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Beam Modelling Concept

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e Strength A li ti Applications Modulus M d l of f Elasticity El i i Long-Term Deformation Construction of Strut-and-Tie Model Strut Tie Node

EGCE 501

STRUT AND TIE METHOD STRUT-AND-TIE

STRUTANDTIE METHOD

Strut-an-Tie method came from the truss analogy method introduced in the early 1900s for shear design. This method uses truss model d l to idealize id li the h fl flow of forces in a cracked concrete beam.

STRUTANDTIE METHOD

The truss analogy gy method has been validated and improved p considerably y in 1990s for full member or sectional design procedures. In the STM, the complex flow of internal forces is idealized as a truss (called strut-and-tie model) carrying the imposed loading to the supports. Like a real truss, a strut-and-tie model consists of compression members (called strut) and tension members (called ties) interconnected at joints (called nodes or nodal zones). Strut Strut-and-Tie and Tie method is suitable for portions of the structures where beam theory is not applicable (called D-Regions).

Truss Analogies

S Source: W Wang et. al. l (2007)

B- AND D- REGIONS

D-Region or Discontinuous Regions is where flow of forces is complex and the flexural theory is not valid (i.e. plane section does not remain plane) . Generally D-region extends one member depth from the point of Generally, discontinuity B-Region g or Beam Regions g is where flexural theory y applies pp g generally y it is the areas outside the D-Regions

B- AND D- REGIONS

5 Source: www.cee.uiuc.edu/kuchma/ 6

B- AND D- REGIONS

STRUTANDTIE METHOD

Common design g applications pp of strut-and-tie method are:

Deep Beams Anchorage Zone of prestressed posttensioned members Corbels and brackets Dapped end of precast beams Etc

Source: www.cee.uiuc.edu/kuchma/ 7

Source: www.cee.uiuc.edu/kuchma/ 8

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

Source: AASHTO (2005) 9

Source: Nawy (2000) 10

CONSTRUCTION

OF STRUTANDTIE MODEL

CONSTRUCTION

OF STRUTANDTIE MODEL

Strut (Compression Member) Tie Ti (T (Tension i M Member) b ) Nodal Zone (Joint between strut ) and tie)

Forces in struts or ties must be in equilibrium with external forces and reactions Failure is assumed to occur by

Crushing C hi of f strut t t in i compression i Yielding of tension tie Anchorage failure Bearing failure of nodal zone

Source: ACI (2005)

Based on a chosen model, , we need to keep p the stress in strut, , tie, , and nodal zone within the strength limits. The STM is based on the lower-bound theorem of plasticity theory. Meaning that the failure load calculated for a given model is always less than or equal to the actual failure load i.e. we are always be on a conservative side. side Any statically possible system is a valid strut-and-tie model. But we must design g reinforcements according g to the positions p of struts and ties in the chosen model. The simplest model that uses the least amount of tie is the best model

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CONSTRUCTION

OF STRUTANDTIE MODEL

STRUT

Strut is the compression p member, , representing p g compression p stress field in the actual member. Three basic types of strut.

The angle between a strut and a tie must be > 25 Strut must no cross or overlap each other (except at nodal zones) Tie may cross a strut but the strength of the strut will be reduced compared to th strength the t th of f the th strut t t without ith t a tie ti crossing i it

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Source: Wang et. al. (2007) 14

STRUT

Bottle Shaped p strut is used where there is enough space for strut to expand

STRUT

Source: ACI (2005) Source: Wang et. al. (2007) 15 16

STRUT

Strength g of strut depends p on the type (shape) of the strut and whether the strut has any reinforcement i f crossing i i it

STRUT

Fns = fce Acs = 0.85 s f 'c Acs

Cases where s=0.6

Strut Type Uniform Width Strut Bottle-Shaped Strut with Reinforcement Bottle-Shaped Bottle Shaped Strut without Reinforcement Strut in Tension Members or Tension Flanges All Other Cases

s

1.0 0.75 0.60 0.40 0 60 0.60

17 Source: ACI (2005) 18

STRUT

Minimum reinforcement crossing ga strut

TIES

Tie is the tension member in the STM model Tie consists of reinforcement and some portion of concrete surrounding it The centroid axis of the reinforcement coincides with the axis of the tie The strength of the tie is assumed to be the yield strength of the reinforcement (nonprestressed reinforcement)

b s

Asi

sin i 0.003

s i

We can see that we can satisfy the reinforcement requirement by provide either reinforcement in horizontal direction, vertical di direction, i or both b h If provide in one direction, the g between the reinforcement angle and the strut must be > 40

Source: ACI (2005)

Fnt = Ast fy

Area of Reinforcement

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NODES

Node is the intersection between struts and ties There must be at least 3 noncoincide forces coming to a node to satisfy equilibrium There are four types of nodes, nodes depending on the type of forces coming g to the node:

CCC CCT CTT TTT

NODES

In the strut-and-tie model, , node actually have a finite dimension, depending on the h sizes i of f strut or tie, i and sizes of support or bearing g plate. p Preliminary dimensions may be assumed and may need to be revised if the strength of the node is exceeded at one of the faces

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STRENGTH OF NODES

The strength g of the node depends p on the elements framing into the node The node can resist compression better than tension

NODES

Fnn = fce Anz = 0.85 n f 'c Anz

For nodal zones anchoring ga tie, we need to check whether the tie has enough d l development l length h within i hi the nodal zone Use the length within the extended nodal zone for checking the development length If the development length is not enough enough, bars must be bent, hooked, or welded to an anchored plate p

n

1.0 0.8 0.6 -

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NODES

EGCE 501

DEEP BEAMS

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DEEP BEAMS

Deep p beam is defined as member having: g

Clear span to depth ratio < 4 Regions with concentrated load less than 2d away from the face of support

DEEP BEAMS

In deep beams, strain compatibility theory (used in slender beams) is no longer valid. Strain distribution is no longer linear. Before B f 2002 deep 2002, d beams b are d designed i d using i empirical i i l formula f l After 2002, ACI uses Strut-And-Tie Method (in Appendix A)

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DEEP BEAMS

DEEP BEAMS

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STRUTANDTIE MODELS

MAXIMUM SHEAR

The maximum shear capacity of deep beams

Web Width ff Depth Effective

Source: AASHTO (2005) 31 32

MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT

REFERENCES

AASHTO (2005). LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Third Edition (2005 Interim Revisions), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington D.C. ACI Committee 318 (2005). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05), g Hills, MI. American Concrete Institute, Farmington MacGregor, J. G. and Wight, J. K. (2006). Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design, 4th Edition in SI Units, Prentice-Hall, Singapore, 1111 pages. Nawy, E. E G. G (2000) (2000). Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, NJ. NJ Reineck, K. H. (2002). "Modeling Structural Concrete with Strut-and-Tie Models Summarizing Discussion of the Examples as per Appendix A of ACI 318 - 2002." Examples for the Design of Structural Concrete with Strut-and-Tie Models (ACI SP-208), SP-208) American Concrete Institute, 225-242. Schlaich, J., Schfer, K., and Jennewein, M. (1987). "Toward a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete " PCI Journal, 74-150. Concrete. 74 150 Wang, C. K., Salmon, C. G., and Pincheira, J. A. (2007), Reinforced Concrete Design, 7th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, NJ. Wi h J. Wight, J K. K and d Parra-Montesinos, P M i G. G J J. (2003). (2003) S Strut-and-Tie d Ti M Model d l for f Deep D Beam B Design: D i A Practical Exercise Using Appendix A of the 2002 ACI Building Code. Concrete International, May 2003, pp. 63-70.

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