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1 Standard Model Lagrangian (including neutrino mass terms) From An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics, 2nd

Edition, W. N. Cottingham and D. A. Greenwood, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, Extracted by J.A. Shiett, updated from Particle Data Group tables at pdg.lbl.gov, 16 Dec 2012. L = 1 B B 1 tr(W W ) 1 tr(G G ) 4 8 ( ) 2 L +( L , e L ) iD +e R iD eR + R iD R + (h.c.) eL [ ( )] 2 L e ( L , e L ) M e eR + e R M eL v [ ( )] 2 T eL (e L , L ) M R + R M L v ( ) uL L ) R iD dR + (h.c.) +( uL , d iD +u R iD uR + d dL [ ( )] 2 d d uL ( uL , dL ) M dR + dR M dL v [ ( )] 2 L , u u T dL (d L ) M u uR + u R M uL v v 2/2]2/2v 2 . +(D )D m2 [
h

(U(1), SU(2) and SU(3) gauge terms) (lepton dynamical term) (electron, muon, tauon mass term) (neutrino mass term) (quark dynamical term) (down, strange, bottom mass term) (up, charmed, top mass term) (Higgs dynamical and mass term) (1) are (2) (3) (4)

= (h.c.) = = T, and the derivative operators where (h.c.) means Hermitian conjugate of preceeding terms, ( ) [ ]( ) ( ) [ ]( ) ig1 ig2 ig1 ig2 L uL uL D L = B + W , D = + B + W + ig G , eL eL dL dL 2 2 6 2 [ ] [ ] i2g1 ig1 D R = R , D eR = [ ig1 B ] eR , D uR = + B + ig G uR , D dR = B + ig G dR , 3 3 [ ] ig1 ig2 D = + B + W . 2 2

is a 2-component complex Higgs eld. Since L is SU(2) gauge invariant, a gauge can be chosen so has the form T = (0, v + h)/ 2 , <>T / 2, (5) 0 = (expectation value of ) = (0, v )
2 2 2 where v is a real constant such that L = ( ) m2 h [ v /2] /2v is minimized, and h is a residual Higgs eld. B , W and G are the gauge boson vector potentials, and W and G are composed of 2 2 and 3 3 traceless Hermitian matrices. Their associated eld tensors are

B = B B ,

W = W W + ig2 (W W W W )/2,

G = G G + ig (G G G G ). (6)

bosons are mixtures of W and B components, according to the weak mixing angle w , The non-matrix A , Z , W + = W = W12 / 2, A = W11 sinw + B cosw , Z = W11 cosw B sinw , W (7) + B = A cosw Z sinw , W11 = W22 = A sinw + Z cosw , W12 = W21 sin2 w = .2315(4). (8) = 2 W ,

The fermions include the leptons eR , eL , R , L and quarks uR , uL , dR , dL . They all have implicit 3-component generation indices, ei =(e, , ), i =(e , , ), ui =(u, c, t), di =(d, s, b), which contract into the fermion mass matrices e u d Mij , Mij , Mij , Mij , and implicit 2-component indices which contract into the Pauli matrices, [( )( )( )( )] 1 0 0 1 0 i 1 0 = , , , , = [ 0, 1, 2, 3 ], tr( i ) = 0, = , tr( ) = 2 . (9) 0 1 1 0 i 0 0 1 The quarks also have implicit 3-component color indices which contract into G . So L really has implicit sums over 3-component generation indices, 2-component Pauli indices, 3-component color indices in the quark terms, and L ),(e L , u , W , ( L ), ( uL ),( eL ), ( dL ), . 2-component SU(2) indices in ( L , e L ), ( uL , d L , L ), (d L ), eL dL L uL

2 The electroweak and strong coupling constants, Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV), and Higgs mass are, g1 = e/cosw , g2 = e/sinw , g > 6.5e = g (m2 ), v = 246GeV (P DG) 2 180 GeV (CG), mh = 125 127GeV (10) where e = 4 hc = 4/137 in natural units. Using (4,5) and rewriting some things gives the mass of A , Z , W , ( ) higher W + + , (11) 1 B B 1 tr(W W ) = 1 A A 1 Z Z 1 W 4 8 4 4 2 order terms A = A A , Z = Z Z , W = D W D W , D W = [ ieA ]W , (12) ( ( ) ( ) ) + W iv ig2 v ig2 v W12 / 2 g2 W12 /2 D <>0 = = = , (13) g B / 2 + g W / 2 2 2 Z / 2 cosw (B sinw /cosw + W22 )/ 2 1 2 22 2 mA = 0, mW = g2 v/2 = 80.425(38)GeV, mZ = g2 v/2cosw = 91.1876(21)GeV. (14) Ordinary 4-component Dirac fermions are composed of the left and right handed 2-component elds, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) eL1 L1 uL1 dL1 e = , e = , u= , d= , (electron, electron neutrino, up and down quark) eR 1 R1 uR1 dR 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) eL2 L2 uL2 dL2 = , = , c= , s= , (muon, muon neutrino, charmed and strange quark) eR 2 R2 uR2 dR 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) eL3 L3 uL3 dL3 = , = , t= , b= , (tauon, tauon neutrino, top and bottom quark) eR 3 R3 uR 3 dR3 ) ( 0 = where + = 2Ig . (Dirac gamma matrices in chiral representation) 0

(15) (16) (17) (18)

c c The corresponding antiparticles are related to the particles according to c = i 2 or L = i 2 R , R = i 2 L . The fermion charges are the coecients of A when (8,10) are substituted into either the left or right handed derivative operators (2-4). The fermion masses are the singular values of the 3 3 fermion mass matrices M , M e , M u , M d , ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ( md 0 0 mu 0 0 me 0 0 me 0 0 d u e d d u u e e , (19) UR , M = UL 0 mc 0 UR , M = UL 0 ms 0 UR M = UL 0 m 0 UR , M = UL 0 m 0 0 0 mb 0 0 mt 0 0 m 0 0 m me = .510998910(13)M eV, me .001 2eV, mu = 1.7 3.1M eV, md = 4.1 5.7M eV, (20) m = 105.658367(4)M eV, m .001 2eV, mc = 1.18 1.34GeV, ms = 80 130M eV, (21) m = 1776.84(17)M eV, m .001 2eV, mt = 171.4 174.4GeV, mb = 4.13 4.37GeV, (22)

where the Us are 33 unitary matrices (U1 = U ). Consequently the true fermions with denite masses are actually linear combinations of those in L, or conversely the fermions in L are linear combinations of the true fermions,
e e L = UL eL , e e R = UR eR , L , = UL L R , = UR R u u L = UL uL , u u R = UR uR , d d L = UL dL , d d R = UR dR , (23) e e u u d d eL = UL eL , eR = UR eR , L = UL L , R = UR R , uL = UL uL , uR = UR uR , dL = UL dL , dR = UR dR . (24) e u d When L is written in terms of the true fermions, the Us fall out except in u W UL dL and L UL W UL eL . L UL Because of this, and some absorption of constants into the fermion elds, all the parameters in the Us are conu d tained in only four components of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix Vq = UL UL and four components of the e Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix Vl = UL UL . The unitary matrices Vq and Vl are often parameterized as ( )( i/2 )( )( i/2 )( ) e 0 0 c13 0 s13 e 0 0 c12 s12 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 s12 c12 0 , cj = 1 s2 V = 0 c23 s23 (25) j, 0 s23 c23 0 0 ei/2 s13 0 c13 0 0 ei/2 0 0 1 q = 69(4) deg, sq sq sq (26) 12 = 0.2253(7), 23 = 0.041(1), 13 = 0.0035(2),

l = ?,

sl 12 = 0.560(16),

sl 23 = 0.7(1),
1

sl 13 = 0.153(28). = U , detU = 1, real,

(27) (28) (29)

L is invariant under a U(1) SU(2) gauge transformation with U

W U W U (2i/g2 )U U , W U W U , B B + (2/g1 ) , B B , ei U , ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) L L uL uL R R , uR e4i/3 uR , i i/3 e U , e U , 2i eL eL dL dL eR e eR , dR e2i/3 dR , and under an SU(3) gauge transformation with V 1 = V , detV = 1, G V G V (i/g )V V , G V G V , uL V uL , dL V dL , uR V uR , dR V dR .

(30)