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Michelle New EDET 746 Computer Use and Copyright Policies and Regulations September 19, 2012

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Evaluation of Policies When comparing the many different policies that are used in businesses, companies, institutions, etc., there are no set standards pertaining to what each policy should say or how each should be laid out. There is a wide variety in policies depending on the business or institution setting them. What is included in the policy depends on the different resources the site offers and what the use for the policy will be. The policies can also be written with great detail and have a substantial length or they can be very short and concise. Some can be very general is explaining what can and cannot be done and some can be so specific as to narrowing down what can and cannot be done when using certain technologies or resources. Many times, policies are written without realization that others are going to be reading them and that those users may or may not have the same background knowledge, vocabulary, or experience with the information included, making it extremely difficult to comprehend. Below is an evaluation of two computer use policies currently in place as well as an evaluation of two copyright policies currently in place. The first computer use policy I chose to evaluate was one in place at the University of South Carolina Aiken in the library. These types of policies can sometimes be written in a language that only those writing it can comprehend. Policies written for institutions, in particular, should really be written in such a way that all potential users could understand what is expected of them and what is prohibited. If the users do not understand, countless issues will arise and the policy will be seemingly pointless. This university chose a very organized and to the point type of layout for their policy. They also used language that was easy to understand and read. Students often look for something that is easy and not a lot to read and if it is toowordy they will tend to not read it. USC Aiken chose to write their policy in a bulleted form which, in my opinion, caters directly to the students. This policy is one that could easily be posted in the library where students can often reference back to it when needed. This particular computer use policy does not have a statement of a purpose. Even though this is for a university and the less is more strategy may be a good one to use when writing a policy such as this, a short statement of purpose at the beginning would be a good addition to this policy. The policy did, however, indicate what the computers in the library are intended for and who the potential users of these computers are. The policy also does not discuss the reasoning behind having a computer use policy in place. An explanation of this reasoning would make this policy more substantive.The policy does, however, state what is prohibited when the computers are in use. Most policies have a list of prohibitions rather than what is the expected use of the computers. Since this policy was written for a university library, listing the prohibitions is key to having a library run smoothly and efficiently. An interesting feature in this computer use policy is that it offers alternative suggestions for one of the prohibitions. The writers of the policy chose to bold and italicize the statements that discuss the repercussions of violating the policy. Some policies include the permitted uses but also include what the proper uses for the computers are; this policy does not

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list the proper uses. A major part of computer use policies, especially in schools, is the issue of downloading software. Downloading software can cause major security issues for an institution. The second computer use policy I chose to evaluate was the one currently being used at Newberry College in their library. Their policy combines both computer and internet acceptable use. Unlike the computer use policy for USC Aiken, Newberry included a detailed introduction and purpose. This policy included the computers that this policy specifically related to. (i.e. public access computer stations and laptops or personal computers used in the library) This is a good addition to have in the policy because it clearly states what types of situations it applies to. The college made sure to list the primary clientele who would be using the computers and offered information for those who are not primary clientele. This seemed to be a major issue in their policy. In that same vein, there was an interesting inclusion of a section on Children/young adult access to electronic information. The town of Newberry is a college town and the community is involved greatly with the college. It is a family oriented town and the college welcomes the community and family on campus all the time. Newberrys policy also included the rights of the library users. Something unexpected in this policy is that children using the computers would be expected to follow the same guidelines in the policy and be held to the same standards as other users. I personally think that was a very smart addition on the colleges part to have that section included in their policy. As in most computer use policies, this policy included a list of permitted, or in this case, what they call unacceptable uses. These were the typical unacceptable and prohibited behaviors that are seen in most computer use policies. Also included in this policy is a patron assistance section, something I had not seen in other computer use policies. This gives the users an idea of what type of assistance they can expect from the library staff and where they need to go if that type of assistance can not be obtained in the library. Something interesting that I noted was that the only instance that discusses consequences of violating the policy is found in the introduction. It is not highlighted, bolded, or italicized or edited in any way to draw the readers attention to that sentence. Students often skim when reading, so this important piece of information could very easily be skipped over. Copyright policies are much more structured and detailed than computer use policies. Most copyright policies are written with several different headings and contain a great deal more information. However, some are very short and dont give too much detail but reference outside sources. These policies also, in most cases, tend to be written in terms that can be difficult to understand for some readers/users. The first copyright policy I chose to evaluate was the one in place at Winthrop University. This policy was written in 2006 and has not been updated since and that is cause for concern. Much as changed in the past 6 years in terms of technologies and laws and guidelines could have changed as well. It is always best to update the policy at least every year just to make sure that it includes the most up to date and correct information. The document is very user friendly in that it is written in sections and there is a link that goes to each section, making it quick and easy to access the part that is

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needed. This policy includes the definition of copyright which is stated fairly clearly and is easy to understand. They also include their purpose for having this policy and what they expect to receive from it. Other parts of the policy, however, are more difficult to understand. The scope of copyright policy section includes a great deal of information on what mediums can be copyright protected. This section also includes information on what fair use is and what circumstances are deemed fair use. The policy also mentions two other Acts that deal with copyright but does not go into much detail on either one. They do offer links to other sites about the Acts, however. The second copyright policy I chose to evaluate was one being used at Stanford University. This policy was last updated in 1998 and, as in the policy from Winthrop, is a major cause for concern. This copyright policy, it seems, was a very specific policy written just for Stanford University. It included the basic information on copyright such as a definition and an explanation of what types of work can be considered for copyright use. The policy also stated why the university has this policy in place. The policy is very organized and structured and looks like an official policy. Some of the differences in this policy include that it discusses the works of the institution and how copyright applies to those works. It also discusses rights for those works created by non-employees. Something unique that was included in this policy and not in others was the discussion of Works For Hire. This is something I had never heard of. It is briefly mentioned in the beginning of the policy but they include a detailed definition and description later in the policy. I found this policy to be a little difficult to read and understand. I also found it odd that in the Copyright Policy section, only videotaping is addressed. Other copyrightable works are not mentioned until the end of the policy and are simply just listed rather than discussed. Stanfords policy also does not offer any information about a procedure to follow when a user wants to use copyright material. This is something that will occur quite often and users should know the proper way to go about gaining access to the material. Another issue not discussed or included in this particular policy is what the consequences are for violating the policy. Justification of Policies Deciding on what each policy should include and what could be left out is a much more tedious and time-consuming task than people might think. As I mentioned above, there is no set template/layout for these policies. Each policy is going to vary depending on the institution. I found the computer use policy easier to write than the copyright. It was more straightforward with mostly the same general rules/guidelines. I found it very difficult to make a decision on whether or not to have a straightforward, shorter policy or a more detailed and descriptive, longer policy when it came to the copyright policy. Since this is an assignment to get us familiar with these types of policies, I chose to keep mine short and simple. If this were a real project for my job, I would want to make these policies as clear and concise but detailed as possible. It is my opinion that the more detailed your policy is, the less room there is for speculation or confusion.

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For the computer use policy, I looked at several different examples and I also used journal articles to help me make my decision about what should be included. What I found in most examples was that they begin with a statement of purpose. It just so happens that the two policies I chose for my evaluation did not have these statements of purpose so I decided I wanted to make sure I included one in mine. A reoccurring section I noticed was a permitted or unauthorized use section. I included a bulleted list so that it is easy to see and read. I also thought it was important to reiterate the importance of not downloading unauthorized software (especially in a school system). I found that several example policies included sections on personal use and that is prohibited. I know from experience that when you are a school teacher and spend most of your day at school, using the computers and internet for personal use will happen occasionally. I also included a violations section to reinforce the importance of following the policy and that there are repercussions for those who violate the policy. These policies are in place for a reason and that is to make things run as smoothly and are ultimately in the users best interest. For the copyright policy, I once again used examples of other copyright policies in effect now as a reference. I did know that I wanted to include a small section on what copyright is and what types of things are copyright protected. I included that at the very beginning because I feel it is very important. Something different I decided to do, in order to keep my policy shorter, was to include websites to refer to if needed. Since I was writing the policy for a school district, I thought it was crucial to include a section on fair use seeing as it directly effects teachers. I wanted to include a section on the punishments for violators to show how serious of an offense copyright really is. Some people tend to shrug it off as if it is nothing and they wont get caught, but it is something real and the punishments can be severe. Something I picked up from a few examples I looked at was that some policies included information for the users on how to obtain permission if they need it.

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References

Becker, H. J., & Riel, M. M. (n.d.). Teacher Professional Engagement and ConstructivistCompatible Computer Use. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from www.crito.uci.edu/papers/TLC/findings/report_7/report7.pdf COPYRIGHT POLICY MOBILE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2012, from images.pcmac.org/Uploads/MCPSS/MobileCounty/Departments/DocumentsCat egories/Documents/CopyWrite%20Policy.pdf CSL: Policies: Computer Use Policy. (n.d.). Computer Science - Duke University. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://www.cs.duke.edu/csl/policy/usage.php Copyright Policy (RPH 5.2). (n.d.). Research Policy Handbook. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://rph.stanford.edu/5-2.html Crews, K. D. (1993). Copyright, fair use, and the challenge for universities: promoting the progress of higher education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DiMaggio, P., & Hargittai, E. (n.d.). From the 'Digital Divide' to 'Digital Inequality': Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases*. Retrieved September 19, 2012,

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from https://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP15%20-%20DiMaggio %2BHargittai.pdf Gould, T., Lipinski, T., & Buchanan, E. (2005). Copyright Policies and the Deciphering of Fair Use in the Creation of Reserves at University Libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 31(3), 182-197. Gregg Graniteville Library Policies . (2010, June 10). Gregg Graniteville Library Main Policies . Retrieved September 19, 2012, from library.usca.edu/index.php/Main/Policies#to2c%3E. Loggie, K. A., Barron, A. E., Gulitz, E., Hohlfeld, T. N., Kromrey, J. D., Venable, M., et al. (2006). An Analysis of Copyright Policies for Distance Learning Materials at Major Research Universities. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 5(3), 224242. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/5.3.1.pdf Template - Computer Use Policy - Spiceworks. (n.d.). Spiceworks Community. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://community.spiceworks.com/education/projects/Template__Computer_Use_Policy Use Policy | Newberry College. (n.d.). Newberry College. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://www.newberry.edu/academics/resources/wesselslibrary/usepolicy.aspx Winthrop University Copyright Policy. (2006, August 9). Winthrop University Copyright Policy . Retrieved September 19, 2012, from www2.winthrop.edu/copyright/policy.htm

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Appendix A: Computer Use Policy

Berkeley County School District Computer Use Policy


Purpose To better serve our students and provide our employees with the best tools to do their jobs, BCSD makes available to our workforce access to one or more forms of electronic media and services, including computers, e-mail, telephones, voicemail, fax machines, external electronic bulletin boards, wire services, online services, intranet, Internet and the World Wide Web. Permitted Uses When using any of the above stated services, students and/or employees may not knowingly communicate, retrieve, or store any information that is: Discriminatory or harassing Derogatory Obscene, sexually explicit or pornographic Threatening or violent Personal information or information belonging to others Unacceptable activities include: Destruction or damage of equipment Alteration of equipment Downloading unauthorized software Using computer resources to violate any U.S. Copyright laws Attempting to obtain unauthorized access Software In order to prevent viruses from being transmitted through the districts computer system, unauthorized downloading of any unauthorized software is strictly prohibited. Only software registered and/or approved through BCSD may be downloaded. If you have any questions on this matter, contact the system administrator. Personal Use All students and employees of BCSC should refrain from using district equipment for personal use. Limited, occasional, or incidental use of electronic media for personal, nonbusiness purposes is understandable and acceptable, and all such use should be done in a manner that dose not negatively affect their job. However, students and employees are expected to demonstrate a sense of responsibility and not abuse this privilege. Violations Any student or employee that abuses the privileges of their access to these services will be subject to corrective action. Students who abuse these privileges will face

Appendix A: Computer Use Policy

disciplinary action and will lose their privileges to use these services predominately or only with supervision. Employees who abuse these privileges will also receive disciplinary action that could include suspension, legal action, and possibly termination.

Appendix B: Copyright Policy

Berkeley County School District Copyright Policy


Purpose The Berkeley Country School District will operate in full compliance with the provisions of current copyright laws and Congressional guidelines. All teachers, employees, faculty, and students are expected to abide by these laws and guidelines. Information about copyright law and policies with be made available to all employees and students of BCSD. Any teacher or student who should have any question or concern about copyright law should seek further information before continuing. What is Copyright? Title 17, United States Code refers to copyright as: property right granted to authors and creators of works. Copyright is necessary to advance the public welfare by promoting artistic and scientific progress. To learn more about Title 17 and Copyright Law, visit http://www.copyright.gov/title17/. What is eligible for protection? Any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, which can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either with the aide of machine or device. Copyright Protected Mediums Literary works (books, journal articles, poems, manuals, memoranda, tests, computer programs, instructional material, databases, and bibliographies) Musical works including any accompanying words Dramatic works including any accompanying music Pantomimes and choreographic works Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works (photographs, diagrams, sketches, integrated circuit masks) Motion pictures and other audiovisual works (videotapes) Sound recordings To learn more about what you can do as a teacher without breaking copyright law, visit http://www.halldavidson.net/chartshort.html. Fair Use The term fair use allows for the copying of copyrighted material, under certain circumstances. This doctrine allows for the reproduction of copyrighted work when it is used for criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research. To be considered fair use, there are four requirements:

Appendix B: Copyright Policy

1. The use of the work must be for nonprofit educational purposes 2. The nature of the copyrighted work must be taken into consideration 3. The portion of the work used in relation to the whole 4. The effect of the use will not harm the potential market value of the work There are also rules of fair use that are required to be applied. These include: Brevity- the amount of material copied from a work. As a general rule, no more than 10% of the whole work should be used. Spontaneity- this deals with spontaneity and copying at the instance under the inspiration of the teacher. There is no time to request for permission. Cumulative Effect- how much work is copied over time. This includes that the copies being made are for only one course, no more than one short poem, article, story, essay, or two excerpts may be coped from the same author during the same term, no more than three authors from the same collective work may be copied during the same term, and there shall not be more than nine instances of such multiple copying for one course during one term. To learn more about the Fair Use policy, visit http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html. Violations Those who choose to violate these copyright policies do so under their own risk and are liable under the Copyright Law. The penalties for violating the Copyright Law can include but are not limited to: paying the dollar amount of damages and profits, paying a fee per work infringed, paying all attorney fees and court costs, or jail. How To Get Permission Any staff member who is uncertain as to whether reproducing or using copyrighted material complies with the systems procedures or is permissible under the law should contact the systems library media services department. The library media services department will also assist staff in obtaining proper authorization to copy or use protected material when such authorization is required.