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Technical Article:

Effect of Soda Ash, Urea, Time and Temperature on Colour Strength of Cotton Reactive Dyes on Substrate

Textile Engineering

ENGR MUHAMMAD SAJID NAEEM

TEXTILE ENGINEER

THEORY OF COTTON REACTIVE DYEING:

Cellulose:

THEORY OF COTTON REACTIVE DYEING: Cellulose: REACTIVE DYES: The four characteristics features of typical reactive dye

REACTIVE DYES:

The four characteristics features of typical reactive dye molecule are:

1)

Chromophore

2)

Reactive System

3)

Bridging Group

4)

Solublising Group

Chromophore:

A chromophore contributes to colour and much of substantivity for cellulose.

Reactive System:

The reactive system which enable the dye to react with hydroxyl groups in cellulose. Bridging Group:

A bridging group that links the reactive system to the chromophore In few cases the reactive

system is directly attached to the chromophore. Solublising Group:

One or more Solublising groups are attached to the chromophore

REACTION OF CELLULOSE WITH REACTIVE DYES:

Cell-OH + HO -

Cell-O - + H 2 O

Cell-O - + Dye-Cl

Cell-O-Dye + Cl -

Cell-OH is the cellulose with a reactive hydroxyl group. Dye-Cl is the dye with its reactive chlorine atom. Cell-O-Dye is the dye linked to the cellulose by a covalent bond.

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The role of alkali is to cause acidic dissociation of some of the hydroxyl group in the cellulose to form Cellusate ion (Cell-O - ) that reacts with the dye.

TYPE OF REACTIONS OF REACTIVE DYES:

1)

Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction

2)

Nucleophilic Addition Reaction

Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction:

Reaction with water W-D-Cl + H 2 O → W-D-OH + HCl

Reaction with cellulose

W-D-Cl+ HO-Cell

→ W-D-O-Cell + HCl

Nucleophilic Addition Reaction:

Reaction with water W-D-SO 2 -CH=CH 2 + H 2 O

Reaction with cellulose W-D-SO 2 -CH=CH 2 + HO-Cell

→ W-D-SO 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -O-OH

→ W-D-SO 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -O-Cell

W

= Water Solublising Group

D

= Dye Solution

As the effects of urea, it can be considered that the urea retains moisture in the fiber during the thermofixation , the urea swells the cellulose and ,at the same time, acts on dyes as a solvent or a carrier, resulting in improved diffusion of dyes and increased colour yield. The lowering the fixation yield caused when using excess amount of urea is considered to be due to the reaction of the urea with alkali leading to lowering of the pH of fabric.

CO (NH 4 ) 2 + Na 2 CO 3

→ 2NH 3 + 2 NaOCN + CO 2 + H 2 O

NaOCN + 2H 2 O → NH 3 + NaHCO 3

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Practical Work:

Variables (Independent Variable):

1)

Soda ash (g/l)

2)

Urea (g/l)

3) Time(minutes)

4)

Temperature ( 0 C)

Invariables:

1)

Pick up (90%)

2)

Process (Pad Thermosole + Wash (Pad steam))

3)

Amount of dye (100 g/l)

4)

Washing Conditions

5)

Conditioning Conditions

6)

Type and brand of dye

Equipment & Materials:

1)

Spectrophotometer for textile industry

2)

Pad Thermo sole (Lab)

3)

Pad Steam (Lab)

4)

Washing Apparatus (Open width)

5) Pipette

6) Stirrer

7)

Analytical Balance

8)

Calibrated Cylinders

9)

Cotton Reactive Dyes (Sumifix H Dyes)

10) Cotton Substrate (Woven Fabric) (Bleached and Mercerized) 11) AATCC Detergent

12) Distilled Water 13) Chemicals 14) Scissors

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Charts of Variables:

S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

8

100

1.5

160

2

10

100

1.5

160

3

12

100

1.5

160

4

14

100

1.5

160

5

16

100

1.5

160

6

18

100

1.5

160

7

20

100

1.5

160

8

22

100

1.5

160

S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

22

80

1.5

160

2

22

85

1.5

160

3

22

90

1.5

160

4

22

95

1.5

160

5

22

100

1.5

160

6

22

105

1.5

160

7

22

110

1.5

160

8

22

115

1.5

160

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S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

22

115

1.25

160

2

22

115

1.5

160

3

22

115

1.75

160

4

22

115

2

160

5

22

115

2.25

160

6

22

115

2.5

160

7

22

115

2.75

160

8

22

115

3

160

S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

22

115

3

130

2

22

115

3

135

3

22

115

3

140

4

22

115

3

145

5

22

115

3

150

6

22

115

3

155

7

22

115

3

160

8

22

115

3

165

Washing:

1)

Washing in Fresh Water at Room Temperature for 5 minutes

2)

Washing in Hot water at 80 0 C for 5 minutes

3)

Washing in hot water at boil (AATCC Detergent 5 g/l) for 2 minutes

4)

Washing in Hot water at 80 0 C for 5 minutes

5)

Washing in Fresh Water at Room Temperature for 5 minutes

6)

Specimens are squeezed and dried.

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Conditioning:

1)

Time = at least 4 hours

2)

RH = 65 % (±2)

3)

Temperature = 21 0 C (±2)

Results & Discussions:

S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Colour Strength

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

8

100

1.5

 

160

84.5

2

10

100

1.5

 

160

86.4

3

12

100

1.5

 

160

88.3

4

14

100

1.5

 

160

90.4

5

16

100

1.5

 

160

92.7

6

18

100

1.5

 

160

94.6

7

20

100

1.5

 

160

96.5

8

22

100

1.5

 

160

98.5

  160 94.6 7 20 100 1.5   160 96.5 8 22 100 1.5   160

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S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Colour Strength

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

22

80

1.5

160

90.2

2

22

85

1.5

160

91.3

3

22

90

1.5

160

92.4

4

22

95

1.5

160

93.5

5

22

100

1.5

160

94.2

6

22

105

1.5

160

95.7

7

22

110

1.5

160

96.4

8

22

115

1.5

160

97.3

6 22 105 1.5 160 95.7 7 22 110 1.5 160 96.4 8 22 115 1.5

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S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Colour Strength

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

22

115

1.25

160

90.2

2

22

115

1.5

160

91.3

3

22

115

1.75

160

92.5

4

22

115

2

160

93.3

5

22

115

2.25

160

94.4

6

22

115

2.5

160

95.4

7

22

115

2.75

160

96.3

8

22

115

3

160

97.7

6 22 115 2.5 160 95.4 7 22 115 2.75 160 96.3 8 22 115 3

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S.NO.

Soda

Urea

Time

Temperature

Colour Strength

Ash(g/l)

(g/l)

(Minutes)

(

0 C)

1

22

115

3

 

130

85.8

2

22

115

3

 

135

87.7

3

22

115

3

 

140

89.5

4

22

115

3

 

145

91.4

5

22

115

3

 

150

93.3

6

22

115

3

 

155

95.4

7

22

115

3

 

160

97.4

8

22

115

3

 

165

99.5

160 97.4 8 22 115 3   165 99.5 Terminology: Colour Strength: A measure of the

Terminology:

Colour Strength: A measure of the ability of a dye to impart color to other materials.

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