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Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

Digital Signals: o o o o Can be manipulated more easily than analog signals They are easier to multiplex Can easily be encrypted to ensure privacy Susceptible to noise

Data Compression can be used with a digital signal to reduce its bandwidth to less than that required to transmit the original analog signal. Information Signal sometimes called: Intelligence, the modulating signal, or the baseband signal. The most basic possible communication system consist of a TRANSMITTER, a RECEIVER, and a CHANNEL. Modulation also allows more than one information signal to use the radio channel by simply using a different carrier frequency for each. Demodulation is performed at the receiver in order to recover the original information. Modem converts digital signals generated by the computer into analog form for transmission over the medium at the transmitting end and reverse at the receiving end. In Radio Communication: o The electrical signal is transformed into a high frequency signal and sent over the air. Multiplexer combines the signal from different sources to transmit on the channel. Demultiplexer Used to separate the signals.


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

Multiple Access When two or more share the same channel, each channel has to transmit the signal only at the specified time or using a specific frequency band. Source Coding o The input signal has to be processed to reduce its bandwidth so that it can be accommodated on the channel. o o Reducing of bandwidth in proportion to the channels bandwidth. Purpose is to reduce the bit rate of the data.

Processes: Compression Coding we reduce bit rate by adding noise to the data. Most video, image and audio information we can add a lot of noise without causing serious damage. Compaction Coding The second source coding step, introduces no noise. It is exactly invertible at the receiver. Channel Coding o o to package data for passage through the channel. Redundancy (packing data) is added to the signal data in a very controlled way, allows us to detect, even correct at the receiver any bits that are altered by channel noise. Error detection and Correction if the channel is noisy, the received data will have errors. Channel Coding Correction of the errors is done at the receiving end. Switching in telephone networks, the users are to be connected based on the number dialed. Exchange other name for Telephone Switch.


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

Signalling/Signalling Information when you dial a particular telephone number you are telling the network whom you want to call. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: POINT TO POINT takes between two end points. There is one calling party and one called party. Ex. Telephone System POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT There is one sender and multiple recipients. Ex. Teleconferencing BROADCASTING There is a central location from which information is sent to many recipients. Ex. Audio (radio) or Video (TV) Broadcasting SIMPLEX There is only one sender and one receiver they cannot exchange roles. Ex. Intercom System HALF-DUPLEX possible in both directions between two entities (computers or persons) but one at a time. Ex. Walkie Talkie FULL-DUPLEX two parties the caller and the called part can communicate simultaneously. Ex. Telephone System TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS: Attenuation Distortion The amplitude of the signal wave decreases as the signal travels through the medium. Delay Distortion result of different frequency components arriving at different times in the guided media such as COPPER OR COAX CABLE. Noise is any form of unwanted signals.


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o Thermal Noise rapid and random movement of electrons within a conductor due to thermal agitation. o Impulse Noise High amplitude peaks of short duration in the total noise spectrum. Consists of sudden burst of irregularly shaped pulses that generally last between a few microseconds and a fraction of millisecond. o o Produce a sharp, popping or a crackling sound, it can be devastating. Crass Talk Unwanted coupling between signal paths. Intermodulation Noise When two signals of different frequencies are sent thru the medium, due to non-linearity of transmitters, frequency components (sidebands) are produced. o Skin Effect - is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor. The electric current flows mainly at the "skin" of the conductor, between the outer surface and a level called the skin depth. Analog vs. Digital ANALOG Communication The signal, whose amplitude varies continuously is transmitted over the medium. Analog communication systems are badly affected by noise. DIGITAL Communication 1s and 0s are transmitted as voltage pulses. Much more immune to noise. Advantages: o Reliable Communication; less sensitivity (temperature)


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o o o o o o o o o o Easy multiplexing Easy signaling Hook Status, address digits, call progress info. Voice and data integration Easy processing like encryption and compression Easy system performance monitoring Integration of transmission and switching QOS (Quality of Services) monitoring Signal regeneration, operation at low SNR, superior performance. Integration of services leading to ISDN Increased bandwidth 64 KB for 4 kHz, without compression (less with compression) Need for precision timing Bit, character, frame synchronization needed ADC to DAC conversions Very often non-linear ADC and DAC used, some performance degradation o Higher complexity

Disadvantages: o o o o o o


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

DIGITAL RADIO Transmission of digitally modulated analog carriers between two or more points in a communication system. Transmission rate is a function of two variables: Frequency number of voltage polarity alternation or electromagnetic field oscillation that occurs in one second. Cycle alteration or oscillation Bandwidth frequency range over which an information signal is transmitted or received. o It is span of frequencies within spectrum occupied by a signal and used by the signal for conveying information. o The greater the bandwidth of the channel, the more frequencies are available and more data can be sent through the channel. Information Capacity represents the number of independent symbols that can be carried through the system in a given unit of time. Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 1922) Edinburgh, Scotland. He did numerous experiments in sound and the furthering of his fathers work on Visible Speech for the deaf. o Bell held 18 patents in his name alone and 12 and he shared with collaborations. Thomas Watson Bell worked with Thomas W. on the design and patent of the first practical phone. Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 188 May 1, 1970) was an electronic researcher.


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

Contributions: Hartley Oscillator, Hartley Transform and foundation of information theory. Claude E. Shannon (1947) a research mathematician, working with Bell Labs. Contributions: Created Theory of Communication designed to facilitate info. Transmission over telephone lines, Shannons Linear Model Warren Weaver he added the component of feedback to Shanno ns Linear model, thus making it in effect circular. Shannon Weaver Model one of the most inter-personal communication models used today. The transmission speed are measured: Bits per second measures the rate at which information bits can be transmitted on a given communication line. Measure the information carrying capacity of the channel. Baud rate Measures the maximum number of data symbols, or electronic signals that can be sent per sec. over a communication line. It determines the BW required to send signal. FOUR DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES: AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK) o o o The simplest digital modulation technique Uses amplitude modulated analog carriers to transport digital info. Low quality, low cost type of digital radio

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK) o Relatively simple, low performance


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o Is restricted to low performance, low cost, asynchronous modems that are used for data communications over analog, voice band telephone lines. o o Has poorer error performance compared to PSK or QAM Seldom used in high performance digital radio systems Other types Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) o A form of constant-amplitude angle modulation similar to conventional Frequency Modulation o Modulating signal is a binary pulse stream that varies between two discrete voltage levels. Minimum Shift Keying FSK o o A form of Continuous phase FSK (CPFSK) A binary FSK except that the mark and space frequencies are synchronized with the input binary bit rate. PHASE SHIFT KEYING (PSK) o o A form of angle modulated, constant amplitude signal digital modulation. The input signal is a binary digital signal and a limited number of output phases are possible. Other types Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) o Two output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency, one output phase represents a logic 1 and the other a logic 0. o Also called as Phase Reversal Keying (PRK), and biphase modulation. Sometimes called Quadrature PSK Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) o


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o o There are four output phases for a single carrier frequency The binary input data are combined into groups of two called dibits. An M-ary encoding technique where M=8 There are 8 possible output phases The incoming bits are considered in groups of 3 bits called tribits (2 3=8) An M-ary encoding technique where M=16 There are 16 possible output phases Incoming data in groups of 4 bits 24=16 called quadbits The output does not change until 4 bits have been inputted into the modulator. In QPSK: I Channel means In-Phase Channel In 8-PSK: C Channel stands for Control Channel. In 8-PSK: The tribit code between the two adjacent phases changes by only one bit, this is Gray Code. QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) o A form of digital modulation where the digital information is contained in both the amplitude and phase of the transmitted carrier. Other types 8-QAM o o M= 8 The output signal is not a constant amplitude signal M=16

8-Phase PSK (8-PSK) o o o

16- Phase PSK (16-PSK) o o o o

16-QAM o


Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o The input data is acted upon in groups of four bits Also called Information density Used to compare the performance of one digital modulation technique to another o The ratio of the transmission bit rate to the minimum bandwidth required for a particular modulation scheme. PULSE MODULATION o Consists essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting those samples into discrete pulses and transporting the pulses from a source to a destination over a physical transmission medium. Types: Analog pulse Modulation Digital Pulse Modulation Sampling a periodic sample is taken and only the samples are transmitted. Nyquist Rate The minimum sampling frequency is twice the highest modulating frequency. ANALOG PULSE MODULATION Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) o Pulse is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal o The amplitude of a pulse coincides with the amplitude of the analog signals. o Types: Dual and Single Polarity PAM Pulse Width Modulation

Bandwidth Efficiency o o

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Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o Sometimes called Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM) or Pulse Length Modulation (PLM) o Pulse is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the analog signal at the time signal is sampled. o Types: Symmetrical, Leading Edge, and Trailing Edge The position of a constant width pulse within a prescribed time slot is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. DIGITAL PULSE MODULATION Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) o The analog signal is sampled and then converted to a serial n-bit binary code for transmission o Each code has the same number of bits and requires the same length of time for transmission o o o o o o o Processes: Sample, Quantized and Encode Most prevalent form of pulse modulation Was developed by AT & T in 1937 (American Telephone and Telegraph) Alex H. Reeves (Inventor) 1960 became prevalent with the advent of solid state electronics Not a modulation but a form of Source Coding Preferred method of communications within the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) because it is easy to combine digitized voice and digital data into a single high speed digital signal and propagate it over either metallic or optical fiber cables. PCM Sampling Pulse Position Modulation o

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Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o To periodically sample the continually changing analog input voltage and convert those samples to a series of constant amplitude pulses that can be more easily converted to binary PCM code. Two basic techniques: Natural Sampling o The tops of the sample pulses retain their natural shape during the sample interval, making it difficult for an ADC to convert the sample to a PCM code. Flat Top Sampling o The most common method which is accomplished in a sample and hold circuit. o The purpose of the sample and hold circuit is to periodically sample continually changing analog input voltage and convert those samples to a series of constant amplitude PAM voltage levels. PCM SAMPLING RATE Nyquist Sampling Theorem establishes the minimum sampling rate fs that can be used for a given PCM system If fs is less than two times fa an impairment called Alias or Foldover Distortion occurs. Quantization o Is the process of converting an infinite number of possibilities of a finite number of conditions o The process of rounding off the amplitude of flat tops samples to a manageable number of levels

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Digital Communication PRELIM REVIEWER

o Converting an analog signal to a PCM code with a limited number of combination requires quantization PCM Code o The codes currently used for PCM are sign magnitude codes, where the most significant bit (MSB) is the sign and the remaining bits are used for magnitude. Folded Binary Code the codes on the bottom half of the table are a mirror image of the codes on the top half, except for the sign bit. Quantization Interval or Quantum the magnitude difference between adjacent steps Overload Distortion (Peak Limiting) if the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest quantization interval Quantizing Assigning PCM codes to absolute magnitudes Resolution magnitude of a quantum Resolution = Voltage of minimum step size = Voltage of least significant bit (Vlsb) of the PCM code Quantization Error (Qe) the rounded off error The smaller the magnitude of a quantum, the better (smaller) the resolution and the more accurately the quantized signal will resemble the original analog message.

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