have same content, 1 if a difference is there and 2 if files are inaccessible. 21). COMM Options : -1: suppresses displays of lines unique to file 1 -2: suppresses displays of lines unique to file 2. -3 : suppresses displays of lines unique to file 1 & file 2.

Operating

Description: Compare lines common to the sorted files file1 and file2. Output is in three columns, from left to right: lines unique to file1, lines unique to file2, and lines common to both files. comm is similar to diff in that both commands compare two files. But comm can also be used like uniq; comm selects duplicate or unique lines between 2 sorted files, whereas uniq selects duplicate or unique lines within the same sorted file. Output : COMM F1 F2

Column1 contains data which is unique to file f1, column 2 contains data which is unique to file 2 and column 3 contains data which is common to both the files . 22). SORT Options : -M : merges previously sorted files together -N : uses numerical values as the sorting sequence. -D : sorts according to dictionary rules. -F : ignores case in sorting sequence. -R : sorts in reverse of the normal sorting sequence. -U : eliminates records with duplicate key.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

14

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Description: Sorts the lines in the given file in character order and outputs them. Output : SORT F1 Sorts the content of file f1 in alphabetical order. 23). SPELL Options : -B : checks British spelling of words.

Operating

Description: Lists incorrectly spelled words found in file. Output : SPELL F1 Those words of file f1 which are not spelled Correctly are listed. 24). WC Options : -L : counts no. of lines in a file. -w : counts no. of words in a file. -c : counts no. of characters in a file. Description: Counts no. of lines, words and characters in the file. Output : WC F1 Output is the no. of lines, no. of words and no. of characters in f1. WC C F1 Output is the no. of characters in f1. 25). TTY Output : No option.

Description: Give the terminal devaice name.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

15

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Output : TTY Output is the port to which computer is connected. 26). ECHO Options : No option.

Operating

Description: To print any String. Output : ECHO HELLO Hello ECHO ADDITION OF 4 AND 2 `EXPR 4 + 2` Gives output as : Addition of 4 and 2 is 6. 27). MAN Options : No option.

Description: Display information of particular command. Output : MAN CAT Help of CAT command is displayed. 28). MORE Options :-C : clear the screen and redraw -D : displays errors rather than ringing bell. -S : squeeze multiple blank lines into one blank line. NO. : starts display at specified line no. -F : moves file unconditionally to target. -I : prompts user for combination to avoid overwriting target.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

16

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) NICE : executes command with lower than normal priority. Description: Display the named files on a terminal, one screen full at a time. Output : MORE F1,F2,F3 Displays the contents of file f1, f2 and f3, one screen full at a time. HISTORY || MORE Displays history of commands page wise. 29). PASSWD Options : -D : Delete the password for the user's account.

Operating

Description: Create or change a password associated with a username. Only the owner or a privileged user may change a password. Output : PASSWD IT0748 New password: Confirm password: 30). PWD Options : No option.

Description: Display present working directory. Output : PWD Output is like : Home/it074/d1

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

17

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Which is the present working directory. 31). GREP Options : -C : displays count of the no. of lines containing expression. -L : prints file name of file connecting expression. -I : ignores casing while looking for expression. -V : prints all lines not containing the pattern expression. Description: Scans the given files and displays the lines which match the given pattern. Output : GREP CAT *.SH Displays all the lines containing CAT in all the .SH extension files. 32).PS Options : -A : shows most frequently requested process status. -E : shows information about all currently running processes. -F : generates a full listing for each running process. Description: Display all the current working process. Output : PS Displays all the currently running process. 33). RM Options : -F : removes all files without prompt.

Operating

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

18

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) -I : removes files one at a time by interactive user prompting. -R : removes files recursively including directories. Description: It is used to remove the file. Output : RM F1 Removes file f1 from the directory. RM R D2 Removes directory D2 with its contents if any . 34). SET Options : No option.

Operating

Description: It display the complete list of the environment variable. Output : SET home\it074 IFS Logname=it074 Mail=\var\mail\it074 35). CUT Options : -B : Specify list of positions; only bytes in these positions will be printed. -C : Cut the column positions identified in list. Column numbers start with 1. -D : Use with -F to specify field delimiter as character

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

19

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) c (default is tab); special characters must be quoted. -F : Cut the fields identified in list. -N : Don't split multibyte characters. -S : Use with -F to suppress lines without delimiters. Description: Cut out selected columns or fields from one or More files. Output : WHO || CUT D F Find out who is logged on, but list only login name. 36). READ Options : No option.

Operating

Description: It is used to read values from keyboard and assign it to some variable. Output : READ $A

Whatever value the user enters is assigned to variable A. 37). LN Options : -D : Allow hard links to directories. Available to privileged users. -S : To create a link with to a file in another directory, with the same name. -F: Force the link (don't prompt for overwrite Permission). -I : Prompt for permission before removing files.

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

20

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) -N : Replace symbolic links to directories instead of dereferencing them. f is useful with this option. Description: Used to create links for files, allowing them to be accessed by different names. Output : LN F1 F2 Here F2 refers to or links to file F1. 38). KILL Options : No option.

Operating

Description: Used to kill the process or a job. Output : KILL %3 aborts 3rd job in the system. 39. ALIAS Options : No option.

Description: Lets us define aliases for a particular command. Output : ALIAS L=`LS L` Here, whenever we type l and enter, LS L command gets executed. 40). DIFF Options : -R : Reports all the differences between files with the same name In two different directories. Description: Reports the differences between 2 files, or nothing if the files are identical. Output : DIFF F1 F2

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

21

4th sem I.T.

Gandhinagar Institute of Technology System (140702) Gives differences between file F1 and F2 in same format as COMM command. 41).LOCATE Options : No option.

Operating

Description: Lists all the files on your system with specified keys in their name. Output : LOCATE F Displays names of all those files which contain character f in their name. 42). FIND Options : . : Current directory. -NAME: Specify type of file to be searched. Description: Used to search specific search. Output : FIND. NAME F1 Searches for file F1 in current directory. FIND D1 NAME F1 Searches for file F1 in D1 directory.

Evaluation Observation & Implementation(4) Timely Completion(2) Viva(4) Total(10)

Date:

Pandya Jalpa (120123116020)

22

4th sem I.T.