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Literature 22 Krystal Claire P. Catan November 26, 2012 Forms of Literature 1. POETRY Poetry, form of literature, spoken or written, that emphasizes rhythm, other intricate patterns of sound and imagery, and the many possible ways that words can suggest meaning. The word itself derives from a Greek word, poesis, meaning making or creating. poetry in its simplest definition is organized in units called lines as well as in sentences, and often in stanzas, which are the paragraphs of poetry The way a line of poetry is structured can be considered a kind of garment that shapes and clothes the thought within it. The oldest and most longstanding genres for classifying poetry are epic, a long narrative poem centered around a national hero, and lyric, a short poem expressing intense emotion. Elements: Stanza A unit of lines grouped together Similar to a paragraph in prose Couplet A stanza consisting of two lines that rhyme Quatrain A stanza consisting of four lines Mood The feeling a poem creates for the reader Tone The attitude a poet takes toward his/her subject Imagery Representation of the five senses: sight, taste,touch, sound, and smell Creates mental images about a poems subject Metaphor An implied comparison between two objects or ideas Personification Giving human traits or characteristics to animals or inanimate objects Simile A direct comparison between two objects orideas that uses the words like or as Symbol A word or object thathas its own meaningand represents anotherword, object or idea Alliteration The repetition of aninitial (beginning)sound or consonant intwo or more wordsnext to each other in aline of a poem

Assonance The repetition of avowel sound in two ormore words in the lineof a poem Onomatopoeia A word that imitates anoise or action Refrain The repetition of one or more phrases or line sat certain intervals,usually at the end of each stanza Repetition A word or phrase repeated within a line or stanza Rhyme Scheme The pattern in which end rhyme occurs 2. FICTION literary works of imagination: novels and stories that describe imaginary people and events The latin word fingere to make, shape, from which fiction is derived, is also the spurce of English effigy, feign, figment and figure. Elements: Plot Events that form a significant pattern of action with a beginning, a middle and an end. They move from one place or event to another in order to form a pattern. The plot is also called a narrative.

Author's Role in Plot 1. Plot grows out of the characters. 2. The author is always in control of what happens; fiction manipulates events; it is created. 3. Central focus of the story has to be intriguing Plot Techniques 1. Suspense: Frequently involves dilemma. 2. Flashback: The author waits until the story is moving and then flashes back to reveal biographical data or deep psychological reasons why a character acts as s/he does. It focuses more on why things happen, rather than on what happens. 3. Telescoping: It's a matter of economy. The author can't describe every motion of the character or event during the time the story covers. S/he has to choose the significant and merely suggest the others by saying they happened, without much description 4. Foreshadowing: The outcome of a conflict is often hinted at or "foreshadowed" before the climax and resolution. These clues are usually very subtle; you don't realize they are foreshadowing clues until you've finished the story. Conflict in Plot Plot usually involves one or more conflicts, which are problems that need to be solved. The "movement" towards a solution is what drives the narrative forward, and is what occupies most of the protagonist's time. Here are the major types of conflict: 1. Man's struggle against nature 2. Man against man 3. Man against society 4. Man against himself (i.e. a portrayal of an inner struggle) The first three types are said to be "external conflicts", while the last is "internal conflict".

Setting Setting is defined as the physical location and the time of a story. In short stories, one or both of these elements are often not defined. Mood or Atmosphere The mood is the feeling the reader gets while reading the story. The author helps to create the mood by using carefully chosen descriptive or evocative words. It can be compared to the use of music in films. Examples of mood are: hostile, optimistic, threatening, ominous, bitter, defiant, etc.. Theme The theme is a recurring social or psychological issue, like aging, violence, alienation or maturity. The author or poet weaves the theme into the plot, which is used as a vehicle to convey it. The title of the story or poem is often of significance in recognizing the theme. Symbolism In literature, a symbol is an object, event or a character that's used to represent an abstract idea ; it is something which stands for something else. Symbols are clues to what's going on in the story and often stand for key parts of the theme. A symbol is related to metaphor and simile insofar as it's a type of figurative (indirect/dual) language. The key thing to remember is that readers aren't told that something is a symbol, unlike a metaphor (the flower ofmy love) or a simile (my love is like a flower). A symbol just sits there inside the story... readers are simply expected to understand its symbolic existence. Point of View Different points of view allow for different ways of understanding the characters' motives and events. Characters and Irony 3. DRAMA Drama is a type of literature usually written to be performed. it concerns the written text, or script, for the performance Many of the most honored and influential works of literature around the world have been dramas. Elements: Focus The frame that directs attention to what is most significant and intensifies the dramatic meaning. There are 4 closely related areas of focus: 1. the focus of the scene 2. the focus of the audience 3. the focus of the character 4. the focus of the actor. Tension The force that engages the performers and audience in the dramatic action. Space The personal and general space used by the actors. It focuses on the meaning of the size and shape of distances between actor and actor, actor and objects (props and sets) and actor and audience. Mood The atmosphere created. Mood concentrates the dramatic action and moves the audience in emotionally appropriate directions.

Contrast The use of difference to create dramatic meaning. Contrast is an effective means to emphasise, heighten or intensify. Contrasting colours stand out on the stage. Contrasting sizes, shapes and sounds draw attention. Symbol The use of objects, gestures or persons to represent meaning beyond the literal. Role Taking on a role requires performers to accept the physicality, attitudes and beliefs of the characters they are playing. References: Carlson, Marvin. "Drama and Dramatic Arts." Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.

Volkman, Karen. "Poetry." Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.