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THE CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING PANEL ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA SYDNEY DIVISION 28 August 2012

DetailingofReinforcement inConcreteStructures
R.I.Gilbert

Introduction:
Detailing isoftenconsideredtobethepreparationofworking drawings showingthesizeandlocationofthereinforcementina concretestructure. Detailinginvolvesthe communicationoftheengineersdesigntothe contractorswhobuildthestructure.It involvesthetranslationofa goodstructuraldesignfromthecomputerorcalculationpadinto the finalstructure. Gooddetailingensuresthatreinforcement andconcreteinteractefficiently toprovide satisfactorybehaviour throughoutthe completerangeofloading. Inthisseminar,guidelinesforsuccessful detailing instructuralelementsand connectionsareoutlined.

Thedetailingrequirements ofareinforcementbardependonthe reasonsforitsinclusioninthestructure. Reasonsinclude: 1. Tocarryinternaltensileforces,therebyimpartingstrength andductility; 2. Tocontrol flexuralcracking; 3. Tocontroldirecttensioncracking inrestrainedstructures; 4. Tocarrycompressiveforces; 5. Toprovide restraint tobarsincompression; 6. Toprovideconfinement toconcreteincompression; 7. Tolimitlongtermdeformation; 8. Toprovideprotectionagainstspalling;and 9. Toprovidetemporarysupport forotherreinforcementduring construction.

Guidingprinciples:
Determinelocationanddirectionofallinternalforces (i.e. establishaloadpath thatsatisfiesequilibrium); Useadequatelyanchored reinforcementwhereveratensile forceisrequiredforequilibrium; Useonlyductilereinforcement (ClassNorbetter)whenthe reinforcementisrequiredforstrength; Neverrely ontheconcretesabilitytocarrytension(itmaynot exist); Includeadequatequantitiesofreinforcementforcrackcontrol; Ensuresteeldetailsarepractical andthatsteelcanbefixedand concretecanbesatisfactorilyplacedandcompactedaround complexdetailswithadequatecover;and Ensuredetailsareeconomical.

Sourcesoftension:
1. Tensioncausedbybending(andaxialtension):
Flexuraltensioncracks

Flexuraltensioncracks

Negative bending Positive bending

Axial tension

Directtensioncracks

Sourcesoftension:
2.Tensioncausedbyloadreversals:

Cantilever beam or slab

Simple beam or slab

Impact and rebound loading

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
3. Tensioncausedbyshearandtorsion:

T C Shear

C T

Flexureshearcracks

Tensioncarriedbystirrups

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
4.Tensionnearthesupportsofbeams:

Thelongitudinaltensionatthesupportisgreaterthanindicated bythebendingmomentdiagram. Thetensileforceatthebottomoftheinclinedcrackisequalto thecompressiveforceatthetopofthecrack.

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
AS36002009(8.1.10.4):
Lst

Sufficientbottomsteelmustbe anchoredforalength(Lst)pastthe midpointofthebearingtodevelop atensileforceofV*cot v/ (plusany additionalforcearisingfromrestraint)

Thisrequirementisdeemedtobesatisfiedifeither Ast isextendedpastthefaceofthesupportby 12db ;or Ast isextendedpastthefaceofthesupportby 12db +D/2 whereAst isthetensilesteelarearequiredatmidspan

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
5. Tensionwithinthesupportsofbeamsandslabs:

Crackingduetoinadequate slipjointbetweenslaband supportingbrickwall

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
6. Tensionwithinconnections:
2T
C M T M C T M M

(a)Internalforces(b)Crackpattern Primarygirder Compressionstruts

Hanger reinf.to carry tension

Secondary beam Reactionfromsecondarybeam appliedhere

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
7. Tensionatconcentratedloads:

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
8. Tensioncausedbydirectionalchangesofinternalforces:
T R
(a)

Lsy.t

T
(b)

stirrups
Asv atspacing s

(c)

CC RPotentialcrackinweb

Sourcesoftension(ctd):
8. Tensioncausedbydirectionalchangesofinternalforces:
T R
(a)

Lsy.t

T
(b) qt

stirrups
Asv atspacing s

(c)

C T rm T Ast

Transversetension:
qt = A f T = st sy rm rm

Requiredstirrupspacing:
s= Asv f vy qt = Asv f vy . .rm Ast f sy

Anchorageofdeformedbarsistension:
F F F

T
F F F

Tensile stresses

a) Forces exerted by concrete on a deformed bar at a tensile anchorage


Atr

(b) Tensile stresses in concrete


Atr

Splitting Splittin cracks

(c) Horizontal splitting due insufficient bar spacing.

(d) Vertical splitting due to insufficient cover

(e) Splitting (bond) failure at a lapped splice.

Splittingfailuresarounddevelopingbars.

Forareinforcementbartoreachitsyieldstressatacritical crosssection,aminimumlengthofreinforcingbar(an anchorage)isrequiredoneithersideofthesection. AS36002009specifiesaminimumlength,calledthedevelopment length,Lsy.t,overwhichastraightbarintensionmustbeembeddedin theconcreteinordertodeveloptheyieldstress.


Lsy.t As fsy

Lsy .t

d b f sy 4 fb

fb

Anaveragedesignultimatebondstressfb isassumedattheinterface betweentheconcreteandthereinforcingbar( =0.6). fb dependson typeandconditionofreinforcingbar;strength andcompactionofconcrete;concretecover; barspacing;transversereinforcement; transversepressure(ortension).

AS36002009:

(13.1.2.2)

Thebasicdevelopmentlength,Lsy.tb,is

Lsy.tb =

0.5k1k3 f sy d b k 2 f c

29k1d b

wherek1 =1.3 forahorizontalbarwith>300mmofconcretecast belowitandk1 =1.0forallotherbars; k2 =(132 db)/100 ; k3=1.0 0.15(cd db)/db (but0.7 k3 1.0) cd fc isthesmalleroftheconcretecovertothebarorhalf thecleardistancetothenextparallelbar; shallnotbetakentoexceed65MPa

AS36002009

(13.1.2.2)
a/2

c c1

cd =min(a/2,c,c1)

AS3600-2009 ctd

(13.1.2.3)

ThedevelopmentlengthLsy.t maybetakenasthebasic developmentlengthormayberefinedtoincludethebeneficial effectsofconfinementsbytransversesteelortransversepressure andis

Lsy.t = k4 k5 Lsy.tb

wherek4 =1 K

(but0.7 k4 1.0);and

k5 =1.0 0.04p (but0.7 k5 1.0);

AS3600-2009 ctd
k4 = 1 - K
where

(13.1.2.3)

Lsy.t = k 4 k5 Lsy.tb

= (Atr Atr.min)/As ; Atr = cross-sectional area of the transverse reinforcement along the development length Lsy.t Atr.min = cross-sectional area of the minimum transverse reinforcement, which may be taken as 0.25As for beams and 0 for slabs As = cross-sectional area of a single bar of diameter db being anchored K = is a factor that accounts for the position of the bars being anchored relative to the transverse reinforcement, with values given below:

K = 0.1

K = 0.05

K=0

FIGURE 13.1.2.3(B) VALUES OF K FOR BEAMS AND SLABS

AS3600-2009 ctd

(13.1.2.3)

ThedevelopmentlengthLst todevelopastress st lowerthan fsy :

Lst = Lsy.t

st
f sy

12d b

Whencalculatingst dontforgettoincludethestrengthreductionfactor ( =0.8).IfT* isthedesignultimatetensileforceinthereinforcement causedbythefactoreddesignloads,then:

T * st Ast
andtherefore

st

T* Ast

AS3600-2009 ctd

(13.1.2.3)

Thedevelopmentlengthofadeformedbarwithastandardhook orcog:
4d or 70mm b70mm 4dbor

X X
A

X 0.5d did /2 id 0.5L sy.t 0.5 Lsy.t


Standard hook (135 bend). (b)(b) Standard hook (135 bend)

ddid id 0.5L sy.t 0.5L sy.t

(a) Standard hook (180 bend) (a)Standard hook (180 bend)

X X

did /2

0.5Lsy.t 0.5L sy.t

(c) Standard cog (90 (c) Standard cog (90 bend) bend).

AS3600-2009 WORKEDEXAMPLE:
Considertheminimumdevelopmentlength requiredforthetwo terminated28mmdiameterbottombars inthebeamshownbelow. Takefsy = 500 MPa;fc = 32 MPa;covertothe28mmbarsc = 40 mm; andtheclearspacingbetweenthebottombarsa = 60 mm. ThecrosssectionalareaofoneN28barisAs = 620 mm2 andwithN12 stirrupsat150mmcentres,Atr = 110 mm2.
P P
A
12mm stirrups at 150mm ctrs Two terminated bars

LL +d sy.t sy.t

Lsy.t + D

Elevation

Section A-A

Worked Example ctd


Forbottombars: k1 = 1.0;

(13.1.2.3)

Lsy.tb =

0.5k1k3 f sy d b k 2 f c

For28mmdiameterbars: k2 = (132 28)/100 = 1.04; Theconcreteconfinementdimension, cd = a/2 = 30 mm,andtherefore k3 = 1.0 0.15(30 28)/28 = 0.99 Thebasicdevelopmentlengthistherefore

Lsy.tb

0.5 1.0 0.99 500 28 = = 1178 mm ( > 29k1d b ) 1.04 32

Theminimumnumberofstirrupsthatcanbelocatedwithinthebasic developmentlengthis7.Therefore,Atr = 7 x 110 = 770 mm2. TakingAtr.min = 0.25As = 155 mm2,theparameter

= (770 155)/620 = 0.99

Worked Example ctd

(13.1.2.3)

Lsy.t = k4 k5 Lsy.tb

FromFigure13.1.2B,K = 0.05 (asitisthetwointeriorbarsthatarebeing developed)andtherefore

k4 = 1.0 K = 1.0 0.05 0.99 = 0.95


Itisassumedthatinthislocationthetransversepressureperpendicularto theanchoredbar(p)iszero,andhencek5 = 1.0. FromEq.13.1.2.3:

Lsy.t = k4 k5 Lsy.bt = 0.95 1.0 1178 = 1120 mm.


Thestrengthofthebeammustbecheckedatthepointwherethetwo barsareterminated(ie.atLsy.t+d fromtheconstantmomentregion)

LappedSplicesforbarsintension(13.2.2 AS36002009):
PLANAR VIEW

sL

a db sb

Note: For the purposes of determining cd, the dimension a shall be taken equal to (sL-db) irrespective of the value of sb.

Lsy.t.lap

,= min ( ((a a /2, a/ 2, cc )) ) crit cdcd = min /2,

(i) 100% of barsspliced spliced(no (nostaggered staggered splices) splice) (i) 100% of bars
0.3Lsy.t.lap sL a
PLANAR VIEW

Note: For the purposes of determining cd, the dimension a shall be taken equal to 2sL irrespective of the value of sb.

sb

Lsy.t.lap
(a a/ 2, c ) ) cd , == min ( /2, crit c min (ac /2, c)

(ii) splices (ii) 50% 50% staggered staggered splices

AS36002009:

13.2.2

LappedSplicesforbarsintension:
Lsy.t.lap = k7 Lsy.t 29k1d b
k7 shallbetakenas1.25,unless As providedisgreaterthan As required andnomorethanonehalfofthetensilereinforcementatthesectionis spliced,inwhichcase k7 =1. Innarrowelementsormembers(suchasbeamwebsandcolumns),the tensilelaplength(Lsy.t.lap)shallbenotlessthanthelargerofk7 Lsy.t and Lsy.t + 1.5sb,wheresb isthecleardistancebetweenbarsofthelapped spliceasshowninFigure8.15.

Considerthelappedsplice requirementsforN12barsat200mmcentres inthe bottomofaslab.Cover=20mm.Concretestrength=25MPa. AS36002009:


Lsy.t.lap = 1.25Lsy.tb =
= 1.25

ACI31808:(Simplified Clause12.2.2)
0.5k1k3 f syd b k2 f c
Llap = 1.3l d = 1.3
= 1.3

f y t e 2.1 f c

db

0.5 1.0 0.90 500 12 1.2 25

500 1.0 1.0 2.1 1.0 25

12

= 563 mm = 46.9 d b
(c. f . 369 mm = 30.7d b in AS3600 2001)

= 743 mm = 61.9 d b

ACI31808:(Refined Clause12.2.3)
Llap = 1.3l d = 1.3 f y t e s d c b + K tr b 1.1 f c ( ) db

= 1.3

500 1.0 1.0 0.8 12 26 + 0 1.1 1.0 25 ( ) 12

= 524 mm = 43.7 d b

Detailingofbeams:
Anchorageoflongitudinalreinforcement:
UnfavorableanchorageTransversetension

Possible cracks

Favorableanchorage Normal pressure

Elevation Section
C T T T

Whenbottomreinforcementis terminatedawayfromthesupport, thediagonalcompressionintheweb improvestheanchorage.

AS3600-2009

Clause 8.1.10.1

Currentwording: Thedesignforflexuralstrengthanddetailingofflexuralreinforcement
andpretensioned tendonsatterminationshallbeextendedfromthe theoreticalcutoffpoint,ordebonding point,byalengthof1.0D +Lsy.t,or 1.0D +Lpt,whereDisthememberdepthatthetheoreticalcutoffpointor theoreticaldebonding point Problem1: Thewordingdoesnotmakesense Problem2: Theruleisincorrect abardoesnothavetodevelop itsyieldstressatthetheoreticalcutoffpoint

Amendedwording:
Whereflexuralreinforcementandpretensioned tendonsaretobe terminated,thebarsortendonsshallbeextendedfromthetheoreticalcut offpoint,ortheoreticaldebonding point,byalengthofatleast1.0D +Lst, or1.0D +Lpt,respectively,whereDisthememberdepthatthetheoretical cutoffpointortheoreticaldebonding point

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
tiltedanchoragenearhorizontalanchorage diagonalcompression

Reactionpressure

Reactionpressure

SectionsandElevations

Thetransversetensionthatmaycausesplittingin theplaneofahookedanchorage atasupportcan beovercomeatabeamsupportsimplybytiltingthe hookandexposingittothenormalreactionpressure.

Plan

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Inclinedclamping bars

Potentialfailure surface

Ifthebearinglengthatasupportissmallandclosetothefreeendofa member,asliding shear failure alongasteepinclinedcrackmayoccur. Additionalsmalldiameterbarsmayberequiredperpendiculartothe potentialfailureplane

Detailingofbeams(ctd):

welded crossbar

endplate

recessed angle

(a)(b)

(c)

Wherethelengthavailableforanchorageissmall,mechanical anchorages intheformofweldedcrossbarsorendplatesmaybeused. Commoninprecastelements,corbels,bracketsandatothersupport points.

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Compressivestrut Member Centreline

Binding reinforcement

Anchorageis critical

Tie DoNOTterminateanybottombars

Inshortspanmembers,whereloadiscarriedtothesupportbyarch action,itisessentialthatallbottomreinforcement(thetieofthearch) isfullydevelopedateachsupport.Closelyspacedtransversestirrups canbeusedtoimproveanchorageofthetiereinforcement.

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Concentratingtopsteelatasupportinabeamwithinthewebcanlead tocrackcontrolproblemsintheadjacentslab(Leonhardt etal.)

Crack width (0.01 mm))

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500


As = 1030 mm2 As = 1020 mm2

Load (kN)

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
AnchorageofStirrups:
Compressivetopchord(concrete) Inclinedwebstruts (concrete)

Verticalties(stirrups)

Tensilebottomchord(Ast)

Tensioninstirrup ismoreorlessconstantoverheightofverticalleg. Therefore,allpointsonverticallegmustbefullydeveloped Stirrupanchorages shouldbelocatedinthecompressivezone and beshownonthestructuraldrawings. Theareaofshearreinforcementrequiredataparticularcross sectionshouldbeprovidedforadistanceD fromthatcrosssection inthedirectionofdecreasingshear(AS36002009 Clause8.2.12.3).

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
TypesofStirrups:

Tensilelapped splice

(a)Incorrect Inadequateanchorage A90 cogisineffectiveifthe coverconcreteislost

(b)Undesirable(butsatisfactory) Inregionswhereductilityisrequired, theopenstirrups(commonlyusedin posttensionedbeams)donotconfinethe compressiveconcrete

Compressiveside

Tensileside

(c)Satisfactory

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
TypesofStirrups:

Cd Ts cracks Ts

Cd Ts

Compressionstrut

RigidFlexible

Multilegstirrups shouldbeusedinmemberswithwidewebsto avoidtheundesirabledistributionofdiagonalcompressionshown Multilegsturrups bettercontrolshearcrackingandhelpmaintain sheartransferthoughaggregateinterlock

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
TypesofStirrups:

Dowel crack

Multilegstirrups arealsofarbetterforcontrollingthe longitudinalsplittingcracks(knownasdowelcracks)that precipitatebondfailureofthelongitudinalbarsintheshearspan. Oftenthiscriticalshearcrackoccurswherebottombarsare terminated intheshearspan.Additionalshearreinforcementmay berequiredinthisregion(Clause8.1.10.5 AS36002009).

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Crackcontrolprovidedbyshearreinforcement(Leonhardt etal):
0.8 Maximum crack width (mm) 0.7
1

0.6 0.5
2

0.4 0.3
3

0.2 0.1
4

0 0 200 400 600 Load P (kN)

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
SupportandLoadingPoints:
support

Internal tie

(a)Supportunder

(b)Supportover

Whenthesupportisatthesoffitofabeamorslab,thediagonal compressionpassesdirectlyintothesupportasshown Whenthesupportisatthetopofthebeam,thediagonalcompression mustbecarriedbackuptothesupportviaaninternaltie. Itisessentialthatadequatelyanchoredreinforcement beincluded toactasthetensiontieandthereinforcementmustbeanchored intothesupport

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Slabsupportedbyupturnedbeam:

Unreinforced surface

(a)Incorrectdetail

(b)Correctdetail

Theverticalcomponentofthediagonalcompressionintheslab (i.e.thereactionfromtheslab)mustbecarriedintensionuptothe topoftheupturnedbeam. Dontrelyontheunreinforcedsurfacetocarrythistension

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Beamtobeamconnection:
Primary girder Secondary beam Compressionstrutinsecondarybeam

suspension reinforcement

R*

(a)Section

Theareaofadditional suspensionreinforcement is R* Asr = f sy

Stirrups forshear

Suspension reinforcement

R*

(b)Primarygirder Elevation

(c)Primarygirder Trussanalogy

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
Beamtobeamconnection:

(b)Internalrods

Whenaloadisappliedtotheundersideofareinforcedconcrete

beam,somedevicemustbeusedtotransferthishangingloadtothe topofthebeam

Detailingofbeams(ctd):
HalfJointordappedendjoint:

(a)Halfjoint

Hairpinreinforcement Suspensionreinforcement

(b)Strutandtiemodel Reinforcementdetail

(c)Alternativestrutandtiemodel

Reinforcementdetail

DetailingforCrackControl
Excessivecracking duetorestraineddeformation orexternal loads isacommoncauseofdamageinreinforcedconcrete structures. Shrinkagecausesagradualwideningofexistingcracks and timedependentcracking inpreviouslyuncrackedregions. Excessivecracking inthehardenedconcretecanbeavoided byincludingsufficientreinforcementatsufficientlyclose spacings. The minimumquantitiesofreinforcement specifiedforcrack controlinAS3600maynotbewhatisactuallyrequiredinall circumstances.

Thewidthofacrack dependson thequantity,orientationanddistributionofthe reinforcingsteelcrossingthecrack; concretecoverandmembersize; thebondbetweenconcreteandreinforcement inthevicinityofthecrack; thedeformationcharacteristicsofconcrete;and theshrinkagestrain(andthereforethetimeafter crackformation). thecauseofthecrack thedegreeofrestraint

Oftensignificantlymorereinforcementthantheminimum specifiedamountisrequired.

Flexuralcracking:

Service loads

Flexural cracks

Crack spacing, s, varies between 0.5d and 1.5d and depends on - steel area and distribution - cover and the average crack spacing decreases with time due to shrinkage

Maximum crack widths increase with time by a factor of between 2 and 4

Crack width, w, depends on - steel stress - bar diameter and bar spacing - cover - adjacent crack spacings and increases with time due to shrinkage

SimplifiedApproachforFlexuralCrackControlinAS36002009 (Clause8.6.1and9.4.1): Forreinforcedconcretebeamsandslabs,crackingisdeemedtobecontrolled (crackwidthswillbelessthan0.3mm)ifeachofthefollowing issatisfied: (a)thequantityoftensilereinforcementinabeamorslabprovidesan ultimatestrengthatleast20%higherthanthecrackingmoment calculatedassumingcs =0; (b) thedistancefromthesideorsoffit ofthemembertothecentreofthe nearestlongitudinalbarshallnotexceed100mm; (c)Thecentretocentrespacingofbars nearatensionfaceofabeamor slabshallnotexceed300mmforabeam andthelesseroftwotimes theslabthicknessand300mmforaslab. (d)Thestressinthetensilesteelislessthanalimitingvalue(asfollows):

SimplifiedApproachforFlexuralCrackControlinAS36002009 (Clause8.6.1and9.4.1):Ctd Formemberssubjectprimarilytoflexure,thecalculatedsteelstresscaused bytheserviceabilitydesignmomentshallnotexceedthelarger ofthe maximumsteelstressesgiveninTables8.6.1(A)and8.6.1(B)for beams andTables9.4.1(A)and9.4.1(B)forslabs.


Table 8.6.1(A): Maximum steel stress for tension or flexure in r.c. beams. Nominal bar diameter (mm)
10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

Table 8.6.1(B): Maximum steel stress for flexure in r.c. beams. Centre-to-centre spacing (mm)
50 100 150 200 250 300

Maximum steel stress (MPa)


360 330 280 240 210 185 160 140 120

Maximum steel stress (MPa)


360 320 280 240 200 160

SimplifiedApproachforFlexuralCrackControlinAS36002009 (Clause8.6.1and9.4.1):Ctd Formemberssubjectprimarilytotension,thecalculatedsteelstresscaused bytheserviceabilitydesignactionsshallnotexceedthemaximumsteel stressesgiveninTables8.6.1(A)forbeamsandTables9.4.1(A)forslabs.


Table 9.4.1(A): Maximum steel stress for flexure in r.c. slabs. Nominal bar Maximum steel stress (MPa) diameter for overall depth Ds (mm) (mm) > 300 300
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 375 345 320 300 265 240 210 450 400 360 330 280

Table 9.4.1(B): Maximum steel stress for flexure in r.c. slabs. Centre-to-centre spacing (mm)
50 100 150 200 250 300

Maximum steel stress (MPa)


360 320 280 240 200 160

RestrainedShrinkageCrackinginSlabs:
Providedthatbondedreinforcementatreasonablespacing crosses thecrackandthatthememberdoesnot deflectexcessively,flexural cracksareusuallywellcontrolledinreinforcedconcretebeamsand slabs. Incontrast,directtensioncracks duetorestrainedshrinkageand temperaturechangesfrequentlyleadtoserviceabilityproblems, particularlyinregionsoflowmoment. Suchcracksusuallyextendcompletelythroughthememberandare moreparallelsidedthanflexuralcracks. Ifuncontrolled,thesecrackscanbecomeverywideandleadto waterproofingandcorrosionproblems. Theycanalsodisrupttheintegrityandthestructuralactionoftheslab.

Theslabisrestrainedbybeamsandshrinkageinducestension intheslabinthedirectionofthebeams
Fulldepthrestrainedshrinkagecracks

Flexuralcracks

Onewayfloorslabsupportedonbeams Usuallymoresteelisrequiredtocontroltherestrainedshrinkage cracksthanisrequiredtocontroltheflexuralcracksandprovide adequatestrength.

RestrainedShrinkageCrackinginSlabsCtd:
Intheprimarydirection,shrinkagewillcausesmallincreasesinthe widthsofthemanyfineflexuralcracksandmaycauseadditional flexuretypecracksinthepreviouslyuncracked regions. However,inthesecondarydirection,whichisineffectadirect tensionsituation,shrinkagegenerallycausesafewwidely spaced crackswhichpenetratecompletelythroughtheslab. Iftheamountofreinforcementcrossingadirecttensioncrackis small,yieldingofthesteelwilloccurandawide,unserviceablecrack willresult.Toavoidthiseventuality,theminimum steelratio,min is
min
Ast 1.2 f ct = = bd f sy min

where f ct = 0.25 f c' .For32MPa concrete, min =0.0034. Foraserviceablecrackwidth,significantlymoresteelthanthis is required.

CrackControlinSlabsAS36002009:
Wheretheendsofaslabarerestrainedandtheslabisnotfree to expandorcontractinthesecondarydirection,theminimumarea of reinforcementintherestraineddirectionisgivenbyeitherEq.1a, 1bor1c,asappropriate(seebelow). Foraslabfullyenclosedwithinabuildingexceptforabriefperiodof weatherexposureduringconstruction: (i)whereastrongdegreeofcontrol overcrackingisrequired:

( As )min

= (6.0 2.5 cp )b D 10 3

(9 .2 a ) (1a)

(ii)whereamoderatedegreeofcontrol overcrackingisrequired:

( As )min
( As )min

= (3.5 2.5 cp )b D 10 3

( 9.2 b ) (1b)

(iii)whereaminordegreeofcontrol overcrackingisrequired:
= (1.75 2.5 cp )b D 10 3 ((1c) 9 .2 c )

ForallotherslabsurfaceconditionsinExposureClassificationA1 andforexposureclassificationA2,Eq.1aapplieswhereastrong degreeofcontrol overcrackingisrequiredforappearanceorwhere cracksmayreflectthroughfinishes

( As )min

= (6.0 2.5 cp )b D 10 3

(9 .2 a ) (1a)

andEq.1bapplieswhereamoderate degreeofcontrolovercracking isrequiredandwherecracksareinconsequentialorhidden fromview.

( As )min

= (3.5 2.5 cp )b D 10 3

(9 .2 b ) (1b)

ForExposureClassificationsB1,B2,C1andC2,Eq.1aalwaysapplies. TheminimumsteelareagivenbyEq.1cisappropriateinan unrestraineddirection wheretheslabisfreetoexpandorcontract. Intheprimarydirection ofaonewayslaborineachdirectionofa twowayslab,theminimumquantityofreinforcement isthegreaterof theminimumquantityrequiredforthestrengthlimitstate or75% of theminimumarearequiredbyEqs.1a,1bor1c,asappropriate.

Consideraslabrestrainedateachend. Withtime,restrainedshrinkagecracksoccuratroughlyregularcentres dependingontheamountofreinforcement:

(a) Portion of restrained member after all cracking

(b) Average concrete stress after all shrinkage

(c) Steel stress after all shrinkage cracking

Typicalvalues:
Considera140mmthick,4mlongslabfullyrestrainedatbothends andsymmetricallyreinforcedwithN12barsat250mmcentres top andbottom.Hence,As=900mm2/mand =As/Ac =0.00643.
L=4m

140 mm

For25MPa concretewithafinalshrinkagestrainof0.0007and typicalmaterialproperties,ashrinkagecrackinganalysisofthis restrainedslabindicates4or5fulldepthcracks withinthe4m lengthwiththemaximumfinalcrackwidth about0.3mm.

140 mm

4m

p =As/Ac

2.8 mm

Ifp =0:
0.6 0.7 mm

onelarge unserviceable crack

Ifp =0.0035

aboutthree unserviceable (?)cracks

0.3 0.4 mm

Ifp =0.006

Fourorfive serviceable (?)cracks

Detailingofcolumns:
Lappedcompressivesplices:
Additional fitmentspacing, s <4c

Normal fitment spacing,s

Additionalfitmentsat compressivesplice

Tensionat crankedbars

Unsatisfactorytension spliceinthinwall

Detailingofcolumns:
Typicaltiearrangementsincolumns:
Alllongitudinalbarsin thesecolumnsarerestrained at (i)abendinafitmentof135 orless;or (ii)atafitmenthookswith includedangleof135 or less,asshown.

AS36002009requirementsforrestrainingsinglelongitudinalbarsincolumns: (i)Everycornerbar; (ii)Allbars wherebarsarespacedatcentres >150mm; (iii)Atleasteveryalternatebar wherebarcentres 150mm. Forbundledbars eachbundlemustberestrained.

Detailingofcolumns:
Minimumbardiametersforfitments(AS36002009):
Longitudinal bar diameter (mm) Single bars up to 20 Single bars 24 to 28 Single bars 28 to 36 Single bar 40 Bundled bars Minimum bar diameter for fitment and helix (mm) 6 10 12 16 12

Maximumspacingoffitments(AS36002009):
Thespacingoffitments(orthepitchofahelix)shouldnotexceedthe smallerof: Dc and15db forsinglebars 0.5Dc and7.5db forbundledbars

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
KneeConnections(ortwomemberconnections):

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) Figure 8.37 Two-member connections.

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
KneeConnectionsunderOpening Moment:
C

2T
T C M T

(a) Internal forces

(b) Crack pattern

Asv =

2 Ast f sy 2T = f sy. f f sy. f

(a) Unsatisfactory

(b) Unsatisfactory

(c) Potentially satisfactory

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
KneeConnectionsunderOpening Moment Suggesteddetail:

Diagonal stirrups

Diagonal flexural bars

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
KneeConnectionsunderClosing Moment:
T M M

2T
C

(a) Internal forces

(b) Crack pattern

M M

(a) Wall or slab connection (when p fct.f /fsy)

(b) Beam to column knee connection

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
Threememberconnections:

Poor anchorage conditions

High bond stress

(a) Internal forces

(b) Crack pattern

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
Threememberconnections Reinforcementdetail:

Larger diameter bar to distribute bearing stresses in bend

Ties to carry diagonal tension, to control vertical splitting and to confine the concrete core

DetailingofBeamcolumnConnections:
Fourmemberconnections:

(a) Internal forces

(b) Crack pattern

(c) Reinforcement detail

DetailingofCorbels:
Main or primary tensile reinforcement Primary tension steel

T C
Cross bar to distribute bearing stresses in bend Crack control steel

Welded anchor bar (see Fig 8.46d)

(a) Strut-and-tie action

(b) Reinforcement detail


weld=db db

(c) Welded primary steel

Primary tensile reinforcement tweld=db/2

tweld=db/2

db

Anchor bar

weld=db

(d) Satisfactory weld details (17)

DesignofCorbels:
a V*

Tie:

V* T= = As f sy tan

( = 0.8)

V* As = f sy tan

C T d D

d/2

Strut: st Cu = st s 0.9 f c Ac
s =
1 1.0 + 0.66 cot 2

(st = 0.6)

(0.3 s 1.0)

Ah As / 2
Figure 8.47

ParkandPaulay suggestthatagoodfirstestimateofcorbeldimensions isobtainedfrom: *


V / bwd 0.56 f c

andACI31808suggests
a / d 1.0 and 0.04 f c / f sy As / bw d 0.2 f c / f sy

DesignofCorbels:
400 mm 200 mm 400 mm

V = 500kN

V* T*

D/2

200 mm

D/2 d D

C* d D

bw = 300 mm
(a)

400/sin dc d =c= 200/sin 541mm mm ==270

(b)

f c = 32 MPa

f sy = 500 MPa

Cover = 30 mm

Bearing plate = 200 x 300 mm in plan

DesignofCorbels:
From V * / bwd 0.56 f c :
500 103 d = 526 mm 300 0.56 32

WithD = d +cover+0.5bardia andassuming20mmdiameterbars, takeD =570mmandtherefored =530mm.

d 100 tan( 90 ) = 47.7o 400 and 500 103 As = = 1138 mm2 0.8 500 tan 47.7 Try4N20bars(1240mm2)
Fromthegeometry:

tan =

Now

As / bw d = 0.0078 = 0.122 f c / f sy

OK
1 = 0.65 1.0 + 0.66 cot 2

Thestrutefficiencyfactor: and

s =

stCu = 0.6 0.65 0.9 32 81150 = 911 kN


> C* = V * / cos = 743 kN OK

DesignofCorbels:
4 N20 N24 cross-bar (welded to N20s) 4 N20

285

285

285

285

3 N12 stirrups

3 N12 Stirrups N28 welded cross-bar

ELEVATION

ELEVATION

PLAN

PLAN

JOINTSINSTRUCTURES:
Jointsareintroducedintoconcretestructuresfortwomainreasons: 1)Asstoppingplaces intheconcretingoperation.Thelocationof theseconstructionjoints dependsonthesizeandproduction capacityoftheconstructionsiteandworkforce; 2)Toaccommodatedeformation (expansion,contraction,rotation, settlement)withoutlocaldistressorlossofintegrityofthe structure.Suchjointsinclude: controljoints (contractionjoints); expansionjoints; structuraljoints (suchashinges,pinandrollerjoints); shrinkagestrips; and isolationjoints. Thelocationofthesejointsdependsontheanticipated movementsofthestructureduringitslifetimeandtheresulting effectsonstructuralbehaviour.

ConstructionJoints:
1st pour 2nd pour

Waterstop where water tightness is required

(a) Butt joint

(b) Keyed joint


Steel dowels to improve shear strength

(c) Doweled joint

ControlJoints(orContractionJoints):
Saw cut > 0.2 t and 20 mm t 0.75 t

Discontinue every second bar if necessary so that p < 0.002

(a) Saw-cut joint in slab on ground


0.75 t

(b) Wall (t < 200 mm)


Debond dowel to ensure free contraction

Discontinue every second bar if necessary so that p < 0.002

(d) Wall (t 200 mm)

(c) Doweled joint

Typicalcontroljointlocations:
Control joint locations

(a) Wall elevation

(b) Balcony plan

Alternativeshrinkagestripdetails:

Shrinkage strip

Shrinkage strip

Expansionjointdetails:

(b) Half joint

25 mm Joint locations

(a) Double column and beams

(c) Building plans joint locations

Alternativestructuralhingejointsatbaseofacolumn:

Elastic, easily compressible material

Mesnager hinge
Confinement steel

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ?