Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

# Life on earth probably evolved in water and Living cells are 7095% H2O.

In nature, water naturally exists in all three physical states of matter, solid, liquid and gas. Water is a polar molecule. Its polar bonds and asymmetrical shape give water molecules opposite charges on opposite sides. O2 has four valence orbitals and shared electrons with hydrogen spend more time around the O2 (more electronegative), causing a weak positive charge near Hs. Each water molecule forms a maximum of 4 hydrogen bonds, which keeps water molecules further apart than they would be in the liquid state. So, water is less dense as a solid than it is as a liquid, and consequently ice floats. Heat and Temperature Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Heat is the total kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Calorie (cal) is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. 1Joule = 0.239cal Temperature is a measure of heat intensity due to the average kinetic energy of molecules in a body of matter. Scale Conversion C = 5(F-32)/9 F = 9/5C + 32 K = C + 273 Solution is a liquid that is homogenous mixture of two or more substances. Solvent dissolving agent of a solution Solute substance dissolved in a solution Aqueous solution is a solution in which water is the solvent Water is a versatile solvent owing to the polarity of the water molecule.

Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances Ionic and polar substances are hydrophilic, but nonpolar compounds are hydrophobic. Molecular weight is the sum of the weight of all atoms in a molecule (in Daltons). Mole = Amount of a substance that has a mass in grams numerically equivalent to its molecular weight in Daltons. Molarity = Number of moles of solute per liter of solution. A mole of one substance has the same number of molecules as a mole of any other substance (6.02 x1023; Avogadros number). PH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions. PH = -log10 [H+] mol/L The [H+] in pure water is 10-7; therefore the pH of pure water is = 7 and a lower pH always means a higher concentration of H+. Chemical equilibrium H2CO3 (carbonic acid) HCO3- (bicarbonate) + H+ Substances that prevent large sudden changes in pH are called buffers. Chemical reactions change the composition of matter. Water and the Fitness of the Environment Organisms depend on the cohesion of water molecules. Cohesion is a phenomenon of a substance being held together by hydrogen bonds. Surface tension measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.