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Title Acid and Base: Titration Curves Data Collection, Data Processing and Presentation EXPERIMENT 1 Reaction of a strong

acid and a strong base Volume of 1M NaOH added for the reaction, (V) / 0.05 cm3 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 pH of the solution 0.62 0.62 0.67 0.79 0.99 1.10 1.21 1.36 1.63 2.42 11.08 11.42 11.59 11.71 11.80 12.00 12.14 12.20 12.24 Reaction 1M Hydrochloric acid and 1M sodium hydroxide Observation A colourless solution was formed when colourless sodium hydroxide solution was titrated to colourless hydrochloric acid.

Strong Acid - Strong Base Titration


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 volume of NaOH (ml)
The graph of pH against volume of NaOH added during the titration between 25.0 cm3 of 1M HCl against a solution of 1M NaOH is shown above. Near the equivalent point, the pH of the solution jump from about 2.42 to 11.08. The pH at the equivalent point is 6.75 ( 7.0) because NaCl produced is a strong salt which would not be hydrolysed and reacted with water. NaOH + HCl Thus, by considering methyl orange (pKln 9.0)1, both are suitable for indicators.

pH

NaCl + H2O

3.7) and phenolphthalein (pKln

Lim You Sie. Text for PRE-U STPM Chemistry. Selangor: Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd, 2003. (p. 179)

EXPERIMENT 2 Reaction of a strong acid and a weak base Volume of 1M NH3 added for the reaction, (V) / 0.05 cm3 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 pH of the solution 0.02 0.02 0.11 0.22 0.35 0.36 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.45 0.49 0.52 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.80 1.02 1.44 7.83 Reaction 1M Hydrochloric acid and 1M ammonia Observation A colourless solution was formed when colourless ammonia solution was titrated to colourless hydrochloric acid.

Strong Acid - Weak Base Titration


10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 volume of ammonia (ml)
The graph of pH against volume of NH3 added during the titration between 25.0 cm3 of 1M HCl against a solution of 1M NH3 is shown above. Near the equivalent point, the pH of the solution jump from about 1.44 to 7.83 and it can be seen that it requires double volume of NH3 for obtaining complete graph. The pH at the equivalent point can be deduced as 4.64 because NH4Cl produced is an acidic salt which would be hydrolysed and reacted with water to leave excess H3O+ ions. NH4OH + HCl NH4+ + H2O

NH4Cl + H2O NH3 + H3O+

Thus, by considering methyl orange (pKln 3.7) and phenolphthalein (pKln 9.0)2, only methyl orange is suitable for indicators.

Ibid.

EXPERIMENT 3 Reaction of a weak acid and a strong base Volume of 1M NaOH added for the reaction, (V) / 0.05 cm3 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 pH of the solution 2.68 4.03 4.42 4.73 5.08 5.17 5.28 5.41 5.58 5.84 6.45 11.26 11.59 11.75 11.85 12.09 12.20 12.27 12.31 Reaction 1M Ethanoic acid and 1M sodium hydroxide Observation A colourless solution was formed when colourless sodium hydroxide solution was titrated to colourless ethanoic acid.

Weak Acid - Strong Base Titration


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 volume of NaOH (ml)
The graph of pH against volume of NaOH added during the titration between 25.0 cm3 of 1M CH3COOH against a solution of 1M NaOH is shown above. Near the equivalent point, the pH of the solution jump from about 6.45 to 11.26. The pH at the equivalent point is 8.86 because CH3COONa produced is a basic salt which would be hydrolysed and reacted with water to leave excess OH- ions. NaOH + CH3COOH CH3COO- + H2O

pH

CH3COONa + H2O CH3COOH + OH-

Thus, by considering methyl orange (pKln 3.7) and phenolphthalein (pKln 9.0)3, only phenolphthalein is suitable for indicators.

Ibid.

EXPERIMENT 4 Reaction of a weak acid and a weak base Volume of 1M NH3 added for the reaction, (V) / 0.05 cm3 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 pH of the solution 2.56 3.72 4.09 4.34 4.54 4.58 4.63 4.67 4.70 4.74 4.78 4.80 4.86 4.88 4.90 5.11 5.40 5.91 7.85 Reaction 1M Ethanoic acid and 1M ammonia Observation A colourless solution was formed when colourless sodium hydroxide solution was titrated to colourless hydrochloric acid.

Weak Acid - Weak Base Titration


10 8 pH 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 volume of ammonia (ml)
The graph of pH against volume of NH3 added during the titration between 25.0 cm3 of 1M CH3COOH against a solution of 1M NH3 is shown above. For this type of titration, there is no sharp rise in pH at the equivalent point of the titration and it makes the pH at the equivalent point hard to be denoted. NH4OH + CH3COOH

CH3COONa + H2O

Thus, there is no suitable indicator available.

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