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Comparison of Steel Truss Profiles for Roofing Large Areas

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Com pa r ison of St e e l Tr u ss Pr ofile s for Roofin g La r ge Ar e a s

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Pr of. D.S.R. M ur t y , Profe ssor of Civil Engg. Andh ra Unive rsit y, Visa k ha pa t n a m , S.V.N. Sur ya na r a ya n a Ra j u, Se nior St ruct ur a l Engin ee r , D.V. Trin a dh a Ra o, Ju nior Engine e r, Vij a y Nir m a n Co Pvt . Lt d Current ly t he sust ained effort s of designers, m anufact ur ers of m at erials and builders t o innov at e and incorporat e unm at ched excellence in t he const ruct ion of roof t russes of large ar eas have result ed in highly funct ional, econom ical and pleasing st ruct ures. Funct ion halls, t heat ers, huge gat hering areas and warehouses are housing unit s wit h roofs and enclosing walls, but wit h no fur t her floors above. The charact erist ics of such unit s are long span st orage area, colum n free space for unint errupt ed view and m ovem ent of vehicular t raffic for loading and unloading of m at erial and goods. The m ost suit ed roof for such st ruct ures is st eel t russes. For funct ional ut ilit y and econom y, ident ificat ion of t he best t russ is t he aim of a designer . The present paper fulfills t he obj ect ive, wit h t he com parison of t hree different t russ profiles current ly being used. The t russes invest igat ed include convent ional t riangular t russ, t riangular t russ wit h vert ical m em bers at support s and t riangular arch t russ. The st udy concludes, highlight ing various advant ages associat ed wit h each t y pe of t he com pared t russes. The st udy fur t her m at erialises t hat t he t r adit ionally used t riangular t russ is m ore econom ical t han t he arched t riangular t r uss, t hough it offer s lesser v olum e of space below t he bot t om chord t han t he lat t er. I n t his com parison, only t russes are inv olved; purlin weight s, roof sheet ing, t russ support s, foundat ions, walling and floor ing are excluded. All t he t russ m em ber elem ent s are assum ed t ubular in sect ion. Triangular and t riangular arch t russes are com m only used in a variet y of t russ r oofed st ruct ures; t hese configurat ions of st eel roof t russes wit h t hree different spans are invest igat ed. The t russ profiles of different spans varying from 20m t o 30m are illust rat ed in Fig 1, Fig 2 and Fig 3. The spacing of t russes adopt ed in t his st udy is at 6m cent re t o cent re. Truss t op chord slope, is 1 in 3 and t he corresponding t op chord angle is 18.4 in all t he t russes. The parallel dist ance bet ween t he chords in arch t riangular t russ is 1.5 m for 25 m and 30 m spans and 1.25 m for 20 m span. The analysis and design is perform ed using SAP2000 program m e, and t he code followed is I S 800 - 1984. However, t he perm it t ed increase in allowable st ress by 33% due t o wind is not im plem ent ed. The t ot al t russ is analysed assigning hinge support at one end and roller support at t he ot her end. Support condit ions chosen for t he t russes reflect t he act ual sit uat ion of seat ing of t he t russ in pract ice, on t he colum ns t hat are generally flexible. The t russ elem ent s bet ween t he j oint s are t reat ed as rigid and capable of t ransferring m om ent and shear in addit ion t o m em brane force. Top and bot t om chord m em bers are designed for t heir respect ive forces opt im ally; sim ilarly diagonal and vert ical m em bers are designed individually. Howev er, one m et hod in norm al pract ice is t o adopt a uniform sect ion t hroughout t he chor d lengt h in t he t op and bot t om chords. But in t he present invest igat ion each m em ber in t he chord is designed for t he level of it s force in t he t op and bot t om chords. Loa ds on t he Tru ss The var ious loads t he t russ is subj ect ed t o are
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Comparison of Steel Truss Profiles for Roofing Large Areas

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1. Dead load 2. Live load 3. Wind load De a d Loa d Dead load on t he t russ includes self weight of t russ, purlins, t russ wind bracing, false ceiling and roof sheet ing. Wit h t he input of t hese det ails of t russ m em bers in t he program m e, t he self weight of t he t r uss is aut om at ically t aken int o account in t he analysis by com put er pr ogram m e SAP 2000. The weight of roof sheet , purlins, and ot her serv ices are fed in t he analysis as input dat a at 0.15 k N/ m 2 . Live Loa d As per I S 875- 1987, t he live load depends on t he slope angle of t russ t op chor d. For t he slope of 18.4 in t he present case, t he live load works out as 0.582 kN/ m 2 . W in d Loa d The wind pressur e is t aken as 2 k N/ m 2 . Ex t ernal wind pressure act ing on t he t op chord on t he windward side works out t o - 0.5256 P ( from t ables of I S 875 ( Part I I I ) - 1987) . On t he leeward side, t he pressure is - 0.4 P, where P is 2 kN/ m 2 ; ignoring t he increased wind pressure in t he corner and edges. I nt ernal wind pressure depends on t he per m eabilit y of t he st ruct ure. I t is t aken her e as 0.5 P, assum ing 5 t o 20 % of wall area as opening area. Ea rt hqua k e Loa d Act ion of eart hquake forces on t he t russ is not considered. Tr ia ngula r Tr uss Triangular t russ is t he m ost frequent ly used one, since ant iquit y . Top and bot t om chords resist t he m om ent com ing on t he t russ at ev ery sect ion along t he span, and t he diagonal and v ert ical m em bers in t he web resist shear force. The slope of t he t op chord nor m ally used, is in t he range of 1: 3 t o 1: 5. Higher slope 1: 3 consum es less st eel in t he t op and bot t om chords and m ore st eel in t he ver t ical and t he diagonals. As per t he m om ent resist ance requirem ent , t he dist ance bet ween t he t op and bot t om chords is t he m ax im um at t he m id span where m om ent on t he t russ is t he m axim um . The only disadvant age is t he zero lev er arm dist ance bet ween t op and bot t om chords at t he suppor t s. This invariably shoot s up t he forces in t he t op and bot t om chor ds t o higher levels, t han t hose in t he highest bending m om ent region, rendering t he t russ uneconom ical if sam e m em ber size is used t hroughout t he bot t om chord and sim ilarly in t he t op chord. To rem edy t his sit uat ion, one vert ical m em ber of sm all height m ay be provided at bot h t he suppor t s, t o lower forces in t he vicinit y of support s bot h in t he t op and bot t om chor ds. Vert ical and diagonal m em ber s of t he t russ prov ide t he needed separat ion bet ween t op and bot t om chords besides resist ing t he shear force at ever y sect ion along t he span. I nclinat ion of diagonal m em bers and t he direct ion of ext ernal for ces act ing on t he t russ, decide t he nat ure of force eit her as com pression or t ension in t he diagonal m em bers. Creat ion of t ensile forces rat her t han com pressive force is desirable in a slender st eel m em ber. For for ces act ing vert ically downwards like dead and live loads in t russes, inclinat ion of a diagonal t owards t he nearer support induces t ensile force in it . I n a t r uss, all ext er nal forces act ing on it ar e not of sam e dir ect ion. While dead and live loads act vert ically downwards, wind load generally act s perpendicular t o t he inclined t op chord, t he force is equivalent t o large vert ical force upwar d in direct ion and a horizont al force t owar ds nearer support . The direct ion of v ert ical force due t o wind is in opposit e direct ion t o t hat of dead and live load forces. This sit uat ion does not allow fixing diagonal inclinat ion uniquely, however, if t he designer is par t icular, t he inclinat ion can be decided depending on t he direct ion of t he higher vert ical for ce, am ong t he ext ernal v ert ical loads due t o dead, live and wind. The t russ ver t ical support s are subj ect ed t o m ainly vert ical forces and sm all horizont al for ce which is equivalent t o t he difference of hor izont al com ponent of ext ernal inclined wind forces on t he t wo t op chords. Geom et ry of t he t russ does not creat e any horizont al for ce on t he t wo support ing colum ns of t he t russ having t riangular configurat ion. Tr ia ngula r Tr uss w it h Ve rt ica l M e m ber s a t Support s Vert ical m em bers are locat ed on t he support s wit h t he only obj ect ive of reducing t he forces in t he t op and bot t om chords in t he vicinit y of support s. The result ing significant econom y in t op and bot t om chords is slight ly nullified by sm all increases in lengt hs of vert ical and diagonal m em bers. All ot her it em s applicable t o t riangular t russ equally apply t o t his t russ as well. The vert ical m em bers are kept at about 0.5m height arbit rarily. I ncrease in t his height r educes chor d forces in t he t riangular t russ; at t he sam e t im e, it increases lengt hs of t he web m em bers slight ly. Tr ia ngula r Ar ch Tru ss This t russ is ver y com m only used in ware houses, st orage sheds,

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indust ries for large st orage space near port s. Triangular ar ch t russ provides m ore st orage space t han a t riangular t russ below t he bot t om chord. Availabilit y of t his space for st orage is highly v aluable for com m er cial purposes. The slope of t he t op chord in t his t russ also can be in t he range of 1: 5 t o 1: 3. The dist ance bet ween t op and bot t om chord is part of design crit eria. Obviously as t he dist ance bet ween t he chords increases, t he forces in t he chor ds decrease. Based on a sm all analy sis, it is qualit at ively est ablished t hat 20 % increase in t he dist ance bet ween t he chords result s in about 20% decrease in t he chord forces. The slope of t he bot h chords induces horizont al forces on t he j unct ion of t russ bot t om and colum n t ops. The forces creat e m om ent in t he support colum ns. Due t o geom et ry of t he t russ, addit ional m om ent s ar e induced in support ing colum ns unlike in t he case of t riangular t russ. Colum ns in such st ruct ures ranging in height from 6 t o 15m becom e m ore expensive t han t he colum ns under com panion t riangular t r usses. Support s t o t russes are colum ns. These can be of st ruct ural st eel or reinforced concret e. Reinforced concret e colum ns are m aint enance free, cheaper, but m ore t im e consum ing in const ruct ion t han st eel colum ns. The foundat ions for t he colum ns depend on t ype of soil encount ered. I n sandy and gravely soils, cheaper shallow foundat ions can be adopt ed. I n loose and m arine clay soils, expensive deep foundat ions such as piles are needed. Under- ream ed pile is t he solut ion in black cot t on soils. Cheaper wooden piles can be t ried in place of expensiv e conv ent ional reinforced concret e piles, for subst ant ial econom y . Pur lins a n d Roof Cov er She e t Pur lins The only flexural m em bers in t russes are purlins. Convent ionally, purlins adopt ed are in m ild st eel wit h shapes such as, I beam , channels, angles ( t ubular sect ions are uneconom ical when subj ect ed t o bending) . Depending on purlin span, sag rods are used. For larger spans, built up st eel sect ions such as t riangular sect ions, used in railway plat form s are econom ical. Current ly, cold form ed st eel wit h yield st ress r anging from 450 t o 550 MPa is used in different shapes of sect ions such as C and Z. Use of t his m at erial reduces t he weight of purlins, but increases t he unit cost . Roof Sh e et Asbest os sheet com m only used in t he past is now very rarely ut ilised because of healt h hazards. Current ly, GALVALUME m et allic sheet is frequent ly used for roofing m at erial. The unit weight of GALVALUME sheet is far less t han t hat of asbest os. Sam e m at erial is used for cladding large t russ roofed areas. Discussion of Re sult s The t russes are designed wit h t ubular sect ions having y ield st ress equal t o 250 Mpa. Joinery of t russ m em bers is not t ouched in t his st udy. SPAN: 2 0 m , Tria ngula r Truss The analysis is carried out separat ely for dead, liv e and wind loads. Dead and wind load com binat ion yields highest forces in t he m em bers t hat have t o be considered for m em ber design. These forces ar e list ed in Tables 1 t hrough 3 for all t he t r usses and spans. The result ing m em ber forces in t he t op and bot t om chords depend on t he geom et ry of t he t russ and influence t he m agnit ude of forces. The dist ance bet ween t he t op and bot t om chords or t he lever arm is t he needed geom et ry . Due t o near zero or very sm all lever arm , t he forces in t he t op chord from support t o quart er span are highest and nearly sam e despit e lower bending m om ent s. The forces keep on reducing up t o cent r e of t russ from t he quart er span due t o increasing lev er ar m . Sam e t rend can be not iced in t he bot t om chord; adopt ing unifor m sect ion if needed in t he t op chord can be done, only wit h sm all econom y loss. I n t he diagonals closest t o t he m id span m axim um force occurs in t he web. The t ot al weight of t he t russ com es t o 7.78 kN. The split of t russ weight bet ween var ious m em ber s is wor ked out . Bot h t he chords weigh 6.60 kN and t he web m em bers weigh 1.18 kN which is 15.2 % of t he t ot al t russ weight . Tr ia ngula r Tr uss w it h Ve rt ica l M e m ber s a t Support s There is slight variat ion in t he geom et ry of t he t russ fr om t riangular t russ. I t is only inclusion of ver t ical m em bers at t he support s, elim inat ing zero lev er arm bet ween t op and bot t om chords and cr eat ing som e lever arm equal t o newly placed vert ical m em ber height . The geom et ry change helps reduct ion in chor d m em ber forces, bringing closer t o t he forces in t he r em aining part of chor d. Highest force in t he chor d m em ber in t he t riangular t russ wit h zero lev er arm near t he support 285.30 kN, has com e down t o 192.80 kN wit h t he int r oduct ion of a short ver t ical m em ber on t he support . The forces in all t he m em bers in t he t op chord have becom e nearly equal, differing only by a sm all percent of 19. The bot t om chord force dist r ibut ion along t he span is nearly sam e as t hat of t op chord. As for Forces t o t he chords weight forces in web m em bers, m ax im um force occurs in t he v ert ical m em ber in ot her vert icals are sm all. I n t he diagonals m axim um forces occur in t he m id span of t russ. The t ot al weight of t he t russ com es t o 7.66 kN while cont ribut e a weight of 6.13 kN, and t he web m em ber s cont ribut e a weight of web m em bers is 20 % of t he t ot al weight of t russ. on t he support . diagonal closest t op and bot t om of 1.53 kN. The

T ER M S & CO N D I T I O N S P R I V A CY P O L I CY CA N CEL L A2010 T I O NNBM / R EF UND Copyright Media P O L I CY Pv .S Lt d. A All Dt I CL I MRight E R s Reserv ed.

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Comparison of Steel Truss Profiles for Roofing Large Areas

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Tr ia ngula r Ar ch Tru ss I n t he t riangular arch t r uss t op and bot t om chords are separ at ed by a dist ance of 1.25m . Maxim um force appear s at quart er span from t he support . From t his locat ion, t he forces decrease m ore t owar ds support t han t owards apex. The t ot al weight of t he t r uss is 8.68 kN. The m axim um force in t he bot t om chord occurs at a dist ance of 1/ 4 t h of span from t he cent re. The forces decrease t o near zero value at t he support . The decrease in forces t owards m id span is sm all. The weight s of t op and bot t om chords are 3.33 k N and 3.18 kN, respect ively. The weight of web m em bers is 2.17 kN which const it ut es 25 % of t ot al height of t russ.

Com pa rison of Tr usse s, 2 0 m spa n The t ot al weight of t russ is least at 7.66 kN for t riangular t russ wit h ver t ical m em ber support s. Next higher t russ is t riangular t russ wit h 1.6 % higher t russ weight t han t he t russ wit h v ert ical m em bers at suppor t s. Highest weight is recorded by ar ch t r uss. Arch t russ is 11.6% higher t han t riangular t russ in t ot al weight and 13.4% higher t han t riangular t russ wit h ver t ical m em bers at support . Highest weight is consum ed by chords in t he t riangular t russ and lowest weight by t riangular t russ wit h ver t ical m em ber s at support s. While web m em bers consum e 25% t ot al weight of t russ in t riangular arch t r uss, m inim um weight of web m em bers occurs in t riangular t russ ( 15% of t ot al weight ) . The web m em bers consum e 20% of t ot al weight in t riangle t r uss wit h v ert ical m em bers at support s. Overall m ax im um econom y occurs in t riangle t russ wit h v ert ical m em bers at support s. Maxim um ut ilit y space occurs in t he case of t riangular arch t russ wit h 11.6% higher weight t han t he convent ional t riangular t russ.

2 5 m Spa n, Tr ia ngu la r Tr uss Wit h zero or near zero lever - arm at and in t he v icinit y of support respect ively, t he forces in t he m em bers close t o support in t he t op chord are m axim um in t wo- t hirds of half- span from support . I n t he rem aining one- t hird of half- span from t russ cent re, t he forces are com parat iv ely sm aller ( about 80% of m axim um forces) . Sim ilarly, t he m agnit ude of forces in t he t op chord is m axim um in t he t hree- fourt h of half- span from support . Forces in bot h t he chords are nearly sam e. While t he weight of t op chord m em bers equals 5.22kN, t he weight of bot t om chor d m em bers is 4.6k N. The weight of t op chord is slight ly m ore t han t hat of bot t om chord. The t ot al weight of web m em bers is

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Comparison of Steel Truss Profiles for Roofing Large Areas

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3.52kN. The t ot al weight of t russ works out t o 12.33kN. For 20m t riangular t russ, t he weight of t russ is 7.78kN. An increase of 5m in span increases t he weight of t russ by about 60% . Tr ia ngula r Tr uss w it h Ve rt ica l M e m ber s a t Support I n t op chord, provision of vert ical m em bers at support s and consequent av ailabilit y of som e lev er ar m bet ween chords reduce forces in t he t wo m em bers closest t o support . However, forces in t he rem aining t op chord m em bers are sim ilar t o t hose of t riangular t russ. The t ot al weight of t he t russ com es t o 11.81kN. The weight of t op chord m em bers is 5.22kN. I n t he bot t om chord t he forces in t he t wo end m em bers in t he half- span are sm all com par ed t o t hose in t he r em aining m em ber s. The t op chord and bot t om chord exhibit nearly sam e m agnit ude of for ces. The weight of bot t om chor d m em bers is 4.6kN. I n t he vert icals, t he m em bers at t he support exhibit sever al t im es m ore force t han in t he rem aining m em bers. Moreover , diagonals closest t o t he support and t he one closest t o cent re exhibit m axim um forces. The weight of web m em bers is 3.3k N, which is about 28% of t he t ot al t russ weight . The weight increase in com parison wit h t he com panion 20m span t russ is 4.15kN. I t is observed t hat t he weight of t russ increases by 54% for a 5m increase in span. Tr ia ngula r Ar ch Tru ss The forces are m axim um in t he t wo m em bers close t o t he support and one m em ber close t o t he cent re of span of t he t op chord. I n t he r em aining m em bers t he for ces ar e nearly sam e. The t ot al weight of t he t russ is 14.40kN. The force v ar iat ion in bot t om chord m em bers is nearly sam e as in t he case of t op chord. The weight of t op chord and bot t om chord are 4.88kN and 5.76kN, respect ively. Vert ical web m em bers except one m em ber at t wo- t hird of half span from t he support exhibit nearly sam e force. I n diagonals, m axim um forces occur closest t o t he support and at t russ cent re. The weight of t he web m em bers is 3.74kN, which work s out 26% of t ot al weight of t he t russ. Tot al weight of t his t russ differs from t he com panion 20m span t r uss by 5.72k N. A 5m incr ease in span incr eases t he weight of t he t russ by 66% .

3 0 m Spa n, Tr ia ngu la r Tr uss 30m t russ is fairly on a big span. The variat ion in m agnit ude of forces in t he t op chord is wit hin 16% in t he first quart er span from support . Howev er, t he for ces in t he second quart er span are about 75% of t hose in first quart er span. Sim ilarly , t he m axim um forces in t he bot t om chord occur in t he first quart er span from t he support . I n addit ion, t he forces in t he second quart er span for bot t om chord are about 85% of t he m axim um for ces in t he first quart er span. The t ot al weight of t russ com es t o 17.52kN. The weight of t op chord and bot t om chord are 7.2kN and 6.1kN, respect ively. I n t he web m em bers, forces are m inim um in first v ert ical nearest t o t he support and t wo vert icals near t he m id- span. The forces in t he rem aining m em bers do not vary significant ly. I n t he diagonals, t he forces increase gradually fr om a m inim um t o a m ax im um value from support t o m id- span, wit h sm all values in a couple of m em bers. The weight of web m em bers is 4.21kN which is 24% of t ot al weight of t russ. The weight of t russ for t his span increases by 125% and 42% com pared t o 20m and 25m spans, respect ively. Tr ia ngula r Tr uss w it h Ve rt ica ls a t Suppor t I ncorporat ion of vert ical m em bers at support s, unlike in t riangular t r uss facilit at es t he forces in t he t wo or t hr ee m em bers in t he t op chord nearest t o t he support t o be reduced significant ly in t une wit h t he sm all bending m om ent s near t he support s. Also, in t he bot t om chor d, t wo m em ber s nearest t o t he support and at cent re, regist er m inim um forces, because of sm allest bending m om ent at t he support and m axim um lever arm , in spit e of m axim um bending m om ent at t he cent re of t he span. The t ot al weight of t he t r uss work s out t o 17.18kN. The weight s of t op chor d and bot t om chor d ar e 6.04kN and 5.18kN, respect ively. I n t he web, t he forces are m ax im um at support and m inim um at cent r e of span for obv ious r easons. Forces in t he diagonal m em bers are m axim um at support and cent re of span. I n t he ot her m em bers, t he for ces are varying arbit rarily.

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Comparison of Steel Truss Profiles for Roofing Large Areas

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The weight of web works out t o 5.96kN, which is 35% of t ot al weight of t russ. This t russ weight is 125% and 45% m ore t han t hose of it s com panion 20m span and 25m span, respect ively . Tr ia ngula r Ar ch Tru ss I n t he t op chor d m em ber s, t he forces increase gradually from support t o t russ cent re. The forces in bot t om chor d follow t he sam e t rend. The weight s of t op chord and bot t om chord are 10.34kN and 8.62kN, respect ively. I n t he web, t he forces in t he vert icals gradually decrease up t o quart er span and again increase up t o m id- span of t russ. The forces in t he diagonals decr ease from support t o m id- span except in t he t wo m em bers closes t o t he m id - span of t russ. The weight of web m em ber s is 4.55kN which is 19.3% of t ot al weight of t russ. This t russ wit h 30m span weighs 170% and 57% m ore t han it s com panion t russes of 20m span and 25m span, respect ively.

Table 4 illust r at es com parison of t russ m em ber weighs for different t russ profiles and spans Con clusion Based on t he invest igat ion undert ak en, t he following conclusions can be drawn for st eel roof t russes. The it em s invest igat ed r elat e t o funct ional ut ilit y, t ot al weight of t russ and t he result ing econom y. Com m only used t hree t ypes of t russes are st udied. They are t riangular t r uss, t riangular t russ wit h vert ical m em bers at support s and t riangular ar ch t russ. 1. Convent ional t r iangular t russes ar e m ost suit ed wit h colum n free space t o be used in audit orium s, cinem a halls, funct ion halls and large gat hering areas facilit at ing pr ovision of false ceiling and air- condit ioning. 2. Triangular t russes can be rendered m ore econom ical wit h t he locat ion of t wo v ert ical m em bers of sm all height on t he support s. 3. Triangular arch t r uss affords m or e space below t he bot t om chord for st orage purposes t han bot h t riangular t russ and t riangular t russ wit h vert ical m em ber s on support s. 4. 1. For a given span, t riangular t russ wit h vert ical m em bers at t he suppor t s weighs least and t riangular arch t russ weight s highest . 5. Weight s of web m em bers in t hese t russes const it ut e 15 t o 35% of t ot al weight of t russ in all t russ profiles and spans; t he highest per cent age occur ring in t riangular t russes wit h t he ver t ical m em bers at support s, ex cept in t he lowest span, 20m . 6. St eel consum pt ion of t russes per sq. m et er of built - up area of t russ increases wit h t he area covered by t russ and varies from 0.064k N t o 0.131kN for spans 20m t o 30m . 7. 1. Use of uniform sect ion for t he m axim um force in t he t op and bot t om chords inst ead of individual sect ions for t he corresponding for ces does not result in m inim um am ount of st eel and econom ical advant age in a t russ. 8. Though purlins have not been part of t he present st udy, in t he t ot al t russ roof, t he weight of st eel purlins const it ut e a m aj or percent age of t russ weight and hence deserve special at t ent ion in t heir select ion and adopt ion.
NBMCW June, 2 010

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