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FailureModesandEffectsAnalysis

David M. Little
Tyco Electronics Corp. dmlittle@tycoelectronics.com

General Description of FMEA


Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a systematic procedure paralleling the mental discipline of the design process. The procedure is divided into three parts, system FMEA, design FMEA and process FMEA. These FMEAs should be completed prior to release of the product to manufacturing, between the concept and development design reviews, and should include customer specific requirements as applicable.

1. INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONDUCTING FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS 1.1. Documenting the FMEA The FMEA is documented by the completion of the top portion (header) of the applicable QMD Forms. The other blocks are completed as needed. The assignment of an FMEA Number by the business unit is optional. Other forms may be used to document the FMEA provided they are acceptable to the local business unit or the customer. Computer software providing the ability to document and update the FMEA may be used in lieu of the more traditional paper forms if desired. 1.2. Component (Process) Identify and list all components of the product or (process steps) under study. Include part name and number. A very simple product may consist of only one component, whereas a complex product might have numerous components.

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1.3. Component (Process) Function Specify the intended function(s) of the component (process step) with respect to each functional requirement of the product, whether it is an individual component or a component within a complex product, and also whether/how it applies to process function(s). 1.4. Failure Mode Describe each potential failure mode identified. The assumption is made that failure could occur and not necessarily will occur. A review of the quality history of similar products (processes) including any design or process FMEAs is recommended as a starting point. 1.5. Effect(s) of Failure Describe the failure in terms of what the customer (internal and/or external) would notice or experience. The description must be stated as specifically as possible. 1.6. Severity of Failure (S) Evaluate the severity of each potential failure using a scale of 1 to 10. A 1 indicates the failure would be relatively minor, and a 10 indicates severe total failure. See Figures 1, 4 or 7 for suggested severity ratings to be used in FMEAs. 1.7. Cause(s) of Failure List all of the causes assignable to each failure mode. Care should be taken to assure that the list is inclusive so that remedial efforts will be aimed at all pertinent causes.

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1.8. Frequency of Occurrence (O) The occurrence rating is based on the probability of the failure cause occurring, and in absence of active intervention, leading to the failure mode. Evaluate the frequency of occurrence using a scale of 1 to 10. A 1 indicates a low frequency, and a 10 indicates very frequent failure. See Figures 2, 5, or 8 for suggested occurrence ratings to be used in FMEA's. 1.9. Prevention Controls List methods utilized which will prevent or reduce the likelihood of occurrence of the failure cause or the failure mode/effect. These controls will affect the frequency of occurrence rating (see Paragraph 1.8.) and must be considered when evaluating frequency of occurrence. In design, examples of prevention controls are use of design standards, use of existing components with established history of good performance, use of design features to eliminate or reduce likelihood of a given failure mode, etc. In process, examples of prevention controls include error proofing, process capability and performance analysis prior to production, design of experiments (DOE), preventive maintenance, etc. 1.10. Detection Controls List the methods utilized which will detect the failure cause in time to take corrective action or which will detect the failure mode before the failure effect results. Detection controls must be considered when evaluating the detection rating (see Paragraph 1.11.). In design, examples of detection controls include engineering analysis such as finite element analysis (FEA), tolerance analysis, testing, etc. In process, examples of detection controls are inspections, workmanship standards, etc.
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1.11. Detection (D) Estimate the probability that the failure would be detected before it reaches the customer using a scale of 1 to 10. A 1 indicates a high probability that the failure would be detected before reaching the customer. A 10 indicates a low probability that the failure would be detected before reaching the customer. Customers includes both internal users such as downstream manufacturing processes and external users such as the purchasing customer. QIP Inspection should not be considered for design FMEAs unless 100% inspection is utilized. A Quality Inspection Plan can be used for process FMEA. See Figures 3, 6, or 9 for suggested detection ratings to be used in FMEAs. 1.12. Risk Priority Number (RPN) The product of the estimates of severity, occurrence and detection (SxOxD) forms a risk priority number which provides a priority of the potential failure modes. These estimates are relative only, having no significance in absolute terms. The purpose is to identify which potential failure modes are most likely to cause problems either internally or for the customer. In general, higher risk priority numbers indicate more serious consequences. The RPN provides a means of ranking failure modes in order of their relative importance. 1.13. Recommended Action Using the RPN and the results of the potential failure mode verification studies, determine which failure modes need action. Enter a brief description of the action on the FMEA form. Items, which require further action, shall be documented using Action Item Form or other documentation methods acceptable to the local business unit or the customer and their status shall be monitored as a
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part of the design review process. Items requiring no corrective action may be noted as none on the FMEA form. 1.14. Area or Individual Responsible and Completion Date For each recommended action, identify the responsible area or individual that will complete the action and an expected completion date. 1.15. Action Taken Following completion of the recommended action, enter any results or design (process) changes. Include reference to any ECs, engineering or test reports, and supporting documentation. 1.16. Severity, Occurrence, Detection and Risk Priority Number A. For any completed recommended action, use these columns to re-evaluate the probability of severity, occurrence, and detection to determine the new RPN. B. To reduce the severity number, the cause or entire failure mode must be eliminated. To reduce the occurrence number, remove or control the cause of the failure mode through design (process) changes. To reduce the detection number, new or improved verification or prevention techniques must be implemented. 2. FMEA RECORDS 2.1. System FMEA, design FMEA and process FMEA record files may also be maintained by business unit and responsible team function as follows: A. Design assurance (development/product engineering) function. B. Quality/reliability engineering function. C. Process/manufacturing engineering function.

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2.2. System FMEA, design FMEA and process FMEA revisions, updates, and/or corrective actions, must be issued and distributed to the business unit and responsible team functions listed in Paragraph 2.1. above.

FMEA System Example is provided after the text.

System FMEA A system FMEA identifies potential failure modes, effects, and causes that may prevent a system from meeting all of its system objectives. The system FMEA is a process that analyzes the customers requirements/characteristics relative to their intended function to ensure that the resultant product meets customer needs and expectations. When potential failure modes are identified, action must be initiated to eliminate or reduce their occurrence. Risk assessment via the use of risk priority numbers is completed in order to prioritize the actions.

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4043 (8/07)

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - SYSTEM


PROJECT NAME PROJECT NO. PART NO.

Confidential
APPROVED

See last page for revision history:


ORIGINAL DFMEA DATE: DFMEA REV. DATE REVISED:

RELIABILITY ENGR.

DESIGN/PRODUCT ENGR.

MANUFACTURING ENGR.

TEST ENGR.

COMPONENT or SUBASSEM.

COMPONENT FUNCTION(S)

FAILURE MODE(S)

EFFECTS OF FAILURE

SEV S

CLASS

CAUSE(S) OF FAILURE

OCC O

PREVENTION CONTROLS

DETECTION CONTROLS

DET D

RPN OSD

RECOMMENDED ACTION(S)

RESPONSIBILITY / TARGET DATE

ACTION(S) TAKEN

S E V

O C C

D E T

R P N

Revison History: Revision Date Responsible Engineer Description

Page 1 of 1

Note: This sheet is intended to serve as a guide for interpreting the columns within the FMEA form.

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - SYSTEM


PROJECT NAME PROJECT NO. PART NO. ORIGINAL DFMEA DATE:

See last page for revision history:


DFMEA REV. DATE REVISED:

RELIABILITY ENGR.

DESIGN/PRODUCT ENGR.

Approved

MANUFACTURING ENGR.

TEST ENGR.

COMPONENT

COMPONENT FUNCTION(S)

FAILURE MODE(S)

EFFECTS OF FAILURE

SEV S

CAUSE(S) OF FAILURE

PREVENTION CONTROLS

OCC O

DETECTION CONTROLS

DET D

RPN OSD

RECOMMENDED ACTION(S)

RESPONSIBILITY / TARGET DATE

ACTION(S) TAKEN

S E V

O C C

D E T

R P N

When listing components or subassemblies include details such as component part number, supplier, etc. which will be helpful to others reading or revising the System FMEA in the future.

The severity of the effect is concerned only with the effect and not the failure mode. For example, an effect will have the same severity rating regardless of the associated failure modes.

Detection Controls are those verification or validation activities (controlled by the design, design procedure or design process) which will detect the failure cause or mode before the product is released for production. Items in this column are those that are completed or are already planned and will happen as a result of procedure or process.

Function(s) is the task(s) which a component or subassembly is expected to perform, either for the end customer or next operation as customer. It should be well defined using active verbs such as provide, contain, isolate, etc. that will allow better identification of potential failure modes. Describe a function in descriptive terms (ie carries 30 amps of current)

A cause of failure in a system is typically the failure modes associated with the components or subassemblies. For example, a connector might have failure modes of high resistance or unmates in vibration. If this connector is a component in a system, the associated failure causes in the system would be high resistance or connector unmates in vibration. Because of this, component and subassembly y useful in developing g system y FMEA's for FMEA's are very systems using these components and subassemblies..

Failure modes should be listed in physical terms, not as symptoms as described by the customer. Symptoms described by the customer are typically failure effects.) Failure modes can be thought of in terms of the reason that the component failed to perform its function. i.e. bulk resistance too high due, interface resistance too high) One should assume the component is manufactured as designed

Effects are the symptoms observed by the customer such as loss of signal, overheating, burning, etc. Effects should be described in descriptive terms.

Preventive Controls are activities supporting design choices which prevent or reduce the occurrence of failure causes that lead to active failure modes. They may also be redundancies in the system which allow it to continue operating in the event of a component or subassembly failure. Items in this column are controlled by the Design Engineer and are completed or already planned and will happen as a result of procedure or process. Preventive controls reduce the occurrence rating. (i.e dimensional analysis to determine fits, clearances and interferences between components, Monte Carlo simulations, DOEs, ANSYS, etc.)

Detection rating is assessed as the ability of the current design control to determine if the potential failure cause (design weakness) will lead to the listed failure mode, or detect the f the h li df il d before b f h occurrence of listed failure mode the design is released for production. Note: Detection controls reduce the detection rating. Preventative controls reduce the occurrence rating. If none of the current controls are detection controls (ie they are all preventative), then detection must be given a rating of 10)

Recommended Actions are taken to reduce the occurrence or detection ratings, or eliminate the effect by eliminating the possibility of the failure mode.

The occurrence is the likelihood the failure mode will become active as a result of the failure cause. Do not rate the probability of the failure mode existing, but rather the probability the cause exists and will lead to the mode becoming active.

FMEA Design Example is provided after the text. Design FMEA A Design FMEA identifies potential failure modes, effects, and causes that may prevent a new design from meeting all of its design objectives. The design FMEA is a process that analyzes the product's design characteristics relative to their intended function to ensure that the resultant product meets customer needs and expectations. When potential failure modes are identified, action must be initiated to eliminate or reduce their occurrence. Risk assessment via the use of risk priority numbers is completed in order to prioritize the actions.

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4043-1 (8/07)

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - DESIGN


PROJECT NAME PROJECT NO. PART NO.

Confidential
APPROVED

See last page for revision history:


ORIGINAL DFMEA DATE: DFMEA REV. DATE REVISED:

RELIABILITY ENGR.

DESIGN/PRODUCT ENGR.

MANUFACTURING ENGR.

TEST ENGR.

COMPONENT or SUBASSEM.

COMPONENT FUNCTION(S)

FAILURE MODE(S)

EFFECTS OF FAILURE

SEV S

CLASS

CAUSE(S) OF FAILURE

OCC O

PREVENTION CONTROLS

DETECTION CONTROLS

DET D

RPN OSD

RECOMMENDED ACTION(S)

RESPONSIBILITY / TARGET DATE

ACTION(S) TAKEN

S E V

O C C

D E T

R P N

Revison History: Revision Date Responsible Engineer Description

Page 1 of 1

Note: This sheet is intended to serve as a guide for interpreting the columns within the FMEA form.

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - DESIGN


PROJECT NAME PROJECT NO. PART NO. RELIABILITY ENGR. DESIGN/PRODUCT ENGR. Approved MANUFACTURING ENGR.

See last page for revision history:


ORIGINAL DFMEA DATE: DFMEA REV. DATE REVISED: TEST ENGR.

COMPONENT

COMPONENT FUNCTION(S)

FAILURE MODE(S)

EFFECTS OF FAILURE

SEV S

CAUSE(S) OF FAILURE

PREVENTION CONTROLS

OCC DETECTION CONTROLS O

DET D

RPN OSD

RECOMMENDED ACTION(S)

RESPONSIBILITY / ACTION(S) TAKEN TARGET DATE

S E V

O C C

D E T

R P N

When listing components, include details such as component part number, material, etc. which will be helpful to others reading or revising the DFMEA in the future.

The severity of the effect is concerned only with the effect and not the failure mode. For example, an effect will have the same severity rating regardless of the associated failure modes.

Detection Controls are those verification or validation activities (controlled by the design, design procedure or design process) which will detect the failure cause or mode before the product is released for production. Items in this column are those that are completed or are already planned and will happen as a result of procedure or process.

Function(s) is the task(s) which a component is expected to perform, either for the end customer or next operation as customer. It should be well defined using active verbs such as provide, contain, isolate, etc. that will allow better identification of potential failure modes modes. Describe a function in descriptive terms (ie carries 30 amps of current)

A cause of failure is something the design engineer has direct control over. Again, assume the component will be mfg. as designed. Use brainstorming, cause and effect, etc. to identify causes.

Failure modes should be listed in physical terms, not as symptoms as described by the customer. Symptoms described by the customer are typically failure effects.) Failure modes can be thought of in terms of the reason that the component failed to perform its function. i.e. bulk resistance too high due, interface resistance too high) One should assume the component is manufactured as designed

Preventive Controls are activities support design choices which prevent or reduce the occurrence of failure causes that lead to active failure modes. Items in this column are controlled by the Design Engineer and are completed or already planned and will happen as a result of procedure or process. Preventive controls reduce the occurrence rating. (i.e dimensional analysis to determine fits, clearances and interferences between components, Monte Carlo simulations, DOEs, ANSYS, etc.)

Detection rating is assessed as the ability of the current design control to determine if the potential failure cause (design weakness) will lead to the listed failure mode, or detect the occurrence of the listed failure mode before the design is released for production. Note: Detection controls reduce the detection rating. Preventative controls reduce the occurrence rating. If none of the current controls are detection controls (ie they are all preventative), then detection must be given a rating of 10)

Effects are the symptoms observed by the customer such as loss of signal, overheating, burning, etc. Effects should be described in descriptive terms.

The occurrence is the likelihood the failure mode will become active as a result of the failure cause. Do not rate the probability of the failure mode existing, but rather the probability the cause exists and will lead to the mode becoming active.

Recommended Actions are taken to reduce the occurrence or detection ratings, or eliminate the effect by eliminating the possibility of the failure mode.

FMEA Process Example is provided after the text. Process FMEA A Process FMEA identifies potential failure modes, effects, and causes that may prevent the manufacturing processes from producing a new design that meets all of its design objectives. It is a process that identifies potential process variables in order to focus controls for prevention or detection of potential failures. The process FMEA is to be considered a living' document that is changed and updated as the process evolves and matures. Risk assessment via the use of risk priority numbers is completed in order to prioritize preventative and detection actions.

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4043-2 (8/07)

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - PROCESS


PROJECT NAME PROJECT NO. PART NO.

Confidential
APPROVED

See last page for revision history:


ORIGINAL DFMEA DATE: DFMEA REV. DATE REVISED:

RELIABILITY ENGR.

DESIGN/PRODUCT ENGR.

MANUFACTURING ENGR.

TEST ENGR.

PROCESS STEP

PROCESS STEP FUNCTION(S)

FAILURE MODE(S)

EFFECTS OF FAILURE

SEV S

CLASS

CAUSE(S) OF FAILURE

OCC O

PREVENTION CONTROLS

DETECTION CONTROLS

DET D

RPN OSD

RECOMMENDED ACTION(S)

RESPONSIBILITY / TARGET DATE

ACTION(S) TAKEN

S E V

O C C

D E T

R P N

Revison History: Revision Date Responsible Engineer Description

Page 1 of 1

Note: This sheet is intended to serve as a guide for interpreting the columns within the FMEA form.

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS - PROCESS


PROJECT NAME PROJECT NO. PART NO. ORIGINAL DATE

ORIGINAL DATE FMEA REV.

DATE REVISED DATE REVISED

RELIABILITY ENGR.

MANUFACTURING ENGR.

Approved

DESIGN ENGINEER

TEST ENGR.

ACTION RESULTS PROCESS STEP PROCESS FUNCTION FAILURE MODE(S) EFFECTS OF FAILURE SEV S CAUSE(S) OF FAILURE PREVENTION CONTROLS OCC DETECTION CONTROLS O DET D RPN OSD RECOMMENDED ACTION(S) RESPONSIBILITY / ACTION(S) TAKEN TARGET DATE
S E V O C C D E T R P N

When listing process steps, include details such as part numbers being processed, critical process variable settings and component dimensions, etc. which will provide useful information to others reading or revising the PFMEA in the future.

The severity of the effect is concerned only with the effect and not the failure mode. For example, an effect will have the same severity rating regardless of the associated failure modes

Detection controls are those items or activities which will detect the failure cause or mode. Also consider detection controls in subsequent steps. Items in this column are those that are completed or are already planned and will happen as a result of procedure or process.

Function(s) is the task(s) which a process step is expected to perform. The function should be well defined using active verbs such as assemble, latch, align etc. that will allow better id tifi ti of identification f potential t ti l f failure il modes. d D Describe ib a f function ti in descriptive terms (ie aligns to +/- .005 to top of housing)

A cause of failure is something the mfg. engineer, process engineer, mfg or assembly operators have direct control over. Again, assume the design will meet the design objectives. Use brainstorming, cause and effect, etc. to identify causes. Detection rating is the ability of the current process control to detect and contain the failure mode if it becomes active before the part is released from this process. Note: If none of the current controls are detection controls (ie they are all preventative), then detection must be given a rating of 10)

Failure modes should be listed in physical terms, not as symptoms as described by the customer. (Symptoms described by the customer are typically failure effects.) Failure modes should be listed in physical terms and often are product defects which may occur such as flash, warping, incomplete fill, etc. One should assume the failure mode is one that can be directly influenced by the manufacturing engineer or the process.

Prevention controls are those items or activities (within the step being considered) which will prevent or reduce the occurrence of the failure cause or mode. Items in this column are those that are completed or are already planned and will happen as a result of procedure or process. Prevention controls reduce the occurrence rating.

Effects are any consequences to the product, often seen by the customer, as a result of the failure mode. Examples include open circuit, contact pushed out, etc. Effects should be described in descriptive terms.

The occurrence is the likelihood the failure mode will become active as a result of the failure cause. Do not rate the probability of the failure mode existing, but rather the probability the cause will lead to the mode becoming active.

Recommended Actions are taken to reduce the occurrence or detection ratings, or eliminate the effect by eliminating the possibility of the failure mode.