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How to save energy and money Guide Book 6

INSULATION

STRATEGY

ENERGY
EFFICIENCY
EARNINGS

3E STRATEGY

TSI
MI

Y
RG
N

RA
E
E

Netherlands Ministery of Economic Affairs LS EN Technical Services International


AND
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
HOW TO SAVE
ENERGY AND MONEY
IN INSULATION

This booklet is part of the 3E strategy series. It provides advice on practical


ways of improving energy efficiency in industrial insulation applications.

Prepared for the European Commission DGXVII by:

The Energy Research Institute


Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Cape Town
Rondebosch 7700
Cape Town
South Africa

Neither the European Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the
commission, nor NOVEM, AEAT, ERI, nor any of the information sources is
responsible for the use of the information contained in this publication

The views and judgements given in this publication do not necessarily


represent the views of the European Commission

This project is funded by the European Commission and co-funded by the


Dutch Ministry of Economics, the South African Department of Minerals and
Energy and Technology Services International (ESKOM), with the Chief
contractor being AEAT.
HOW TO SAVE
ENERGY AND MONEY
IN INSULATION
HOW TO SAVE
ENERGY AND MONEY
IN INSULATION

Other titles in the 3E strategy series:

HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY: THE 3E STRATEGY


HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY IN ELECTRICITY USE
HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY IN BOILERS AND FURNACES
HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY IN COMPRESSED AIR
SYSTEMS
HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY IN REFRIGERATION
HOW TO SAVE ENERGY AND MONEY IN STEAM SYSTEMS

Copies of these guides may be obtained from:

The Energy Research Institute


Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Cape Town
Rondebosch 7700
Cape Town
South Africa

Tel No: (+27 21) 650 3892


Fax No: (+27 21) 686 4838
Email: 3E@eng.uct.ac.za
Website: http://www.3e.uct.ac.za

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Energy Research Institute would like to acknowledge the following for
their contribution in the production of this guide:

. Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU), UK, for permission to use information
from the ªEnergy Efficiency Best Practiceº series of handbooks.
. Energy Conservation Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources,
Canada, for permission to use information from the ªEnergy Managementº
series of manuals.
. TLV co, Ltd, for permission to use figures from their set of handbooks on steam.
. Wilma Walden of Studio.com for graphic design work (Walden@grm.co.za).
. Doug Geddes of South African Breweries for the cover colour photography.
Guide Book Essentials:
QUICK `CHECK-LIST' FOR SAVING
ENERGY AND MONEY IN INSULATION SYSTEMS

This list is a selected summary of energy and cost savings opportunities outline in the text. Many more are
detailed in the body of the booklet. These points are intended to be a quick `checklist'.

ADDING NEW INSULATION (Chapter 4)


1. Insulate non-insulated pipe.
2. Insulate non-insulated vessels.

ADDING EXTRA INSULATION (Chapters 2 and 4)


1. Repair insulation damage.
3. Add insulation to reach recommended thickness.
4. Upgrade existing insulation levels.
5. Review economic thickness requirement.
6. Limited budget upgrade.
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2. FUNDAMENTALS..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Terms and definitions...................................................................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Selection of Insulation Material ................................................................................................................................................. 2
2.2.1 A Note on Asbestos ............................................................................................................................................................ 3
2.3 Heat Transfer ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
2.4 Heat Flow ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 4
FIGURE 1: TYPICAL INSULATED PIPE................................................................................................................................. 5
2.5 Protecting and Sealing the Insulation ..................................................................................................................................... 6
2.5.1 Protective Coverings and Finishes.................................................................................................................................. 6
2.5.2 Vapour Barriers ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6
2.6 Temperature Ranges........................................................................................................................................................................ 6
2.6.1 Low Temperature Thermal Insulation ......................................................................................................................... 6
2.6.2 Intermediate Temperature Thermal Insulation........................................................................................................ 7
2.6.3 High Temperature Thermal Insulation......................................................................................................................... 7
2.7 Insulation Thickness.......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
2.7.1 Selection Procedures............................................................................................................................................................. 7
2.7.2 Recommended Insulation Thickness............................................................................................................................. 7
2.7.3 Limited Budget Insulation Thickness ............................................................................................................................. 8
2.7.4 Economic Insulation Thickness......................................................................................................................................... 8
FIGURE 2: DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC THICKNESS OF INSULATION...................................... 9
FIGURE 3: HEAT LOSS FROM FLAT SURFACE ............................................................................................................ 10
FIGURE 4: COST OF ENERGY LOSS AT VARIOUS INSULATION THICKNESSES................................ 11
FIGURE 5: INSULATION COST AT VARIOUS THICKNESSES ............................................................................ 11
2.8 Energy Management.......................................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.8.1 Energy Audits ............................................................................................................................................................................ 12
2.8.2 Energy Management Opportunities .............................................................................................................................. 12
3 MATERIALS SYSTEMS............................................................................................................................................................................. 13
3.1 Insulation Forms and Materials.................................................................................................................................................. 13
3.1.1 Types and Forms of Insulation ..................................................................................................................................... 13
3.1.2 Major Insulation Materials................................................................................................................................................ 13
3.2 Insulation Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................. 14
3.2.1 Protective Coverings and Finishes.............................................................................................................................. 15
3.2.2 Properties of Protective Coverings............................................................................................................................ 16
3.2.3 Accessories ............................................................................................................................................................................. 16
3.2.4 Securements .......................................................................................................................................................................... 16
3.2.5 Insulation Reinforcement for Cement and Mastics........................................................................................... 17
3.2.6 Water Flashing...................................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.2.7 Stiffening................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.2.8 Supports................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.2.9 Sealing and Caulking .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.2.10 Expansion and Contraction Compensation.......................................................................................................... 17
3.3 Common Applications.................................................................................................................................................................... 17
3.3.1 Multiple Layer Construction.......................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3.2 Pipe Insulation for Interior Applications.................................................................................................................. 18
FIGURE 6: FIELD AND FACTORY-APPLIED NON-METAL JACKETING ...................................................... 18
3.3.3 Metal Jacketing ...................................................................................................................................................................... 19
3.3.4 Flexible Elastomeric Pipe Covering............................................................................................................................ 19
3.3.5 Fittings Insulation.................................................................................................................................................................. 19
3.3.6 PVC or Glass Fibre Fitting Insulation........................................................................................................................ 19
FIGURE 7: FIELD APPLIED METAL JACKETING ............................................................................................................ 19
FIGURE 8: FLEXIBLE ELASTOMERIC PIPE COVERING............................................................................................. 19
FIGURE 9: MITRED INSULATION ELBOW OVERSIZED APPLICATION ..................................................... 20
FIGURE 10: PVC/GLASS FIBRE ELBOW INSULATION SYSTEM ........................................................................ 20
3.3.7 Insulation of In-line Flanges or Couplings............................................................................................................... 21
3.3.8 Removable and Reusable Insulation.......................................................................................................................... 21
3.3.9 Duct Insulation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 21
FIGURE 11: PVC/GLASS FIBRE COUPLING OR IN-LINE FLANGE INSULATION SYSTEM.............. 21
FIGURE 12: REMOVABLE AND REUSABLE INSULATION.................................................................................... 21
FIGURE 13: FLEXIBLE FIBROUS BLANKET DUCT INSULATION RECTANGULAR/INDOORS .... 22
3.3.10 Field Applied Lining............................................................................................................................................................ 22
3.3.11 Insulation of Tanks and Vessels ................................................................................................................................... 22
FIGURE 14: FIELD APPLIED LINING DUCTS, PLENUMS AND HOUSINGS.............................................. 22
FIGURE 15: CURVED SURFACES RIGID BOARD INSULATION........................................................................ 22
3.3.12 Vessel and Tank Head Insulation ................................................................................................................................ 23
FIGURE 16: METAL HEAD INSULATION, SECUREMENT AND COVER FABRICATION ................. 23

4 ENERGY MANAGEMENT OPPORTUNITIES ......................................................................................................................... 24


4.1 Housekeeping Opportunities...................................................................................................................................................... 24
4.1.1 Housekeeping Worked Examples.................................................................................................................................. 24
4.2 Low Cost Opportunities............................................................................................................................................................... 25
4.2.1 Low Cost Worked Examples........................................................................................................................................... 25
4.3 Retrofit Opportunities.................................................................................................................................................................... 27
4.3.1 Retrofit Worked Examples ................................................................................................................................................ 27

APPENDICES...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Worksheets ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Glossary .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 40
Heat loss tables ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 47
Basic types of insulation ± selected properties.............................................................................................................................. 64
Protective coverings and finishes............................................................................................................................................................ 65
Vapour retarders.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 66
Energy Content of Some Fuels................................................................................................................................................................ 67
1. INTRODUCTION

Thermal insulation is the use of special materials to Refractory materials often need high resistance to
retard the flow of heat energy. It prevents the loss abrasion as elevated temperatures. This guide is
of heat, so saving on fuel and money, and only about thermal insulation.
contributing to safety and comfort. Insulating
unlagged hot surfaces is one of the simplest and Insulation materials may come in boards, blocks,
most cost-effective ways of increasing energy bricks, sheets, pre-formed shapes, blankets or as
efficiency. Depending on the pipe's surface tem- castable cements. The choice of materials depends
perature, the payback time for insulating a section on cost, temperature, application, environment and
of pipework is typically less than one year. safety. The thickness of insulation should be
calculated so as to optimise the cost of the
By improving energy efficiency, it is possible to insulation against the savings in energy. This guide
reduce the size of heating, cooling and ventilation covers these topics and gives worked examples of
equipment and so reduce capital costs. Process costs saved by insulation.
temperature control is made easier.
This guide uses metric units throughout but has
Insulation may be divided roughly into three included some Imperial units, which are still used in
temperature ranges. Cryogenic temperatures are some South African plants.
below 73oC. Thermal insulation is for tempera-
tures from 730oC to 982oC. Refractory insula-
tion is for temperatures above 982oC, as would be
found in cement kilns, steelworks and incinerators.

1
2. FUNDAMENTALS

2.1 TERMS AND an insulating material. The higher the R


values the better the insulation.
DEFINITIONS
It should be noted that k, C, U, R can be equated as
Certain key terms used in this booklet are defined follows.
below. A more extensive glossary of terms is t l l
R ˆ ˆ ˆ
included in the appendices. k C U

. Conduction is the process, by which heat Where, t ˆ material thickness (metres or inches)
flows from a hot body to a cooler body or
fluid, which is in stationary contact with it. . Mean Temperature is the arithmetic
. Convection is the process, by which heat average of the hot and cold insulation
flows from a hot body to a gas or liquid, surface temperatures through which heat is
which is in moving contact with it. transmitted.
. Radiation is the flow of heat from a hot . Emissivity is the ratio of heat energy
body without it being in contact with a fluid radiated from a surface compared to the
or solid. heat energy radiated from an ideal black
. Thermal Conductivity (k) is a measure of body at the same temperature.
heat energy transmitted through a homo- . Black Body is defined either as a body,
geneous material per unit thickness. A which absorbs all radiation falling upon it
material with a low thermal conductivity is and reflects or transmits none, or as a
a good insulator. Expressed as W/(m oC) radiator, which emits at any specific
or (Btu/h ft2 oF). temperature, the maximum possible
. Thermal Conductance (C) is a measure of amount of thermal radiation.
the heat energy transmitted through a
homogeneous material of other than unit
thickness or through an assembly. Ex-
pressed as W/m2.oC) or [Btu/(ft2.hr.oF)].
2.2 SELECTION OF
. Thermal Transmittance (U) is a measure INSULATION MATERIAL
of the heat energy transmitted by a
material or assembly including the bound- The following is a list of important properties,
ary air films. Expressed as W/(m2.K) or which must be considered in the selection of an
[Btu/(h.ft2 oF)]. insulating material.
. Thermal Resistance (RSI or R) indicates
the relative insulating value or resistance to . Thermal Resistance. The higher the value
heat flow of material. Thermal Resistance is of thermal resistance, the better the
the primary consideration in the choice of insulating capability of the material.
2
. Combustibility. This becomes significant as applied over irregular or non-uniform
it provides an indication of the insulating surfaces where the insulation must
material's contribution to a fire hazard. ªbridgeº over a support discontinuity.
. Toxicity. Certain insulating materials are . Capillarity. Where insulation material is in
combustible and release toxic fumes when contact with dangerous or flammable
they burn. These must be avoided where liquids, or in areas where wash down
there is a danger of fire in a confined space. occurs, the resisting capability of the
See also the note on asbestos. material to ªwick-upº (absorb) liquids by
. Shrinkage. Shrinkage or drying is significant capillary action becomes significant.
in high temperature applications. Shrinkage . Appearance. Appearance is significant in
can leave non-insulated gaps. exposed areas and for purposes of identi-
. Resistance to Ultra Violet Radiation. fication.
Where the insulating material is exposed . Density. The density of an insulating
to sunlight in outdoor applications, its material affects many of its other proper-
ability to withstand ultraviolet radiation ties, especially its thermal properties.
without degradation is important. This
can be overcome by covering the insulating Some of these factors may not apply in all
material so that sunlight does not contact insulation applications, however, each should be
the material. considered, and ruled out if not applicable. Work-
. Resistance to Fungal or Bacterial Growth. sheet 1-1 has been developed as a checklist to
This property is significant in food or assist in establishing which properties are important
cosmetic processing areas. in a specific application.
. Chemical Neutrality. The insulation
should be chemically neutral (pH 7) to Properly installed, mechanical insulation will have a
avoid any deterioration of metal contacting life equal to the life of the equipment or piping on
it. This is particularly important in applica- which it is installed. Mechanical insulation should
tions where the insulation could be subject always be installed according to the manufacturer's
to intermittent wetting. installation recommendations.
. Coefficient of Expansion and Contrac-
tion. This property becomes important in
the design and location (spacing) of 2.2.1 A NOTE ON ASBESTOS
expansion and contraction joints and in
multiple layer insulation applications. Asbestos was much used in the past for thermal
. Compressive Strength. Compressive insulation. However, because asbestos fibres when
strength is significant where the insulating inhaled can cause lung cancer, it is no longer used
material must support a load or withstand for this purpose. Asbestos comes in many kinds, of
mechanical abuse without crushing. When which the one most commonly used today is
cushioning or filling in space is needed, such chrysotile, one of the least dangerous types. It is
as in expansion/contraction joints, low believed that there is a threshold below which
compressive strength materials would nor- inhaled chrysotile fibres do no damage to human
mally be specified. health. Chrysotile is now used in cement building
. Breaking Load. Breaking load is significant materials, brake linings and certain other products
in installations where the insulation is but not in thermal insulation.

3
Asbestos was used as an insulation material not so insulation material is to retard heat flow. The
much because its thermal conductivity is low (in term thermal conductivity (k) is used to express the
fact, at about 0.06 W/moC, it is higher than many quantity of heat, which will flow across a unit area
other materials) but because of its non-flamm- when a temperature difference of one degree
ability. Old plants may still have asbestos insulation. exists.
It is often safer to seal and leave it than to remove
it because the removal can release fibres into the Thermal conductivity (k), is expressed as Watts per
air. This is a matter that requires expert advice from metre per degree Celsius [W/(moC)] or [(Btu)/
health and safety authorities. (h.ft2 oF)]. Thermal Resistance can now be defined
as the opposition of the passage of heat through
the insulation and is expressed by the following
2.3 HEAT TRANSFER equation.

Heat is always transferred from a hot body to body Thermal Resistance ˆ


at a lower temperature, never the other way t
R ˆ [(m. oC)/W] or [(h.ft oF)/Btu]
round. k
Where t ˆ insulation thickness [metres or inches].
Heat is lost from hot bodies in three ways:
The higher the value of R, the better the insulation.
. Conduction. Heat is transferred by contact
with another solid body or fluid without The heat flow through the insulation for a flat
movement. surface may be calculated using the following
. Convection. Heat is transferred by contact equation :
with a moving liquid or gas.
DT  A
. Radiation. Heat is transferred without Heat flow in one hour ˆ Wh
R
contact with another body or fluid. The
heat may be transmitted through a vacuum Where, DT ˆ Temperature difference across the
or through air. The heat is transmitted as insulating material (oC)
electromagnetic radiation (such as infrared
radiation). Radiation becomes increasingly A ˆ surface area (m2)
important as temperature increases.
As an example, consider a 10m2 flat surface at a
For hot pipes and hot surfaces in factories, most temperature of 140oC. This surface has been
heat is lost by convection. The air in contact with insulated with a 51 mm thick insulating material
the hot surface heats up, moves off and is replaced having a thermal conductivity of 0.045 W/(m.oC).
by cold air, which is heated up in turn The outer surface temperature of the insulation is
10oC. The thermal resistance can be determined as
follows.
2.4 HEAT FLOW t
R ˆ
k
The term heat flow refers to the rate at which heat 0:051
ˆ
moves from an area of higher temperature to an 0:045
area of lower temperature. The purpose of any ˆ 1.133 m.oC/W

4
Now the heat flow in one hour through the For example, consider the heat loss from a 1 metre
insulation can be determined. length of 0.219 metre diameter pipe operating at
DT  A 95oC. The 51 mm thick insulation has a thermal
Heat flow in one hour ˆ
R conductivity of 0.037 W/(m.oC) and an outside
…140 10†  10 surface temperature of 25oC. This example is
ˆ
1:133 shown in Figure 1. The heat flow through the
ˆ 1147.4 Wh insulation can be determined as follows.
0:219
Heat flow through pipe insulation is somewhat r2 ˆ ‡ 0:051
0
different since the inner and outer surfaces of the
ˆ 0.1605m
insulation have different areas. This difference in
area must be taken into account in heat flow 0:219
r1 ˆ
calculations. As the heat from the pipe flows 2
outward through the insulation, the area of the ˆ 0.1095m
heat flow path becomes greater. This phenomenon r2 ln r2
r1
has the effect of increasing the value of the thermal R ˆ
k
resistance. 0:1605  In 0:1605
0:1095
ˆ
0:037
To compensate for this effect an ªequivalent 0:1605  …1:466†
thicknessº of insulation must be used. The ˆ
0:037
expression for the thermal resistance for piping
insulation can now be rewritten as follows. ˆ 1.66 (m2 oC)/W

equivalent thickness Heat Flow in one hour


R ˆ [(m2.oC/W] DT  A
conductivity ˆ
r2 ln rr21 R
ˆ …95 25†  1:008
k ˆ Wh
1:66
Where, r2 ˆ outside radius of insulation (m) 70  1:008
ˆ
r1 ˆ inside radius of insulation (m) 1:66

ln ˆ natural logarithm ˆ 42.51 Wh/metre of length of


the pipe

It must be noted that A in the above equation is


the outside surface area of a 1-metre length of the
insulated pipe and is calculated as follows.

Where, D ˆ 3.14159

D ˆ outside diameter of insulation


(pipe outside diameter ‡ 2 
insulation thickness)

Figure 1: Typical Insulated Pipe l ˆ unit length (in this case 1 metre)
(Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

5
Therefore A ˆ   …0:219 2  0:051†  1 Additional details on protective coverings and
finishes may be found in the Material/Systems
ˆ (  …0:321 :†  1
section of this module.
ˆ 3.14159  0.321

ˆ 1.008 m2
2.5.2 VAPOUR BARRIERS
A vapour retarder or vapour barrier is a material,
2.5 PROTECTING AND which retards the transmission of water vapour.
This is required for piping and equipment operating
SEALING THE at below ambient temperatures. Water vapour
INSULATION from the air tends to diffuse into the insulation
where, because of the lower temperatures it
condenses and significantly reduces the effective-
2.5.1 PROTECTIVE COVERINGS AND ness of the insulation. Moisture penetration may
FINISHES also cause corrosion of metal surfaces.
The efficiency and service life of insulation is
directly dependent upon its protection from Vapour barriers are applied on site and may consist
moisture entry and mechanical and/or chemical of semi-liquid mastic compositions and coating.
damage. Choices of jacketing and finish materials They may be sprayed, brushed or trowelled. The
are based upon the mechanical, chemical, thermal manufacturer's specified thickness must be applied
and moisture conditions of the installation, as well in one or more continuous coatings. Suitable
as cost and appearance. reinforcement may be required as the vapour
barrier system must be adequate to resist cracking.
Protective coverings are divided into six functional
types.

2.6 TEMPERATURE RANGES


. Weather barriers, which protect the in-
sulation from the effects of weather.
The temperature range within which the term
. Vapour retarders, which are designed to
ªthermal insulationº applies, is from 73oC
retard the passage of water vapour from
( 100oF) to 982oC (1800oF). All applications
the atmosphere to the insulation.
below 73oC ( 100oF) are termed cryogenic
. Mechanical protection coverings, which
and those above 982oC (1800oF) are termed
protect against mechanical damage from
refractory.
personnel, equipment and machinery.
. Low flame spread and corrosion resistant
Thermal insulation is further divided into three
coverings, which reduce the effect of flame
general application temperature ranges.
spread and corrosion.
. Coverings and finishes are available to
enhance the aesthetic appearance of
2.6.1 LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL
insulated surfaces in highly visible areas.
INSULATION
. Hygienic covers, which present smooth
Insulation used for low temperature applications is
surfaces to resist fungal and bacterial
subdivided into three general temperature ranges.
growth.
6
. 16oC (6OoF) through 0oC (32oF) ± cold 2.6.3 HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMAL
or chilled water. INSULATION
. -1 o C (31 o F) through 39 o C ( 39 o F)
refrigeration or glycol. High temperature thermal insulation is used in the
. 40oC ( 40oF) through 73oC temperature range of 3l5oC (600oF) to 870oC
( 100oF) refrigeration or brine. (1600oF). As the refractory range of insulation is
approached, fewer materials and application meth-
The major problems on low temperature installa- ods are available. High temperature materials are
tions are moisture penetration and cost effective- often a combination of other materials or of similar
ness. Ideally, the insulation material or system materials manufactured using special binders.
should absorb no moisture and readily give up any Industrial power and process piping and equip-
that enters. It should also resist water deterioration. ment, commercial boilers, exhausts, furnaces and
incinerators fall within this application range.
Vapour retarders are used extensively, but in
practice it is almost impossible to achieve a perfect
vapour retarder. The pressure of the vapour flow
from the warm outside surface is such that, even
2.7 INSULATION THICKNESS
with waterproof insulation, vapour may enter
through unsealed joints or cracks, condense, then
freeze, and cause damage. Vapour retarders must
2.7.1 SELECTION PROCEDURES
have a perm rating well below 1. The colder the
Although insulating uninsulated areas means im-
equipment, the lower the desirable perm rating.
mediate returns in Rands saved, sometimes the
long-term potential Rand savings are forgotten.
Since the cost of refrigeration is higher than the
Any facility that has not had its insulation upgraded
cost of heating, more insulation is often justified in
in the past ten years is likely to be under-insulated.
low temperature applications where 4T is the
same. Extra thickness of insulation, even beyond
Immediate savings can be realised from insulating
what would be economically dictated for cold line
where no insulation exists. This includes piping,
application, are sometimes employed to keep the
tanks, vessels as well as valves and fittings. With
warm surface temperature above the dew point.
respect to valves and fittings, the insulation would
normally be specified to the standards and
thickness of the surrounding piping insulation
2.6.2 INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE
ducting or equipment.
THERMAL INSULATION

This temperature range, from 16oC (61oF) to


315oC (600oF) includes conditions encountered in
2.7.2 RECOMMENDED INSULATION
most industrial processes and in hot water and
THICKNESS
steam systems found in commercial installations.
Tables 1 and 2 have been included in the
Selection of material in this range is based mainly
Appendices and provide data, which is used to
on thermal values but other factors such as
perform energy savings, calculations. These tables
mechanical and chemical properties, availability of
indicate the heat loss from bare steel pipe and
forms, installation time and cost are also significant.

7
bare steel flat surfaces over the range of cost of the insulation. This is necessary to establish
temperatures normally encountered in most the economic thickness of the insulation.
facilities, and are based on an ambient air
temperature of 21.1oC. One way of improving cost savings through
insulation is to upgrade to the insulation levels
For process applications, tables based on econom- shown in the recommended thickness tables
ics have been developed which provide a recom- (Table 3). These should be used as guidelines.
mended insulation thickness for various insulating
materials and temperatures. Table 3 is a typical In some cases these tables will not apply as plant or
table covering mineral fibre, calcium silicate, and building conditions may not be the same as those
cellular glass insulation for pipes varying from NPS used to determine the thickness charts. In these
1/2 to NPS 36 in diameter and process tempera- cases, individual determinations of insulation thick-
tures between 65oC and 566oC. These tables also ness should be considered to insure a facility is
include flat surfaces. (NPS is Nominal Pipe Size making its optimum investment in insulation.
measured in inches).

It must be noted for a round tank or vessel with 2.7.3 LIMITED BUDGET INSULATION
diameter greater than 914 mm, the surface is THICKNESS
considered flat for purposes of heat loss calculations.
Generally for hot mechanical systems, piping will be
the source of greatest heat loss. On a limited
As an example of the use of these tables, consider
budget, determine where the area of greatest
an NPS 6 steel pipe without insulation operating at
heat loss is and insulate it first. The first 25mm of
121oC in ambient conditions of 21.loC. Table 1
insulation will provide the greatest savings in energy
indicates this pipe will lose 700 Wh/linear metre of
on a system but may not be the optimum
heat every hour it is in operation. If the recom-
insulation level for maximising investment benefits.
mended thickness of 76 mm of mineral fibre
This can also be an excellent approach to cost
insulation as indicated in Table 3 were installed on
reductions if insulation is to be paid out of an
this pipe, the heat loss would be reduced to 37
annual maintenance or operating budget. Bear in
Wh/lineal metre and the outer surface temperature
mind though, if only the minimum 25mm is applied,
of the insulation would be 23oC.
the labour component may be the same as if a
greater thickness of insulation were used.
Insulation manufacturers have prepared tables for
other materials since the thermal resistance varies
both with the material being used and the process
2.7.4 ECONOMIC INSULATION
temperature. In the event that tables cannot be
THICKNESS
obtained, heat loss from piping and flat surfaces
may be calculated using the equation in the Insulation can be considered a long-term invest-
previous section of this module entitled Heat Flow, ment with associated financial benefit, following a
and R values as selected from Table 4 in the relatively short initial payback. There are a number
appendix. of computer programs available to aid in selecting
the most economic insulation thickness. This is the
A series of calculations will have to be performed thickness, which provides the highest insulation
and the energy savings compared to the installed value for the lowest cost.

8
Economics is the primary concern in evaluating not manufactured in single layers of sufficient
investment alternatives. When applied to an thickness and/or to alleviate expansion and con-
insulation system, economics can be used to traction movements. This results in higher total
establish the following items. labour costs than to install one layer equal to the
cumulative thickness. Figure 2 is a typical repre-
. Evaluation of two or more insulation sentation of installed costs for a multi-layer
materials for lowest cost for a given application. The average slope of the curves
thermal performance. increases with the number of layers because labour
. Selection of the optimum insulation thick- and material costs increase at a more rapid rate as
ness for a given insulation type. insulation thickness increases.

In either case economics is used to determine the The cost of lost energy is directly related to the
most cost effective solution for insulating. Beyond rate of heat transfer through the insulation and the
the optimum economic thickness, additional in- Rand value of the energy. As also shown in Figure
sulation does not yield the maximum rate of return 2, the cost of lost energy decreases as insulation
on investment. thickness increases.

Material and often labour costs increase with Consider a process application with a flat surface
insulation thickness. Insulation must often be holding a process fluid at 150oC. The ambient
applied in multiple layers because materials are temperature is 20oC.

Figure 2: Determination of Economic Thickness of Insulation (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

9
Calculation of heat loss for 50, 75 and 100 mm of The surface area will remain constant for the
glass mineral fibre insulation with a density of insulation since this is a flat surface.
24 kg/m3 can be performed to establish the heat
losses at the various insulation thicknesses. Heat loss can now be evaluated for a typical 1 m2
area for each insulation thickness.
Process temperature: 150oC
DT  A
Ambient Temperature: 20oC Heat loss in one hour ˆ
R
DT: 150 20 ˆ 130oC
Heat loss
130  1
(50 mm insulation) in one hour ˆ
From Table 5 thermal conductivity (k) at a mean 0:943
temperature of 93.3oC (closest value not exceed-
ˆ 137.86 Wh
ing 1300C) is 0.053 W/(m oC).
Heat loss (75 mm insulation)/m
130  1
The thermal resistance (R) can be calculated for in one hour ˆ
1:415
the various insulation thicknesses using the equa- ˆ 91.873 Wh
tion
Heat loss (100 mm
130  1
t insulation)/m in one hour ˆ Wh
R ˆ 68:89
K
Using Table 2 it is established that the heat loss
0:050
R50 ˆ ˆ 0.943 from one square metre of the same surface with no
0:053
insulation would be approximately 2100 Wh/m2.
0:075
R75 ˆ ˆ 1.415
0:053
These figures can be plotted on a graph (Figure 3)
0:100 showing insulation thickness versus heat loss to
R100 ˆ ˆ 1.887
0:053 generate a heat loss curve.

Figure 3: Heat Loss from Flat Surface (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

10
Figure 4: Cost of Energy Loss at Various Insulation Thicknesses (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

Knowing the value of the heat energy, the cost of The installed cost of the insulation for the various
lost heat at the various insulation thicknesses can thicknesses can now be established and a second
be established by the following equation. curve (Figure 5) can be produced.

Rand loss per unit area Figures 4 and 5 may be superimposed and will
ˆ Heat loss per unit area  R per unit of heat produce a curve generally of the shape of Figure 2.
energy If the dollar loss and insulation cost curves are
combined, and a new curve plotted, the insulation
Total Rand loss (Figure 4) thickness equivalent to the low point on the new
ˆ Total area  R Loss/unit area  hours/year curve will be the economical insulation thickness.

Figure 5: Insulation Cost at Various Thicknesses (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

11
installed cost of the added material. The reduction
2.8 ENERGY MANAGEMENT
in energy consumption establishes the Rand
savings.

2.8.1 ENERGY AUDITS


With this information, simple payback calculations
can establish the financial viability of the opportu-
An energy audit involves the identification of areas
nity.
throughout a facility where energy may be wasted
because of non-existent or inadequate insulation.

2.8.2 ENERGY MANAGEMENT


The audit may be applied to the facility as a whole,
OPPORTUNITIES
or may be concentrated on specific pieces of
process equipment or piping systems.
Energy Management Opportunities can be divided
into three categories.

2.8.1.1 WALK THROUGH AUDIT . Housekeeping, refers to an energy man-


agement action that is repeated on a
The initial action is a Walk Through Audit, which is regular basis and never less than once a
a tour through the facility looking for obvious signs year. Examples include repairing damaged
of energy waste. The walk through audit is generally insulation coverings, finishes and insulation.
more meaningful if it is conducted by an individual . Low Cost, refers to an energy manage-
who, though not associated with the facility ment action that is done once, and for
operation, is familiar with both the subject of which the cost is not considered great.
process insulation and the concept of energy Examples of low cost items could be the
management. insulation of valves and fittings and the
replacement of coverings and finishes.
Typical items which could be noticed during a walk . Retrofit, refer to an energy management
through audit would include missing or damaged action that is done once, and for which
insulation, hot or cold surfaces, wet insulation, the cost is significant. Examples of retrofit
deteriorating insulating coverings or protective items could be the insulation of piping,
finishes, missing or damaged vapour retarders, gaps ductwork, vessels, tanks, and equipment,
in insulation at expansion/contraction joints, ex- upgrading insulation to the recommended
cessive heat radiating from insulated surfaces and thickness, and upgrading protective cover-
other similar items. ings on outdoor tanks and vessels.

It must be noted that the Rand division between


2.8.1.2 DIAGNOSTIC AUDIT low cost and retrofit is normally a function of the
size, type and financial policy of the organisation.
Once items have been identified in the walk
through audit, a diagnostic audit is required to Energy management is dealt with in more detail in
determine the existing energy loss, the reduction in Section 4.
energy loss which would result if new or additional
insulation or covering were installed and the

12
3 MATERIALS SYSTEMS

3.1 INSULATION FORMS AND material, or combined with a binder and


MATERIALS fibres to make a rigid insulation.

Insulation is produced in a variety of forms suitable


for specific functions and applications. The com-
3.1.1 TYPES AND FORMS OF
bined form and type of insulation determines the
INSULATION
proper method of insulation. The forms most
widely used follow,
Insulation materials are addressed in the following
text according to their generic types and forms. . Rigid boards, blocks, sheets and pre-
Type indicates composition and internal structure, formed shapes (i.e. pipe covering, curved
while form implies overall shape or application. segments, lagging). Cellular and granular
insulation are produced in these forms.
Types are normally subdivided into the following . Flexible sheets and pre-formed shapes.
three groups. Cellular and fibrous insulation are pro-
. Fibrous Insulation ± is composed of small duced in these forms.
diameter fibres, which finely divide the air . Flexible blankets. Fibrous insulation is
space. The fibres may be parallel or produced in flexible blankets.
perpendicular to the surface being insu- . Cements (insulating and finishing). Pro-
lated and they may be separated or duced from fibrous and granular insulation
bonded together. Glass, rock wool, slag and cement.
wool and alumina silica fibres are used.
Glass fibre and mineral wool (rock and
3.1.2 MAJOR INSULATION
slag) are the most widely used insulation of
MATERIALS
this type.
. Cellular Insulation ± is composed of small
The following is a general inventory of the
individual cells separated from each other.
characteristics and properties of major insulation
The cellular material may be glass or
materials used in Industrial, Commercial and
foamed plastic such as polystyrene (closed
Institutional installations.
cell), polyurethane and elastomeric.
. Granular Insulation ± is composed of . Calcium Silicate is a granular insulation
small nodules, which contain voids or made of lime and silica reinforced with
hollow spaces. It is not considered a true organic arid inorganic fibres and moulded
cellular material since gas can be trans- into rigid forms. The temperature range
ferred between the individual spaces. This covered is from 38oC (100oF) to 982oC
type may be produced as a loose pourable (1800oF). Flexural strength is good. Cal-
13
cium Silicate is water absorbent, however, formed shapes and boards. Foamed plastics
it can be dried out without deterioration. are generally used in lower and intermedi-
The material is non-combustible and used ate temperature ranges.
primarily on hot piping and surfaces. . Insulating and Finishing Cements are a
Jacketing is generally field applied. mixture of various insulating fibres and
. Cellular Elastomeric insulation is com- binders with water and cement, to form a
posed principally of natural or synthetic soft plastic mass for application on irregular
elastomers, or both, processed to form a surfaces. Installation costs are high, and
flexible, semi-rigid or rigid foam with a insulation values are only fair. Cements
predominantly closed-cell structure. Upper may be applied to high temperature
temperature limit is 104oC (221oF). surfaces. Finishing cements are one-coat
. Cellular Glass is fabricated into boards, cements used in the lower to intermediate
pipe covering and other shapes. Service temperature range.
temperatures range from -40oC (-40oF) to . Mineral Fibre or Mineral Wool is pro-
482oC (900oF). This material has a low duced by bonding rock and slag fibres
thermal conductivity at low temperatures, together with a heat resistant binder. The
low abrasion resistance, good resistance to upper service temperature limit can reach
substrate corrosion, and good sound 982oC (1800oF). The material is non-
absorption characteristics in fibre and combustible. Mineral fibre is available in
cellular form. both rigid pre-formed shapes for piping and
. Fibrous Glass products are manufactured vessels, and as a flexible blanket. It is used in
in a variety of forms including flexible high and intermediate temperature ranges.
blankets, rigid and semi-rigid boards and . Refractory Fibre Insulation is mineral or
pipe coverings. Service temperatures range ceramic fibres, including alumina and silica,
from -73oC (~110oF) to 538oC (1000oF) bound with extremely high temperature
depending on structure and binder. Glass binders. They are manufactured in blanket
fibres are bonded together with heat or rigid brick form. Thermal shock resis-
resisting binders. Conductivity of fibrous tance and temperature limits are high. The
glass products is low. Cutting characteristics material is non-combustible.
are good. The resilience of glass fibre is
high while the impact resistance is low. Common insulation materials are summarised in
Installation costs are low. There are good Table 6.
sound absorption characteristics with glass
fibre insulation.
. Foamed Plastic insulation is predominantly
closed cellular rigid materials. Thermal 3.2 INSULATION SYSTEMS
conductivity may deteriorate (i.e. increase)
with time due to ageing because of air As an owner contemplating the insulation of
diffusing into the cells. Foamed plastics are equipment or mechanical systems, it is helpful to
lightweight with excellent cutting charac- think of an insulation system as having the following
teristics. The materials themselves are three components.
combustible, but can be produced self- . Insulating material.
extinguishing. They are available in pre- . Protective covering or finish.
14
. Accessories to secure, fasten. Stiffen, sup- characteristics of each type.
port, seal or caulk the insulation and its
Vapour retarders are available in three forms.
protective covering or finish.
. Rigid jacketing ± reinforced plastic, alumi-
These components must be compatible for the nium or stainless steel fabricated to the
insulation system to function properly. exact dimensions and sealed vapour tight.
. Membrane jacketing ± metal foils, lami-
3.2.1 PROTECTIVE COVERINGS nated foils and treated or coated papers,
AND FINISHES which are generally factory, applied to the
insulation material. Additional sealing be-
As indicated in the section titled `Fundamentals', yond the factory seal may be necessary
the efficiency and service of insulation is directly depending on the installation temperature
dependent upon its protection from moisture and humidity conditions.
entry and mechanical or chemical damage. Choices . Mastic applications ± either emulsion or
of jacketing and finish materials are based upon the solvent types which provide a seamless
mechanical, chemical, thermal and moisture condi- coating but require time to dry.
tions of the installation, as well as cost and
appearance.
3.2.1.3 MECHANICAL ABUSE
COVERINGS
Protective coverings are divided into six functional
types. Metal jacketing provides the strongest protection
against mechanical damage from personnel, equip-
3.2.1.1 WEATHER BARRIERS ment, and machinery. The compressive strength of
the insulation material should also be considered
The basic function of the weather barrier is to when assessing mechanical protection.
prevent the entry of water. If water is deposited
within the insulation, its insulation properties will be
3.2.1.4 LOW FLAME SPREAD AND
significantly reduced. Applications consist of either
CORROSION RESISTANT
a jacket of metal or plastic, or a coating of weather
COVERINGS
barrier mastic (Table 7). Jacketing must be over-
lapped sufficiently to repel water. The use of plastic When selecting material for potential fire hazard
jacketing materials with low resistance to ultraviolet areas, the insulation material and the jacketing must
rays should be avoided unless protective measures be considered as a composite unit. Most of the
are taken. available types of jacketing and mastic have low
(less than 25) flame spread rating. This information
3.2.1.2 VAPOUR RETARDERS can usually be obtained from manufacturer's data.

Vapour retarders are designed to retard the Resistance to corrosion varies among the plastic
passage of moisture vapour from the atmosphere and metal jacketing materials. Of the metal jackets,
to the surface of the insulation (Table 1). Joints and stainless steel is the most successful in resisting
overlaps must be sealed with a vapour tight corrosive atmospheres, spills or leaks. Mastics are
adhesive or sealer. Refer to Table 8 for detailed also generally resistant to corrosive atmospheres.
information on types of vapour retarders plus
15
3.2.1.5 APPEARANCE COVERINGS insulation), or if a significant amount of vibration
AND FINISHES must be considered.
Various coatings, finishing cements, fitting covers
and jackets are chosen primarily for their appear- 3.2.2.3 TEMPERATURE RANGE
ance value in exposed areas. Typically for piping,
jacketed insulation is covered with a reinforcing The covering must be suitable for the operating
canvas and coated with mastic to give a smooth temperature of the insulation surface.
even finish. When dry it can be painted or left as is
to give a white colour.
3.2.2.4 VAPOUR PERMEABILITY

Coverings should have low vapour permeability on


3.2.1.6 HYGIENIC COVERINGS
low temperature installations to prevent, or at least
Coatings and jackets must present a smooth retard the passage of moisture vapour into the
surface, which resists fungal or bacterial growth, insulation. For high temperature applications a
especially in food processing areas. High tempera- vapour permeable covering should be used to
ture steam or high-pressure water wash down allow moisture to pass outwards.
conditions require jackets with high mechanical
strength and temperature ratings (plastics or metals 3.2.3 ACCESSORIES
are typically used).
The term accessories is applied to devices or
materials serving one or more of the following
3.2.2 PROPERTIES OF PROTECTIVE functions.
COVERINGS
. Securement of the insulation and/or jack-
Certain properties of jacketing and mastic materials eting.
that must he considered to meet the previously . Insulation reinforcement for cement or
listed functions follow. mastic applications.
. Stiffening around structures which may not
support the weight of high-density insula-
3.2.2.1 COMPATIBILITY
tion.
Coverings must be compatible with the insulation . Supports (pipe, vessel and insulation).
material over which they are applied, as well as . Sealing and caulking.
with elements in the environment such as industrial
. Water flashing.
chemicals, salt air and ultraviolet or infrared light.
. Compensation for expansion/contraction
of piping and vessels.

Improper application of any of these accessories


3.2.2.2 RESISTANCE TO INTERNAL
could be a significant factor in the failure of
AND EXTERNAL MOVEMENT
insulation systems.
The ability of a covering to resist movement is an
important element to consider if there will be 3.2.4 SECUREMENTS
thermal expansion and contraction of the insula-
tion it covers (i.e. shrinkage of high temperature Insulation is not a structural material and must be
supported, secured, fastened or banded in place.
16
Securements must be compatible with insulation 3.2.8 SUPPORTS
and jacketing materials. Possible choices are listed
below. Insulation at points of support is necessary to
minimise heat loss. Accessories, which may be used
. Welded studs and pins.
at points of support, are as follows.
. Staples.
. High-density insulation inserts to protect
. Clips.
insulation at points of support. Pipe
. Wire and metal straps.
support saddles and shoes.
. Self-adhering laps on outer jackets.
. Metal shields used to protect insulation.
. Adhesives.
. Wood blocks or dowels for load bearing.
Ambient temperature and humidity conditions
affect the effectiveness of tapes and adhesives on
certain installations. Check the temperature range
3.2.9 SEALING AND CAULKING
and vapour permeability properties before choos-
A variety of sealers, caulking and tapes are available
ing adhesives.
for sealing vapour and weather barrier jackets,
joints and protrusions. These products are manu-
factured in a large range of temperature and
3.2.5 INSULATION REINFORCEMENT
vapour permeability properties. Some are designed
FOR CEMENT AND MASTICS
specifically for use with one type of insulation or
Whether factory or field applied, mechanical manufacturer's product.
strength can be added to insulation through the
application of any of the following items.
. Canvas. 3.2.10 EXPANSION AND
. Glass fibre fabric. CONTRACTION
. Expanded metal lath. COMPENSATION
. Metal mesh.
. Wire netting (chicken wire). Accessories used in the design of expansion and
contraction joints, include the following:
Compatibility of materials must be considered to . Manufactured overlapping or slip joints.
prevent corrosion.
. Bedding compounds and flexible sealers.

3.2.6 WATER FLASHING 3.3 COMMON


Flashing directs the flow of water away from the APPLICATIONS
insulation and may be constructed of metal or
plastic. The following section deals with typical application
methods experienced in the insulation industry.
They should not be considered as the only
3.2.7 STIFFENING methods of applying insulation and its installation.
Metal lath and wire netting can be applied on high For example, different thickness and different
temperature surfaces before insulation is applied. insulation may require radically different attach-

17
ment methods because of weight. Also, system method of application may be used where available
temperature plays a big part in deciding which insulation thickness is less than that required, or for
application method is most suitable. Insulation retrofitting applications. Care should be taken with
contractors or manufacturers are usually willing to pipe insulation to ensure that dimensional mea-
recommend the most appropriate application sures coincide with standard industry practice to
method. provide a proper fit for multiple layer construction.

Pipe covering is generally the dominant part of a


mechanical insulation system. This section de- 3.3.2 PIPE INSULATION FOR
scribes a number of different pipe insulation INTERIOR APPLICATIONS
installation methods. Typical duct, vessel and tank
A jacketing material is generally applied to mineral
insulation systems are also shown.
fibre pipe insulation for the purpose of protection
or to act as a vapour retarder. The application is
suitable for hot or cold temperature conditions.
3.3.1 MULTIPLE LAYER
The type of jacketing used depends on the end use
CONSTRUCTION
conditions (Figure 6). Generally the jacket is a
Multiple layer construction is the use of more than laminate of kraft and foil with glass fibre scrim
one layer of insulation rather than a single layer of reinforcement. Other materials may be used in
equivalent thickness. This application method cases where greater protection or a different finish
provides compensation for expansion and con- is required.
traction where pipe or equipment temperatures
are high. Staggering of joints in multiple layer The jacketed product may be left exposed or
construction reduces heat loss at the joints thus finished with a canvas and lagging material to
creating a more thermally efficient installation. This provide a smooth, neat and long lasting finish.

1. Pipe.
2. Insulation.
3. Longitudinal lap on factory-applied jacket (self-
adhesive or secured with adhesive).
4. Longitudinal lap on factory-applied jacket secured
with staples (staples are coated with super-barrier
mastic on cold applications).
5. Circumferential butt strip. Self adhering or field
adhering.
6. Longitudinal lap on field-applied jacketing is
adhered with appropriate adhesive or sealer.
7. Butt joint overlap sealed (tape at overlap joints is
optional on cold applications).
8. Wire, tapes or hands securing insulation in place
before the jacket is applied.

Figure 6: Field and Factory-Applied Non-Metal Jacketing

18
3.3.3 METAL JACKETING
Metal jacketing is generally used to protect
insulation from physical damage (Figure 7). It is
particularly useful for outdoor applications. The
jacketing material may also be chosen to resist
chemical attack. For example, a highly corrosive
atmosphere may require the application of a
stainless steel jacketing system instead of the
standard aluminium material.

3.3.4 FLEXIBLE ELASTOMERIC PIPE


COVERING
Flexible elastomeric pipe covering is used on cold 1. Pipe
2. Insulation.
temperature piping such as air-conditioning systems 3. Wire, tape or bands securing insulation in place.
4. Overlaps positioned to shed water (butt joint overlaps should be wide
(Figure 8). It is generally manufactured as a enough to provide weatherproofing).
5. Rivets or screw at longitudinal laps for securement.
continuous tube, which can be pushed over small 6. Metal bands at butt joint overlaps, and spaced between butt joints for
jacket securement.
diameter piping during installation. Slitting before
installing is another option. Joints are sealed with
Figure 7: Field Applied Metal Jacketing
contact adhesive.
(Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

3.3.5 FITTINGS INSULATION


Insulation of fittings on a job is an extremely
important part of the overall system (Figure 9). The
insulation of elbows is usually accomplished by
using mitred pipe insulation. Generally the same
material and size of insulation is used to make the
elbow insulation. Where a Victaulic type pipe fitting
is used insulation is either built up to a greater
thickness than the surrounding line pipe insulation,
or standard pipe covering is grooved out to fit
around the coupling. In some cases, pre-formed
fitting insulation is available to simplify the installa-
tion. The insulated fitting is then covered with cloth
or canvas and lagging material for protection and a
neat finish. 1. Pipe or tubing.
2. Insulation (to facilitate sweating of joints, insulation can be pulled back
temporarily on either side of the connection then released to extend over
the joint before sealing.)
3.3.6 PVC OR GLASS FIBRE FITTING 3. Contact adhesive is applied to both surfaces of longitudinal and butt
joints.
INSULATION
PVC fitting covers are generally used for hot or Figure 8: Flexible Elastomeric Pipe Covering
cold commercial applications where a neat finish is (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

19
1. Pipe.
2. Pipe insulation (shown in A) with factory applied non-metal jacketing
(metal jacketing shown in B). Jacketing extends under the fitting
insulation and finish.
3. Mitered segments of pipe covering, cut to form a tight fit (adhesive
between miters on pre-fabricated applications or when required.)
4. Glass fiber fill insulation (optional ± used as a means of support when
the mitered elbow has not been prefabricated into two self supporting
halves.)
5. Wire or banding (unnecessary when prefabricated.)
6. Pre-formed metal elbow cover secured with sheet metal screws.
7. Finishing cement applied to smooth surface.
8. Fabric applied with adhesive on the surface of finishing or insulating
cement.

Figure 9: Mitred Insulation Elbow Oversized Application (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

sufficient and a final finishing method (i.e. canvas) is the most common) with either a dull or shiny
not required (Figure 10). These fittings are easy to appearance. PVC jacketing may also be used to
install and come in different colours (white being protect piping insulation.

1. Pipe.
2. Pipe insulation (shown with factory-applied jacket).
3. Collar of oversized pipe insulation.
4. Glass fiber insert wrapped around the elbow.
5. PVC fitting cover.
6. Reducing end cap.
7. Vapor retarder adhesive on all joints and overlaps (cold applications
only.)
8. Vapor retarder tape.

Figure 10: PVC/Glass Fibre Elbow Insulation System (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

20
3.3.7 INSULATION OF IN-LINE
FLANGES OR COUPLINGS

In-line flanges or couplings, are difficult to insulate


with standard sized products. In these cases blanket
wrap insulation is used to surround the coupling
and is finished with both canvas and lagging, or a
PVC fitting cover (Figure 11).

3.3.8 REMOVABLE AND REUSABLE


INSULATION
1. Pipe.
2. Pipe insulation (factory applied jacket).
Removable insulation may be used where valves 3. Vapor retarder tape along longitudinal seam and around ends.
4. Glass fiber insert wrapped around the coupling.
require constant maintenance. These are made of a 5. PVC cover extending over the pipe insulation.

fabric cover with a contained insulation, and a


fastening system such as the one shown (Figure Figure 11: PVC/Glass Fibre Coupling or In-Line
Flange Insulation System
12).

3.3.9 DUCT INSULATION

Ducts can be insulated with either a flexible blanket


type product or with a rigid board system (Figure
13). The rigid board system offers superior abuse
resistance, but may be more difficult to apply
because of the necessity of cutting and fitting
around connections and changes in direction.

Where a vapour retarder system is required for


cold or dual temperature ducting, care should be
taken to seal all joints with adhesive to maintain the
vapour retarder. Any punctures of the vapour
retarder facing should be vapour-sealed.

Rigid board insulation with factory applied jacketing


should have joints and edges sealed with an
adhesive backed vapour retarder tape. Blanket
1. Valve.
wrap insulation may be available with a lap joint, 2. Removable cover.
3. machine stitching.
which can be sealed with a vapour retarder 4. Metal stitching at edges.
5. Quilting washer.
adhesive. 6. Lacing hooks and wire.
7. Adjacent insulation.

Figure 12: Removable and Reusable Insulation

21
1. Rectangular duct.
2. Blanket insulation (shown with factory-applied vapor retarder jacket).
3. Factory lap (sealed with adhesive and/or staples or vapor retarder tape).
4. Vapor retarder tape over tears and penetrations of the vapor retarder 1. Housing or shaft.
jacket (optional in hot applications.) 2. Liner or fibrous board insulation.
5. Mechanical fasteners supporting insulation n the underside of ducts ovedr 3. Adhesive.
24" wide (spaced 3" from the butt joint.) 4. Mechanical fasteners.
5. Joint sealer.

Figure 13: Flexible Fibrous Blanket Duct Figure 14: Field Applied Lining Ducts,
Insulation Rectangular/Indoors Plenums and Housings
(Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

3.3.10 FIELD APPLIED LINING

When field applied (applied on site rather than in


the factory where the components were made) to
the inside surface of housings or shafts, insulation is
attached by means of adhesives and mechanical
fasteners, depending on the size of the housing and
the velocity of the air moving through it (Figure 14).
Transverse joints and exposed edges are taped or
coated with sealer to hold the insulation firmly in
place.

3.3.11 INSULATION OF TANKS AND


VESSELS 1. Vessel wall.
2. Insulation board, scored or beveled to fit the
curvature of the vessel surface.
The choice of application method depends on the 3. Stainless steel bands and "S" clips as required
(see inset). An alternate method of securement
conditions of the system. If welding pins onto an is impalement of
insulation on mechanical fasteners.
existing tank or vessel (Figure 15) is dangerous then 4. Bottom tier of insulation is cellular glass in areas where water absorption
and wicking may occur (optional).
the insulation can be secured by banding in place. 5. Corrugated or smooth sheet metal sheathing.
6. Head flashing.
7. Caulking/flashing at fittings.

Either flexible batt or rigid board insulation may be


Figure 15: Curved Surfaces Rigid Board
used to insulate tanks or vessels. The insulation
Insulation (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

22
1. Head insulation (rigid block is shown).
2. Floating ring of cable.
3. Head bands on 12" centers.
4. Shell insulation.
5. Head insulation supporting ring (not required for horizontal vessels).
6. 1" joint between support ring and shell insulation packed with mineral
or glass fibre insulation.
7. Segments of flat sheet metal cut in wedge shapes, to overlap and
conform to the surface of the head insulation.
8. Band at base of head insulation cover.
9. Sheet metal screws on 3" centres along horizontal and vertical seams.
10. High density insulation for walkway.
11. Roofing materials or reinforced mastic.
12. Caulking and flashing as required.
13. Banding to secure rim angle.
14. Metal I-beams used to stiffen head structure.

Figure 16: Metal Head Insulation, Securement and Cover Fabrication (Source: Canadian Govn Pub)

manufacturer may recommend choice of type of 3.3.12 VESSEL AND TANK HEAD
product. Rigid insulation such as calcium silicate will INSULATION
have to be scored to conform to the curvature of
the tank. Mineral fibre insulation may be bent to Vessel tops are a major source of heat loss. Thus,
conform to the vessel shape. the insulation of the tops of tanks and vessels
(Figure 16) is important to maintain temperature
Where the tank or vessel comes in contact with within the process. Proper protection of the
the ground, an insulation material that does not insulation on the top of the tank or vessel is critical
wick or absorb moisture should be used around to prevent heat loss in the system.
the base of the tank. Cellular glass is typically used.
In addition to the insulation method shown, roofing
Weather protection of insulated outdoor tanks and contractors normally insulate flat tank surfaces. The
vessels is a key requirement. Sheet steel or nature of the insulation system is critical and should
aluminium panels are fastened together with be performed by qualified insulation contractors
vertical and horizontal laps sufficient to shed rain only.
water to protect the insulation.

23
4 ENERGY MANAGEMENT
OPPORTUNITIES

Energy Management Opportunities is a term that 4.1.1 HOUSEKEEPING WORKED


represents the ways that energy can be used wisely EXAMPLES
to save money. A number of typical Energy
Management Opportunities subdivided into 4.1.1.1 REPAIR DAMAGED
Housekeeping, Low Cost, and Retrofit categories INSULATION
are outlined in this section with worked examples
to illustrate the potential energy savings. This is not During a walk through audit of a process facility it
a complete listing of the opportunities available for was noted that the insulation on an NPS 4 pipeline
insulation. However, it is intended to provide ideas had been damaged and removed for a ten-metre
for management, operating and maintenance length. This pipeline was carrying high temperature
personnel to allow them to identify other process fluid at 121oC and the ambient tempera-
opportunities that are applicable to a particular ture was 18oC. The original insulation was 76 mm
facility. Appropriate modules in this series should thick mineral fibre.
be considered for Energy Management Opportu-
nities existing within other types of equipment and A diagnostic audit was performed to establish the
systems. heat loss from this section of pipe before and after
the damaged insulation had been removed to
The following text briefly highlights several Energy establish the additional energy loss without insula-
Management Opportunities and is followed by tion.
worked examples or explanatory text for illustra-
tive purposes. From Table 1 the heat loss from NPS 4 pipe at
121oC is approximately 530 Wh/m.

From Table 3 the heat loss for the same piping with
4.1 HOUSEKEEPING
76 mm of mineral fibre insulation is 28 Wh/m.
OPPORTUNITIES
For a ten-metre length, the reduction in heat loss is
Implemented housekeeping opportunities are en- now calculated.
ergy management actions that are done on a
Heat loss reduction per hour ˆ 10  (530 ± 28)
regular basis and never less than once a year. The
ˆ 10  502
following are typical Energy Management Oppor-
ˆ 5020 Wh/h
tunities in this category include:
1. Repair damaged insulation. If the pipe in question is in operation 8760 hours
2. Repair damaged coverings and finishes. per year the annual heat loss reduction can be
3. Maintain safety requirements. calculated.

24
Annual heat loss reduction 4.1.1.2 REPAIR DAMAGED
ˆ Hourly heat loss reduction  operating hours INSULATION COVERS AND
per year FINISHES

ˆ 5020  8760 Damage to the insulation cover and finish can


expose the insulation and leave it susceptible to
ˆ 43 975 200 Wh/yr or 43 975.2 kWh/yr. damage by water, sunlight and mechanical abuse.
Damage will reduce the effectiveness of insulation
If the process fluid is heated by electricity which and thus will increase the heat loss and its
costs R0.20/kwh, the reduction in heat loss can be associated cost.
equated to a Rand savings as follows.

4.1.1.3 MAINTAIN SAFETY


Annual Rand savings
REQUIREMENTS
ˆ Annual reduction in heat loss  energy unit
cost Pipes that are exposed to human contact should
43 975 200 kWh=yr  RO:20=kWh be insulated such that the temperature of the
ˆ exposed surface does not exceed 70oC. Major
1000
burn hazards exist at temperatures above this. A
ˆ R8795.04/yr review of Table 3 shows that the insulation surface
temperatures never approach this figure.
The estimated cost to supply and install 10 metres
of 76mm glass fibre insulation was R4000.
4.2 LOW COST
R4000:00
Simple payback ˆ
R8795:04 OPPORTUNITIES
ˆ 0.45 years (5 months) Implemented low cost opportunities are energy
management actions that are done once and for
A further benefit of the insulation is the removal of which the cost is not considered great. The
a potential employee burn hazard. Without following are typical Energy Management Oppor-
insulation, the pipe surface temperature would be tunities in this category include:
approximately 121oC. By adding the insulation the
outer surface of the insulation would be 23oC. 1. Insulate non-insulated pipe.
2. Insulate non-insulated vessels.
This is a housekeeping item even though there is a 3. Add insulation to reach recommended thick-
cost involved for the replacement of the 10 metres ness.
of insulation because it is considered as a part of
the normal housekeeping / maintenance program
4.2.1 LOW COST WORKED
in any facility.
EXAMPLES
To assist in performing the calculation Worksheet
4.2.1.1 INSULATE NON-INSULATED
1-2 has been developed and is completed for this
PIPING
specific example.
During a walk through audit of a facility it was
noted that an NPS 2 branch steam main 20 metres
25
long feeding a new unit heater had not been insulated with the recommended insulation thick-
insulated during the original installation. The steam ness of mineral fibre insulation.
temperature was 121oC. It was decided to
investigate the potential energy and dollar savings Vessel surface area
if this main was insulated with the recommended ˆ ATop ‡ ASide ‡ ABottom
thickness of cellular glass insulation. The main was ˆ (2  1) ‡ [(2  1) ‡ (2  1) ‡ (1  1) ‡ (1  1)] ‡ (2  1)
in operation 2880 hours per year.
ˆ 2‡6‡2
From Table 3 it was established that the ˆ 10m2
recommended thickness of cellular glass insulation
for this application was 64 mm, and the heat loss if From Table 3 the recommended insulation thick-
this amount of insulation were installed would be ness for a flat surface at 177oC is 102 mm, and its
35 Wh/m From Table 1 the heat loss from this heat loss is 63 Wh/m2. Worksheet 1-3 is used to
same pipe with no insulation is 290 Wh/m. calculate the annual loss due to the addition of
insulation as 551 880 kWh/yr.
Using Worksheet 1-2 the annual reduction in heat
loss due to the addition of insulation would be 14 On the basis that the vessel is heated with electric
688 00 Wh/yr or 14 688/yr or 52 876.8 MJ/yr. immersion heaters, and the energy cost for
electricity is R0.20/kWh, the annual potential Rand
Steam was produced in a boiler operating at 75 per savings may be calculated.
cent efficiency using Sasol gas at R53.00/GJ.
52 876:8  53:00 Annual savings ˆ 551 880  R0.20
Rand savings ˆ
1000  0:75
ˆ R110 376
ˆ R3736.62/yr

Estimated cost to supply and install the insulation is Estimated cost to supply and install 100 mm of
R3000. mineral fibre insulation on the top, side and bottom
R3 000:00 of the tank is R30 000.
Simple payback ˆ
R3 736:62 R30 000
Simple payback ˆ
ˆ 0.80 years (10 months) R110 376
ˆ 0.27 years (3 months)

4.2.1.2 INSULATE NON-INSULATED


VESSELS 4.2.1.3 ADD INSULATION TO REACH
RECOMMENDED THICKNESS
During a walk through audit of a facility it was
noted that a rectangular tank 2m long by 1 m wide During a walk through audit of a facility, it was
by 1 m deep, with a hinged lid was not insulated noted that a two-metre diameter vessel, with a
even though the tank was maintained at 177oC for surface area of 25 m2 containing a liquid being
8760 hours per year. maintained at 65oC was insulated with 25 mm of
mineral fibre insulation. The vessel was in operation
A diagnostic audit was performed to establish the 8400 hours per year and was heated with
potential energy and cost savings if the vessel was electricity at the cost of R0.20/kWh
26
Using Table 3 the recommended insulation thick-
4.3 RETROFIT
ness for this application was 51 mm with an
associated heat loss of 32 Wh/m2. A diagnostic OPPORTUNITIES
audit was performed to establish the energy and
cost savings if the insulation was increased in Implemented retrofit opportunities are energy
thickness to the recommended 51 mm. management actions, which are done once and
for which the cost is significant. Many of the
Manufacturer's data for 25 mm of mineral fibre opportunities in this category will require detailed
insulation under these conditions indicated the analysis by specialists, and cannot be covered in this
heat loss was 105 Wh/m2 of surface area of the module. The following are typical Energy Manage-
tank. ment Opportunities in the retrofit category:

Worksheet 1-3 is used twice. The first time to 1. Upgrade existing insulation levels.
calculate the reduction in heat loss from a bare 2. Review economic thickness requirement.
vessel to 25 mm of insulation and the second time 3. Limited budget upgrade.
to calculate the reduction in heat loss between the
bare vessel and 51 mm of insulation.
4.3.1 RETROFIT WORKED EXAMPLES
The energy savings in adding 26 mm of insulation
and increasing the overall thickness to 51 mm can
be calculated. 4.3.1.1 UPGRADE EXISTING
INSULATION LEVELS
Energy Savings
During a walk through audit it was noted that an
ˆ Savings with 51 mm ± Savings with 25 mm
NPS 6, steam header operating at 288oC for 8760
ˆ 81 900 000 ± 61 950 000 hours per year was insulated with cellular glass
insulation. The steam header was 100 metres long.
ˆ 19 950 000 Wh/yr

or 19 950 kWh/yr A review of Table 3 indicated that the heat loss for
this main based on the cellular glass insulation was
Rand savings ˆ 19 950  R0.20 145 Wh/m. It was further noted that if the
insulation was changed to mineral fibre, the heat
ˆ R3 990
loss would be reduced to 99 Wh/m. It should be
noted that the insulation thickness remained the
Estimated cost to supply and install the additional
same.
insulation is R30 000.

R30 000 Annual energy savings of mineral fibre insulation


Simple payback ˆ
R3 990 can be calculated.
ˆ 7.5 years
Annual energy savings
ˆ (Cellular glass loss ± mineral fibre loss)  Length  operating hours
per year

27
ˆ (147 ± 100)  100  8760 numerous steam branch mains were not insulated.
ˆ 41 172 000 Wh/yr These steam mains varied in size from NPS 1 to
or ˆ 41 172 000  3.6 NPS 6. It was estimated that the equivalent length
ˆ 148 219 200 kJ/yr would be equal to 350 m of NPS 4. The
or ˆ 148 219.2 MJ/yr temperature of the steam was 121oC and the
mains were in operation for an estimated 4400
The steam was produced in a boiler operating at hours per year. The steam was produced in a low-
76 per cent efficiency using synthetic at a cost of pressure boiler, which used synthetic gas as the fuel
R58.00/GJ. and operated at 77 per cent efficiency. The cost of
148 219:2  R58:00 gas at the facility was R58.00/GJ.
Rand savings ˆ
1000  0:76
A review of Table 3 indicated that the recom-
ˆ R11 311.50/yr
mended mineral fibre insulation thickness for NPS
4 pipe at 121oC would be 76 mm. and that the
The estimated cost to replace the cellular glass
heat loss would be 28 Wh/m. Table 1 indicates
insulation with glass fibre insulation was R100 000.
that the heat loss for bare steel pipe at 121oC is
R100 000 530Wh/m.
Simple payback ˆ
R11 311:50
ˆ 8.8 years Using Worksheet 1-2 it was established that the
reduction in heat loss if the bare pipe were
In this case the replacement is not justified based insulated to the recommended thickness with glass
on the payback. However, if the original insulation fibre insulation would be or 2 783 088 MJ/yr.
had been less than the recommended thickness, 2 783 088  R58:00
the heat loss and therefore the savings would have Dollar savings ˆ
1000  0:77
been much greater. This would have to be
ˆ R209 635/yr
calculated using insulation manufacturers published
data.
The cost to supply and install the 76mm insulation
on the uninsulated piping was R80 000

4.3.1.2 REVIEW ECONOMIC R80 000


Simple payback ˆ
INSULATION THICKNESS R209 635
ˆ 0.38 years (5 months)
As indicated in the `Fundamentals' section of this
module, in some instances, the economic insulation However, due to certain financial constraints,
thickness should be considered and compared to management was not prepared to invest this
recommended insulation thickness to establish amount of money at this time.
potential savings.
Because of the budget limitations imposed by
management, a new set of calculations was
4.3.1.3 LIMITED BUDGET UPGRADE performed on the basis of using 25 mm of mineral
fibre insulation. The insulation manufacturer in-
During a walk through audit of a facility, which was dicated that under these conditions the heat loss
being considered for purchase, it was noted that would be 200 Wh/m for every hour of operation.

28
Using Worksheet 1-2 again the reduction in heat Even though the simple payback was not as good
loss if 25 mm of mineral fibre insulation is used is 1 as with the 25 mm as with the 76 mm of insulation,
829 520 MJ/yr management was prepared to invest R70 000 for
1 829 520  R58:00 this limited budget upgrade.
Rand savings ˆ
1 000  0:77
ˆ R137 808/yr

Estimated cost to supply and install the insulation is


R70 000
R70 000
Simple payback ˆ
R137 808
ˆ 0.51 year (6 months).

29
APPENDICES

WORKSHEETS

WORKSHEET 1-1

Insulation Material Properties Selection Considerations

Company: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Insulation for: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Not
Property Important
Important
APPEARANCE (is insulation exposed?)

CHEMICAL NEUTRALITY (is insulation subject to intermittent wetting?)

BREAKING LOAD (Must insulation bridge discontinuities in its support?)

CAPILLARITY (is insulation in a wet area?)

COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION (is insulation layered


or are expansion joints required?)

COMBUSTIBILITY (is there a fire hazard in the area?)

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (must insulation support a load or be subject to


mechanical abuse?)

DENSITY

SHRINKAGE (is this a high temperature application?)

RESISTANCE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (is insulation exposed to


sunlight?)

RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL OR FUNGAL GROWTH (is insulation used in


a food or cosmetic preparation area?)

30
WORKSHEET 1-2

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Location: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ By: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Pipe diameter (NPS) _________________________________________________________________________________________ Pipe Length ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ m


Pipe temperature _________________________________________________________________________________________ oC Operating
Hours per year ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ h
Proposed Proposed
insulation type _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Insulation thickness _________________________________________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated
Heat loss
Per metre _________________________________________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 1) ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 3)
Heat loss/h ˆ Heat loss/m.h  length Heat loss/m.h  length
___________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/h _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
___________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/h (1) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr (2)


Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ± ____________________________________________

ˆ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr
or ______________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

31
WORKSHEET 1-2

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________ABC
_________________Co.
________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Low cost worked example No. 1
Pipe diameter (NPS) ________________________________________________2_________________________________________ Pipe Length _________________________________________________________20
_______________________________________________________ m
Pipe temperature _________________________________________121
________________________________________________ oC Operating
Hours per year _________________________________________2_______880
______________________________________________________ h
Proposed Proposed
insulation type ___________________________________cellular
__________________________glass
__________________________________________________ Insulation thickness _________________________________34
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated
Heat loss
_________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 1)
Per metre ________________________________290 _____________________________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 3)
_________________________________________________35
Heat loss/h ˆ Heat loss/m.h  length Heat loss/m.h  length
___________________________________290
________________________________________  __________________________20
___________________________ ___________________________________35
__________________________________________ _________________________20
______________________________

______________________________________________________________________5_______800
____________________________________________________________________Wh/h ___________________________________________________________________________700
______________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________________5________800
_________________________________  ________________________2________880
_____________________ _______________________________700
______________________________________________ ________________2_______880
___________________________________________________

___________________________________________16
____________704
________________000
___________________________________________________________Wh/yr (1) _________________________________________________________2_______016
_________________000
_________________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ ______________________________16
____________704
________________000
______________________________________ ± _____2_______016
________________000
________________

ˆ _______________________________________________14
____________688
________________000
__________________________________________________________Wh/yr
or _______________________14
____________688
________________000
___________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ __________________________________52
____________876
________________800
_______________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

32
WORKSHEET 1-2

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________XYZ
__________________Co.
_______________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Housekeeping worked example No. 1
Pipe diameter (NPS) ________________________________________________4_________________________________________ Pipe Length _________________________________________________________10
_______________________________________________________ m
Pipe temperature __________________________________________________________121
_______________________________ oC Operating
Hours per year _________________________________________8_______760
______________________________________________________ h
Proposed Proposed
insulation type ___________________________________mineral
____________________________fibre
________________________________________________ Insulation thickness _________________________________76
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated
Heat loss
_________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 1)
Per metre ________________________________530 _____________________________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 3)
_________________________________________________28
Heat loss/h ˆ Heat loss/m.h  length Heat loss/m.h  length
___________________________________530
________________________________________  __________________________10
___________________________ ____________________________________28
_________________________________________ _________________________10
______________________________

______________________________________________________________________5_______300
____________________________________________________________________Wh/h ___________________________________________________________________________280
______________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________________5________300
_________________________________  ________________________8________760
_____________________ _______________________________2800
______________________________________________ ____________________8_______760
_______________________________________________

___________________________________________46
____________428
________________000
_____________________________________________________________Wh/h (1) _________________________________________________________2________452
________________800
_________________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ ______________________________46
____________428
________________000
______________________________________ ± _____2_______452
________________800
________________

ˆ _______________________________________________43
____________975
________________200
__________________________________________________________Wh/yr
or ______________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

33
WORKSHEET 1-3

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Location: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ By: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Operating
Equipment ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Hours per year ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ h
Proposed Insulation
Surface area __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ m2 type __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Proposed
o
Product temperature ____________________________________________________________________________ C Insulation thickness _________________________________________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated

Heat loss_________________________________________________________________________Wh/m2 (Table 1) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/m2 (Table 3)


Total heat loss/h ˆ Surface area  Heat loss Surface area  Heat loss
___________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/h _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
___________________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr (1) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr (2)


Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ± ____________________________________________

ˆ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr
or ______________________________________________________________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

34
WORKSHEET 1-3

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________ABC
_________________Co.
________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Operating
Equipment ______________________________Heating
_____________________________tank
_________________No.
________________1________________________________ Hours per year _________________________________________8_______760
______________________________________________________ h
Proposed Insulation
Surface area _________________________________________________10
_________________________________________________________ m2 type __________________________________________________________________mineral
____________________________fibre
____________________________________________________
Proposed
Product temperature __________________________________177
__________________________________________ oC Insulation thickness _________________________________102
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated

Heat loss_______________________________________2_______800
___________________________Wh/m2 (Table 5) _________________________________________________63
________________________________________________________Wh/m2 (Table 3)
Total heat loss/h ˆ Surface area  Heat loss Surface area  Heat loss
___________________________________10
________________________________________  ______________________2_______800
________________________ ____________________________________10
_________________________________________ _________________________63
______________________________

____________________________________________________________________28
____________000
_________________________________________________________________Wh/h ___________________________________________________________________________630
______________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________28
___________000
______________________________________  ___________________8_______760
___________________________ _______________________________630
______________________________________________ ________________8_______760
___________________________________________________

____________________________________________________245
________________280
________________000
________________________________________________Wh/h (1) _________________________________________________________5________518
________________800
_________________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ _____________________________245
________________280
________________000
___________________________________ ± ________5_______518
________________800
_____________

ˆ _______________________________________________239
_________________761
________________200
_____________________________________________________Wh/yr
or _______________________239
________________761
________________200
___________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/W
ˆ __________________________________863
________________140
________________320
___________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

35
WORKSHEET 1-3

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________XYZ
__________________Co.
_______________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Low cost worked example No.3
Operating
Equipment ______________________________Heating
_____________________________tank
_________________No.
________________2________________________________ hours per year ___________________________________________8_______400
______________________________________________________ h
Proposed Insulation
Surface area __________________________________________________25
________________________________________________________ m2 type __________________________________________________________________mineral
___________________________fibre
_____________________________________________________
Proposed
Product temperature __________________________________65
__________________________________________ oC Insulation thickness _________________________________51
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated

Heat loss_______________________________________504.7
__________________________________Wh/m2 (Table 5) _________________________________________________32
________________________________________________________Wh/m2 (Table 3)
Total heat loss/h ˆ Surface area  Heat loss Surface area  Heat loss
___________________________________25
________________________________________  ______________________504.7
_______________________________ ____________________________________25
_________________________________________ _________________________32
______________________________

____________________________________________________________________12
____________617.5
_________________________________________________________________Wh/h ___________________________________________________________________________800
______________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________12
___________617.5
______________________________________  ________________________8________400
_____________________ _______________________________800
______________________________________________ ________________8_______400
___________________________________________________

____________________________________________________105
________________987
________________000
________________________________________________Wh/h (1) _________________________________________________________6________720
________________000
_________________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ ____________________________105
_________________987
________________000
___________________________________ ± ________6_______720
________________000
_____________

ˆ _______________________________________________99
____________300
________________000
__________________________________________________________Wh/yr
or _______________________99
____________300
________________000
___________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ __________________________________357
________________480
________________000
___________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

36
WORKSHEET 1-3

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________ABC
_________________Co.
________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Low cost worked example No. 3
Operating
Equipment ______________________________Holding
______________________________tank
_________________No.
________________2_______________________________ Hours per year _________________________________________8_______400
______________________________________________________ h
Proposed Insulation
Surface area _________________________________________________25
_________________________________________________________ m2 type __________________________________________________________________mineral
____________________________fibre
____________________________________________________
Proposed
Product temperature __________________________________65
__________________________________________ oC Insulation thickness _________________________________25
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated

Heat loss_______________________________________504.7
__________________________________Wh/m2 (Table 5) _________________________________________________115
_________________________________________________Wh/mm2 (Table 3)
Total heat loss/h ˆ Surface area  Heat loss Surface area  Heat loss
___________________________________25
________________________________________  ______________________504.7
_______________________________ ____________________________________25
_________________________________________ _________________________115
______________________________

____________________________________________________________________12
____________617.5
_________________________________________________________________Wh/h ___________________________________________________________________________2_______875
_______________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________12
___________617.5
______________________________________  ________________________8________400
_____________________ _______________________________2_______875
_______________________________________ _______________________8________400
___________________________________________

____________________________________________________105
________________987
________________000
______________________________________________Wh/yr (1) _________________________________________________________21
____________150
________________000
_____________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ _____________________________105
________________987
________________000
___________________________________ ± _____21
____________150
________________000
___________

ˆ _______________________________________________81
____________837
________________000
__________________________________________________________Wh/yr
or _______________________81
____________837
________________000
___________________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ __________________________________294
________________613
________________200
___________________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

37
WORKSHEET 1-2 (Page 1 of 2)

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________ABC
_________________Co.
________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Retrofit worked example No. 3
Pipe diameter (NPS) _______________________________________4__________________________________________________ Pipe Length _____________________________________________________350
___________________________________________________________ m
Pipe temperature _________________________________________121
________________________________________________ oC Operating
Hours per year ____________________________________4________400
__________________________________________________________ h
Proposed Proposed
insulation type ___________________________________mineral
____________________________fibre
________________________________________________ Insulation thickness _________________________________76
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated

________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 1)
Heat loss_______________________________________530 _____________________________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 3)
_________________________________________________28
Heat loss/h ˆ Heat loss/m.h  length Heat loss/m.h  length
___________________________________530
________________________________________  __________________________350
___________________________ ___________________________________28
__________________________________________ _________________________350
______________________________

___________________________________________________________185
________________500
______________________________________________________________________Wh/h ___________________________________________________________________________9_______800
_______________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________185
________________500
_________________________________  _______________________4_______400
_______________________ _______________________________9_______800
_______________________________________ _______________________4_______400
____________________________________________

____________________________________________________816
________________200
________________000
________________________________________________Wh/h (1) _________________________________________________________43
____________120
________________000
_____________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ ____________________________816
_________________200
________________000
___________________________________ ± _____43
____________120
________________000
___________

ˆ _______________________________________________773
________________080
_________________000
_____________________________________________________Wh/yr
or _______________________773
________________080
________________000
_______________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ __________________________________2_______783
________________088
________________000
____________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

38
WORKSHEET 1-2 (Page 2 of 2)

Heat Loss From Piping

Company: _____________________________________________ABC
_________________Co.
________________________________________________________________ Date: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Location: ________________________________________ANYTOWN
__________________________________________________________________________________________ By: ______________________________________________________________MBE
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Retrofit worked example No. 3
Pipe diameter (NPS) ________________________________________________4_________________________________________ Pipe Length _________________________________________________________350
_______________________________________________________ m
Pipe temperature __________________________________________________________121
_______________________________ oC Operating
Hours per year _________________________________________4_______400
______________________________________________________ h
Proposed Proposed
insulation type ___________________________________mineral
____________________________fibre
________________________________________________ Insulation thickness _________________________________25
________________________________________________ mm
Uninsulated Insulated
Heat loss
_________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 1)
Per metre ________________________________530 _____________________________________________________Wh/m.h (Table 3)
_________________________________________________200
Heat loss/h ˆ Heat loss/m.h  length Heat loss/m.h  length
___________________________________530
________________________________________  __________________________350
___________________________ ____________________________________200
_________________________________________ _____________________________350
__________________________

______________________________________________________________________185
________________500
___________________________________________________________Wh/h __________________________________________________________________70
____________000
___________________________________________________________________Wh/h
Annual heat loss ˆ Heat loss  h/yr Heat loss/h  h/yr
__________________________185
________________500
_________________________________  ____________________4_______400
__________________________ _______________________________70
____________000
__________________________________ ___________________________4________400
_______________________________________

___________________________________________816
________________200
________________000
_______________________________________________________Wh/yr (1) _________________________________________________________308
________________000
________________000
_________________________________________Wh/yr (2)
Reduction in heat loss due
to addition of insulation
ˆ (1) ± (2)
ˆ __________________________816
_______________200
________________000
_______________________________________ ± _308
________________000
________________000
___________

ˆ _______________________________________________508
_________________200
________________000
_____________________________________________________Wh/yr
or _______________________508
________________200
________________000
_______________________________Wh/yr  3.6 kJ/Wh
ˆ __________________________________1_______829
________________520
_________________000
___________________________________________________________________kJ/yr

Annual Rand savings may now be calculated using cost per unit of heating medium. Ensure that units are
compatible.

39
GLOSSARY

Ambient Temperature ± The temperature of the the liquid being the surface tension.
medium, usually air, surrounding the
object under consideration. Caulking Compound ± A soft, plastic material,
consisting of pigment and carrier, used
Batt ± A piece of insulation, of the flexible type, for sealing joints in buildings, and other
cut into easily handled sizes, square or structures, where normal structural
rectangular in shape, usually 609.6 mm movement may occur.
(24º) or 1219 mm (48º) long with a
vapour retarder on one side, and with, or Cellular Elastomeric Flexible Thermal Insulation
without, a container sheet on the other ± Insulation composed principally of
side. natural or synthetic elastomers in ex-
panded cellular form.
Blanket ± Insulation, of the flexible type, formed
into sheets or rolls, usually with a vapour Cellular Glass Thermal Insulation ± Insulation
retarder on one side, and with, or with- composed of glass processed by fusion
out, a container sheet on the other side. to form a homogeneous rigid mass of
closed cells.
Block ± Rigid or semi-rigid insulation formed into
sections, rectangular both in plan and Celsius ± The temperature measuring scale
cross-section, usually 36º (914.4 mm) to (formerly Centigrade) in which the
1219 mm (48º) long, 152.4 mm (6º) to freezing point of water is taken at 0o
609.6 mm (24º) wide, and 25.4 mm (1º) and the vaporisation point at 100o.
to 152.4 mm (6º) thick. Absolute zero on this scale is -273.15oC.

Calcium Silicate Insulation ± Insulation composed Chemically Foamed Plastic ± A cellular plastic
principally of hydrous calcium silicate, produced by gasses generated from
which usually incorporates fibres of chemical interaction of constituents.
varying types to act as a binder.
Chlorinated Solvent ± An organic chemical liquid
Canvas ± A light, plain weave, coarse, cotton cloth characterised by a high chlorine content
with hard twisted yarns, usually not more and used in coating products to impart
than 271 grams per square metre. non-flammability.

Capillarity ± That property of a material which Closed-Cell Foamed Plastic ± A cellular plastic in
enables it to suck a liquid up into or which there is a predominance of non-
through itself, with the driving force of interconnecting cells.

40
Coating ± A liquid, or semi-liquid, protective finish contact: also called contact bond or dry
suitable for thermal insulation or other bond adhesive.
surfaces, usually applied by brush or
spray, in moderate thickness, less than Corrosion Effect ± The wearing away' or destruc-
0.80 mm approx. [30 mils (0.030º)]. tion of a substrate caused by acid or
alkaline reactions between materials
Coefficient of Expansion (Contraction) ± The contained in the insulation and substrate.
increase (decrease) in length of a
material one unit long, due to the Coverage-Wet ± The property of a material which
increase (decrease) of temperature by measures the thickness of wet material
one degree. that must be applied to a given area to
obtain a specific thickness after it has
Combustible ± Capable of uniting with air or cured and dried.
oxygen in a reaction initiated by heating
accompanied by the subsequent evolu- Cryogenic ± Pertaining to the extremely low
tion of heat and light i.e. capable of temperatures, such as the liquefaction
burning. points of gaseous elements, usually
approaching absolute zero (-273.15oC).
Combustibility ± That property of a material which
measures its tendency to burn. It is Curing Agent ± An additive incorporated in a
normally expressed in the arbitrary terms coating or adhesive resulting in increased
of ªFlame Spread Indexº and ªSmoke chemical activity between the compo-
Density Indexº nents, with an increase or decrease in the
rate of cure.
Compressive Strength ± Resistance to change in
dimension when acted on by a compact- Curved Segmental Block ± A piece of rigid pipe
ing force. insulation, moulded or cut from a block
to fit the exact dimensions of a given size
Condensation ± The act of water vapour turning of pipe.
into water upon contact with a surface at
a lower temperature than the dew point Density ± The mass per unit volume of a
of the vapour. substance.

Conduction ± The transfer of energy within a Dewpoint ± The temperature at which the
body, or between two bodies in physical quantity of water vapour in a material
contact, from a higher temperature would cause saturation, with resultant
region to a lower temperature region. condensation of the vapour into liquid
water by any further reduction of
Conductivity ± See Thermal Conductance. temperature.

Contact Adhesive ± An adhesive which is Diatomaceous Silica Insulation ± Insulation com-


apparently dry to the touch and which posed principally of diatomaceous earth
will adhere to itself instantaneously' upon with, or without, heat-resistant inorganic

41
binders and which usually incorporates of 212o with 180 even divisions between
mineral fibres. and corresponding divisions above and
below. Absolute zero on this scale is -
Dimensional Stability ± That property of insulation, 459.67o.
which enables it to hold its original size,
shape and dimensions. Felt ± An insulation material composed of fibres,
which are interlocked and compacted
Drying Time (Adhesives) ± Time elapsed since under pressure.
bonding and the time when no further
increase in bond strength is realised. Fibreglass ± A composite material consisting of
glass fibres and a resin binder.
Drying Time (Finishes) ± Time elapsed after which
no further significant changes take place Filler ± A relatively inert material added to a mastic
in appearance or performance proper- or coating to modify its strength, per-
ties, due to drying. meance, working properties, or other
qualities.
Ductility ± That property of a material which
enables it to undergo large deformations Finishing Cement ± A mixture of fibres, bonding
without rupture. clays, and water mixed to a plastic mass
on the job, and used on the surface of
Elastomer ± Material, which at room temperature insulation to provide a medium-hard to
can be stretched repeatedly to at least hard, even finish.
twice its original length and immediately
upon release of the stress, will return Fire Resistance ± That property of a material that
with force to the approximate original enables it to resist decomposition or
length. deterioration when exposed to a fire.

Emittance ± The ratio of the total heat lost per unit Fire Retardance ± That property of a material,
of time through the same unit area of a which delays the spread of fire, either
perfect blackbody. through or over itself.

Exposed ± Any surface, which will be visible in the Flame Spread ± The rate, expressed in distance and
finished structure. time, at which a material will propagate
flame on its surface. As this is a difficult
Facing ± A thin layer on the surface of an insulating property to measure in time and dis-
product, acting as either a vapour tance, the measure is now by flame
retarder, weather barrier, protector from spread index to enable the comparison
damage or a decorative coating. of materials by one of the following test
methods: CAN2- S102-M83 or ASTM
Fahrenheit ± The temperature scale of The British E84.
System of units in which the freezing
point of water is assigned the value of Flammable ± That property of a material which
32o and the vaporisation point the value permits it to oxidise rapidly and release

42
heat of combustion when exposed to Insulation ± A material of low thermal conductivity
flame or fire, and allows continuous used to reduce the passage of heat.
burning after the external ignition source
is removed. Insulation Coating ± A material, or materials, used
over insulation or over the weather
Flashing ± A thin strip of metal inserted at the coating to provide the desired colour
junction of 2 materials to divert water in or texture for decorative purposes.
a specific direction.
Insulation Cover ± The cover for a flange,
Flash Point ± The lowest temperature of a material pipefitting, or valve, composed of the
(at a fixed pressure) at which it gives off specified thickness of insulating material,
vapour, which, when combined with air and pre-formed into the proper shape
near the surface, forms an ignitable before application.
mixture.
Insulation System ± An application of insulation to
Flexibility ± That property of a material, which piping, ductwork or equipment that may
allows it to be bent (flexed) without loss include the use of adhesives, mechanical
of strength. fastenings, coatings, reinforcing fabrics,
sealant and metal covering.
Flexural Strength ± That property of a material
which measures its resistance to bending Jacket ± A covering placed around an insulation to
(flexing) usually expressed in kg/m (lbs/ protect it from mechanical damage, and,
in). insofar as it is intrinsically able, from
weather, water, ultraviolet light, etc.
Freeze-Thaw Resistance ± The property of a
material which permits it to be alter- Lag ± A long, narrow piece of rigid insulation,
nately frozen and thawed through many rectangular in plan, trapezoidal in cross-
cycles without damage from rupture or section, moulded, or cut from a block of
cracking. the proper thickness.

Fuel Contribution ± Flammable by-products of fire Lagging ± An insulation layer, on a cylindrical


generated by, and emitted from, a surface, composed of lags.
burning object.
Laminated Foils ± A product made by bonding a
Hanger ± A device such as a welded pin, stud or foil sheet to at least one other material
adhesive secured fastener, which carries such as kraft paper.
the weight of the insulation or piping
system. Lap Adhesive (Lap Cement) ± The adhesive
material used to seal the side and end
Humidity ± A measure of the amount of water laps of insulation jackets.
vapour in the atmosphere.
Linear Shrinkage ± The property of a material that
indicates the proportional loss of dimen-

43
sions when exposed to high tempera- Pipe Insulation ± Thermal insulation suited for
tures. application to cylindrical surfaces of pipe
and tubing.
Loose Fill Insulation ± Particulate material in
granular, nodular, fibrous, powdery, or Pre-formed Pipe Insulation ± Thermal insulation in
similar form designed to be installed dry cylindrical, semi-cylindrical, or segmental
by pouring, blowing, or hand placement sections to fit pipes and tubing.
between retaining surfaces or as a
covering layer. Pre-formed Thermal Insulation Block ± A rigid or
semi-rigid thermal insulating material,
Mastic ± A relatively thick consistency protective either flat or segmental, for application
finish capable of application to thermal as received.
insulation or other surfaces, usually by
spray or trowel, in thick coats greater Primer ± The first application of a coating system
than 30 mils (0.80 mm approximately). used to seal or condition the surface for
the proper bonding of subsequent layers
Metal Lath ± A lattice type of material of various or coats.
gauges and sizes used to provide re-
inforcement for insulation. PVC-Polyvinyl Chloride ± Plastic material moulded
into finished shapes such as fitting covers.
Mineral Fibre (Wool) ± A generic term for all non-
metallic inorganic fibres, which may be Reflective Insulation ± Thermal insulation depend-
natural, or may be manufactured from ing for its efficiency in large part on the
such sources as rock, slag, or glass. reduction of radiant heat transfer across
spaces by use of one or more surfaces of
Mineral Fibre Blanket Insulation ± A blanket high reflectance and low emittance.
thermal insulation composed of inorgan-
ic fibres, with, or without, added binders. Reinforcing Membrane ± A loosely woven cloth
or fabric of glass or resilient fibres, placed
Mitred Insulation ± Insulation that has been cut in approximately in the centre of the
bevelled sections so that when it is fitted vapour retarder or weather barrier to
together, it follows the contour or curve act as reinforcing to the mastic of the
of the object being insulated. barrier.

Non-combustible ± A material that will not Scrim ± Woven screening type fabric used to
contribute fuel or heat to a fire to which reinforce an insulation covering.
it is exposed.
Tack ± The property of an adhesive that enables it
Non-flammable ± That property of a material that to form a bond of measurable strength
prevents it from oxidising rapidly and immediately after adhesive and adherent
releasing heat or combustion when are brought into contact under low
exposed to fire or flame. pressure.

44
Temperature Limits ± The upper and lower formed by the mating surfaces of jackets
temperatures at which a material will and vapour retarders over insulation. A
experience no essential change in its good sealer will not shrink much. There
properties. are several types of sealers, such as non-
setting, and heat resisting.
Thermal Insulation ± Material having air-filled or
gas-filled pockets, void spaces, or heat- Service Temperature Limits ± The temperature
reflective surfaces, which, when properly range within which the applied coating
applied will retard the transfer of heat will provide satisfactory service.
with reasonable effectiveness under or-
dinary conditions. Smoke Density (Smoke Developed) ± The Smoke
Density Factor is the amount of smoke
Reinforcing Mesh ± Generic term for poultry given off by the burning material com-
netting, chicken wire, etc., usually made pared to the amount of smoke given off
from pre-galvanised wire woven in 25.4 by the burning of a standard material.
mm (1 inch) mesh size. Also available in
post-galvanised and rustless metal alloys. Softening Point ± That temperature at which a
material will change its property from
Relative Humidity ± The ratio of the actual firm or rigid to soft or malleable.
pressure of existing water vapour to
the maximum possible (saturation) pres- Solvent ± Any substance, usually a liquid, which
sure of water vapour in the atmosphere dissolves another substance. Normally a
at the same temperature, expressed as a liquid organic compound used to make a
percentage. (See Dewpoint.) coating work more freely.

Resilient ± Capable of recoiling from pressure or Substrate ± A material upon the surface of which
shock unchanged or undamaged. an adhesive or coating is spread.

Sag ± Excessive flow in material after application to a Thermal Shock Resistance ± That property of a
surface, resulting in ªcurtainingº or running. material which enables it to maintain
shape and not distort, crack or shatter,
Self-Ignition Temperature (Autogeneous Ignition) from a sudden temperature change.
± The lowest temperature of a material
which will cause it to ignite without Thermoplastic ± Capable of being repeatedly
another ignition source. softened by an increase of temperature.
Note: Thermoplastic applies to those
Self-Extinguishing ± That property of a material materials whose change upon heating is
which enables it to stop ignition after substantially physical.
external ignition sources are removed.
Thermoset ± A plastic or other coating which,
Sealer ± A substance, composed of various when cured by the application of heat or
materials, used as a barrier to the passage chemical means, changes to a substan-
of water vapour or water into the joint tially infusible and insoluble product.

45
Toxicity ± The degree of hazard to health. Viscosity ± The property of resistance to flow
exhibited within the body of a material.
Urethane Resins ± Resins made by the condensa-
tion of organic isocyanates with com- Water Absorption ± The increase in weight of a
pounds or resins that contain hydroxol material, expressed as a percentage of its
groups. Note: Urethanes are a type of dry weight, after immersion in water for a
isocyanates resins. specified time.

Vapour Retarder ± A material, or materials, which Weather Barrier ± A material, which, when
when installed on the high vapour installed on the outside of the insulation,
pressure side, retards the passage of the protects the insulation from weather
moisture vapour to the lower vapour damage due to rain, snow, wind, atmo-
pressure side. spheric contamination, etc.

Vapour Migration (Permeability) ± That property Weather Coating ± A material, or materials, which,
of a material, which measures the rate at when installed on the outer surface of
which water vapour will penetrate it, due thermal insulation, protects the insulation
to vapour pressure differences between from weather, such as rain, snow, sleet,
its surfaces. wind, solar radiation, and atmospheric
contamination.
Vapour Pressure ± The gas pressure exerted by
the water vapour present in the air. Wire Netting ± Interwoven wires of metal used as
reinforcement for insulation.
Vermiculite ± Lightweight insulation material made
from the expansion of granules at high Wicking ± The ability of a material to draw up
temperatures. liquids by capillary action.

Victaulic ± A trade or patented name for a specific


type of coupling.

46
HEAT LOSS TABLES

47
48
49
50
51
HEAT LOSS TABLES

HEAT LOSS THROUGH PIPES WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF INSULATION

TABLE 3

CELLULAR GLASS
NPS PROCESS TEMPERATURE (oC)

66 121 177 232 288 343 399

0.5 Thickness 25 38 51 64 76 89 102


heat loss 12 25 37 49 61 72 86
surf. temp 24 26 28 28 29 30 31

1 Thickness 25 51 64 76 89 102 102


heat loss 16 28 41 55 68 83 102
surf. temp 24 25 27 28 29 30 32

1.5 Thickness 38 64 76 102 102 102 102


heat loss 17 31 46 58 77 98 121
surf. temp 23 24 26 27 29 31 33

2 Thickness 38 64 76 102 102 102 114


heat loss 14 35 51 64 86 110 128
surf. temp 22 25 27 27 29 32 32

3 Thickness 38 76 89 102 102 114 127


heat loss 25 39 60 79 106 127 148
surf. temp 24 24 26 26 31 32 33

4 Thickness 51 76 102 102 102 114 127


heat loss 25 46 64 92 123 147 170
surf. temp 23 25 26 28 31 32 33

6 Thickness 51 89 102 102 114 140 152


heat loss 34 54 82 118 147 165 193
surf. temp 23 24 27 29 31 31 33

8 Thickness 64 86 98 98 123 135 159


heat loss 36 65 99 142 163 196 217
surf. temp 23 25 27 31 31 32 33

10 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 140 178


heat loss 42 70 116 167 179 229 239
surf. temp 23 24 28 31 31 33 32

52
TABLE 3 (CELLULAR GLASS ± Continued)
NPS PROCESS TEMPERATURE (oC)

66 121 177 232 288 343 399

12 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 140 191


heat loss 48 80 133 191 203 258 258
surf. temp 23 25 28 32 31 34 32

14 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 140 203


heat loss 53 87 142 206 217 277 262
surf. temp 23 25 28 32 31 34 31

16 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 140 203


heat loss 59 96 159 229 240 307 288
surf. temp 23 25 28 32 31 34 32

18 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 140 203


heat loss 65 106 175 255 263 337 314
surf. temp 23 25 29 32 31 34 32

20 Thickness 64 102 102 114 140 140 203


heat loss 71 115 191 251 287 365 340
surf. temp 23 26 29 31 32 34 32

24 Thickness 64 102 102 127 140 140 203


heat loss 84 135 223 268 333 425 391
surf. temp 23 26 29 30 32 35 32

30 Thickness 64 102 102 140 140 140 203


heat loss 103 164 271 300 402 512 467
surf. temp 24 26 29 29 32 36 33

36 Thickness 64 102 102 140 140 140 203


heat loss 122 193 319 352 470 600 543
surf. temp 24 26 29 29 33 36 33

FLAT Thickness 64 102 102 140 140 191 216


heat loss 41 63 101 107 145 136 148
surf. temp 406 25 28 28 31 31 32

Heat loss: Wh/m for pipe, Wh/m2 for flat surfaces


Based on 18oC ambient temperature

53
HEAT LOSS THROUGH PIPES WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF INSULATION

TABLE 3

CALCIUM SILICATE
NPS PROCESS TEMPERATURE (oC)

66 121 177 232 288 343 399 454 510 566

0.5 Thickness 25 38 51 64 76 89 102 102 114 140


heat loss 8 15 23 32 41 52 63 81 96 110
surf. temp 22 24 24 26 26 27 28 30 31 31

1 Thickness 25 25 51 64 89 102 102 114 127 140


heat loss 11 20 29 39 47 59 76 92 110 130
surf. temp 23 24 26 27 26 27 29 30 31 32

1.5 Thickness 25 51 64 76 102 102 102 140 140 152


heat loss 13 21 32 43 52 70 90 99 123 146
surf. temp 23 23 25 26 26 28 30 29 31 32

2 Thickness 38 51 76 89 102 102 102 140 152 152


heat loss 12 24 23 45 59 78 101 110 132 162
surf. temp 22 24 24 25 26 28 31 29 31 33

3 Thickness 38 64 89 102 102 114 114 152 165 178


heat loss 15 27 37 52 72 90 117 128 148 177
surf. temp 22 23 24 25 27 28 31 30 31 32

4 Thickness 38 76 102 102 102 127 140 152 178 191


heat loss 18 28 40 61 85 98 121 146 167 198
surf. temp 22 23 23 26 28 30 29 31 31 32

6 Thickness 51 76 102 102 114 127 140 165 191 203


heat loss 20 37 52 78 100 125 153 174 200 237
surf. temp 22 23 24 26 28 29 31 31 32 33

8 Thickness 51 86 98 98 123 123 135 172 196 208


heat loss 25 40 62 93 112 149 182 196 225 266
surf. temp 22 23 24 27 27 29 32 31 32 33

10 Thickness 51 89 102 102 127 140 140 191 216 229


heat loss 31 48 74 111 130 163 212 217 249 295
surf. temp 22 23 25 27 28 29 32 31 32 33

54
TABLE 3 (CALCIUM SILICATE ± Continued)
NPS PROCESS TEMPERATURE (oC)

66 121 177 232 288 343 399 454 510 566

12 Thickness 64 102 102 102 127 140 178 203 216 241
heat loss 45 72 116 163 184 256 227 252 288 317
surf. temp 23 24 27 30 30 32 31 31 32 33

14 Thickness 64 102 102 102 127 140 178 203 229 241
heat loss 49 78 125 176 197 233 242 252 296 338
surf. temp 23 24 27 30 31 32 31 31 32 33

16 Thickness 76 102 102 102 140 191 203 229 254 254
heat loss 48 87 138 196 203 228 255 295 325 358
surf. temp 22 24 28 31 29 30 31 32 32 33

18 Thickness 76 102 102 102 140 165 191 216 229 254
heat loss 53 95 153 216 223 249 278 308 353 387
surf. temp 23 24 28 31 30 31 31 31 32 33

20 Thickness 76 102 102 102 140 165 191 216 241 254
heat loss 58 104 167 236 242 270 300 333 366 418
surf. temp 23 25 28 31 30 31 31 32 32 33

24 Thickness 76 102 102 102 140 165 191 216 241 254
heat loss 68 122 195 276 282 312 346 382 420 478
surf. temp 23 25 28 31 31 31 31 32 32 34

30 Thickness 76 102 102 102 140 178 203 229 254 254
heat loss 83 148 237 336 339 354 393 435 479 566
surf. temp 23 25 28 31 31 31 31 32 32 34

36 Thickness 64 102 102 102 165 191 203 229 254 254
heat loss 114 174 280 394 345 390 457 504 554 655
surf. temp 23 25 28 32 29 30 31 32 33 34

FLAT Thickness 64 89 102 140 165 191 216 241 254 254
heat loss 38 63 88 91 104 114 123 136 155 183
surf. temp 23 25 27 27 28 29 29 31 32 34

Heat loss: Wh/m for pipe, Wh/m2 for flat surfaces


Based on 18oC ambient temperature

55
HEAT LOSS THROUGH PIPES WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF INSULATION

TABLE 3

MINERAL FIBRE
NPS PROCESS TEMPERATURE (oC)

66 121 177 232 288 343 399 454 510 566

0.5 Thickness 25 38 51 64 76 89 102 102 114 140


heat loss 8 15 23 32 41 52 63 81 96 110
surf. temp 22 24 24 26 26 27 28 30 31 31

1 Thickness 25 25 51 64 89 102 102 114 127 140


heat loss 11 20 29 39 47 59 76 92 110 130
surf. temp 23 24 26 27 26 27 29 30 31 32

1.5 Thickness 25 51 64 76 102 102 102 140 140 152


heat loss 13 21 32 43 52 70 90 99 123 146
surf. temp 23 23 25 26 26 28 30 29 31 32

2 Thickness 38 51 76 89 102 102 102 140 152 152


heat loss 12 24 23 45 59 78 101 110 132 162
surf. temp 22 24 24 25 26 28 31 29 31 33

3 Thickness 38 64 89 102 102 114 114 152 165 178


heat loss 15 27 37 52 72 90 117 128 148 177
surf. temp 22 23 24 25 27 28 31 30 31 32

4 Thickness 38 76 102 102 102 127 140 152 178 191


heat loss 18 28 40 61 85 98 121 146 167 198
surf. temp 22 23 23 26 28 30 29 31 31 32

6 Thickness 51 76 102 102 114 127 140 165 191 203


heat loss 20 37 52 78 100 125 153 174 200 237
surf. temp 22 23 24 26 28 29 31 31 32 33

8 Thickness 51 86 98 98 123 123 135 172 196 208


heat loss 25 40 62 93 112 149 182 196 225 266
surf. temp 22 23 24 27 27 29 32 31 32 33

10 Thickness 51 89 102 102 127 140 140 191 216 229


heat loss 31 48 74 111 130 163 212 217 249 295
surf. temp 22 23 25 27 28 29 32 31 32 33

56
TABLE 3 (MINERAL FIBRE ± Continued)
NPS PROCESS TEMPERATURE (oC)

66 121 177 232 288 343 399 454 510 566

12 Thickness 51 89 102 102 127 140 140 191 216 241


heat loss 35 55 84 126 148 185 239 243 279 318
surf. temp 22 23 25 28 28 30 33 31 32 33

14 Thickness 51 89 102 102 127 140 165 191 229 241


heat loss 38 59 90 136 259 198 227 261 286 338
surf. temp 22 23 25 28 28 30 31 32 32 33

16 Thickness 64 89 102 102 140 178 203 229 254 254


heat loss 36 65 101 151 164 219 237 273 313 358
surf. temp 22 23 26 28 28 31 30 31 32 33

18 Thickness 64 89 102 102 140 140 178 203 229 254


heat loss 39 72 111 166 180 240 260 298 340 388
surf. temp 22 23 26 28 28 31 31 31 32 33

20 Thickness 64 89 102 102 140 140 178 203 229 254


heat loss 43 79 121 182 196 262 281 322 368 419
surf. temp 22 24 26 28 28 31 31 32 32 33

24 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 152 191 203 229 254
heat loss 51 83 141 212 228 284 308 371 422 479
surf. temp 22 23 26 28 28 30 30 32 33 34

30 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 165 191 216 254 254
heat loss 62 101 172 258 275 319 368 422 462 568
surf. temp 22 23 26 29 29 29 31 32 32 34

36 Thickness 64 102 102 102 140 178 203 229 254 254
heat loss 74 118 203 304 322 350 406 467 535 657
surf. temp 22 23 26 29 29 29 30 31 32 34

FLAT Thickness 51 89 102 114 140 216 241 254 254 254
heat loss 32 44 63 85 98 85 98 120 148 183
surf. temp 22 23 25 27 28 27 28 29 32 34

Heat loss: Wh/m for pipe, Wh/m2 for flat surfaces


Based on 18oC ambient temperature

57
Thermal properties of typical building and insulation materials ± DESIGN VALUES

TABLE 4

MINERAL FIBRE
Description Density Conductivity Conductance Resistance (R) Specific
kg/m3 k (C) Heat
Per inch thickness For thick-
W/m.oC W/m2.oC kJ/(kg .oC)
(1/k) m.oC ness listed
(1/C)
m2.oC
INSULATING MATERIALS

Blanket and Batt


Mineral Fibre, fibrous form processed
from rock, slag, or glass

approx. 76.2-101.6 mm 4.8-32.0 Ð 0.52 Ð 1.94


approx. 88.9 mm 4.8-32.0 0.44 Ð 2.29
approx. 139.7-165.1 mm 4.8-32.0 Ð 0.30 Ð 3.34
approx. 152.4-177.8 mm 4.8-32.0 0.26 3.87
approx. 215.9-228.6 mm 4.8-32.0 0.19 5.28
approx. 304.8 mm 4.8-32.0 Ð 0.15 6.69
Board and Slabs

Cellular glass 136 0.050 Ð 19.85 Ð 0.75


Glass fibre, organic bonded 64-144 0.036 Ð 27.76 Ð 0.96
Expanded perlite, organic bonded 16.0 0.052 Ð 19.29 Ð 1.26
Expanded rubber (rigid) 72.0 0.032 Ð 31.58 Ð 1.68
Expanded polystyrene extruded
Cut cell surface 28.8 0.036 Ð 27.76 Ð 1.22
Smooth skin surface 28.8-56.0 0.029 Ð 34.70 Ð 1.22
Expanded polystyrene,
moulded beads 16.0 0.037 Ð 23.25 Ð Ð
20.0 0.036 Ð 27.76 Ð Ð
24.0 0.035 Ð 28.94 Ð Ð
28.0 0.035 Ð 28.94 Ð Ð
32.0 0.033 Ð 30.19 Ð Ð

58
TABLE 4 (MINERAL FIBRE ± Continued)
Description Density Conductivity Conductance Resistance (R) Specific
kg/m3 k (C) Heat
Per inch For thick-
W/m.oC W/m2.oC kJ/(kg.oC)
thickness (1/k) ness listed
m.oC (1/C)
m2.oC
Cellular polyurethane (R-11 exp.)
(unfaced) 24.0 0.023 43.38 Ð 1.59
Foil-faced, glass fibre-reinforced cellular
Polyisocyanurate (R-11 exp.) 32.0 0.020 Ð 49.97 Ð 0.92
Nominal 12.70 mm Ð 1.58 Ð 0.63
Nominal 25.40 mm Ð 0.79 Ð 1.27
Nominal 50.80 mm Ð 0.39 Ð 2.53
Mineral fibre with resin binder 240 0.042 Ð 23.94 Ð 0.71
Mineral fibreboard, wet felted
Core or roof insulation 256-272 0.049 Ð 20.40 Ð
Acoustical tile 288 0.050 Ð 19.85 Ð 0.80
Acoustical tile 336 0.0563 Ð 18.74 Ð
Mineral fibreboard,
wet moulded Acoustical tile 368 0.060 Ð 16.52 Ð 0.59
Wood or cane fibreboard
Acoustical tile 12.70 mm Ð Ð 4.54 Ð 0.22 1.30
Acoustical tile 19.05 mm Ð Ð 3.01 Ð 0.33 Ð
Interior finish (plank, tile) 240 0.050 Ð 19.85 Ð 1.34
Cement fibre slabs (shredded wood with
Portland cement binder) 400-432 0.072-0.070 Ð 13.88-13.12 Ð Ð
Cement fibre slabs (shredded wood with
magnesia oxysulfide binder) 352 0.082 Ð 12.15 Ð 1.30

FIELD APPLIED
Polyurethane foam 24.0-40.0 0.023-0.026 Ð 43.38-36.50 Ð
Spray cellulosic fibre base 32.0-96.0 0.035-0.043 Ð 23.11-28.94 Ð

59
Thermal conductivity (k) of industrial insulation ± DESIGN VALUES
W/m.oC

TABLE 5
Form Accepted Typical Typical Conductivity k at Mean Temp oC
Material Composition Max Density
Temp for (kg/m3)
Use, oC 73.3 59.4 45.6 31.7 17.8 3.9 10.0 23.9 37.8 93.3 148.9 260.0 371.1 482.2
BLANKETS & FELTS
MINERAL FIBRE
(Rock, slag or glass)
Blanket, metal reinforced 650 96-192 0.037 0.046 0.056 0.078
540 40.0-96.0 0.035 0.045 0.058 0.088

(
Mineral fibre, glass 180 less
Blanket, flexible, fine-fibre than 0.036 0.037 0.040 0.043 0.048 0.052 0.076
organic bonded 12.0 0.035 0.036 0.039 0.042 0.046 0.049 0.069
16.0 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.039 0.042 0.046 0.062
24.0 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.036 0.039 0.040 0.053
32.0 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.036 0.037 0.048
48.0 0.027 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.045

Blanket, flexible, textile-fibre 180 10.4 0.039 0.040 0.042 0.043 0.045 0.046 0.072 0.098
organic bonded 12.0 0.037 0.039 0.040 0.042 0.045 0.046 0.069 0.095
16.0 0.035 0.036 0.037 0.039 0.042 0.045 0.065 0.086
24.0 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.039 0.042 0.056 0.073
48.0 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.046 0.059

Felt, semi-rigid organic 0.035 0.036 0.037 0.039 0.050 0.063


bonded 200 48-128 0.023 0.024 0.026 0.027 0.039 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.050 0.079
Laminated & felted 450 48.0 0.050 0.065 0.0/86
650 120
VEGETABLE & ANIMAL
FIBRE
Hair Felt or Hair Felt plus
Jute 80 160 0.037 0.040 0.042 0.043

60
TABLE 5 (Thermal conductivity (k) of industrial insulation ± Continued)
Form Accepted Typical Typical Conductivity k at Mean Temp oC
Material Composition Max Density
Temp for (kg/m3)
Use, oC 73.3 59.4 45.6 31.7 17.8 3.9 10.0 23.9 37.8 93.3 148.9 260.0 371.1 482.2
BLOCKS, BOARDS & PIPE
INSULATION
ASBESTOS
Laminated asbestos paper 370 480 0.058 0.065 0.072 0.086
Corrugated & laminated
asbestos Paper
4-ply 150 176-208 0.078 0.082 0.098
6-ply 150 240-272 0.071 0.073 0.085
8-ply 150 288-320 0.068 0.071 0.082
MOULDED AMOSITE &
BINDER 820 240-288 0.046 0.053 0.060 0.075 0.089 0.104
85% MAGNESIA 320 176-192 192 0.050 0.055 0.060
CALCIUM SILICATE 650 176-240 0.055 0.059 0.063 0.075 0.089 0.104
980 192-240 0.091 0.107 0.137
CELLULAR GLASS 480 136 0.039 0.040 0.042 0.043 0.045 0.046 0.048 0.050 0.052 0.060 0.071 0.101 0.148
DIATOMACEOUS SILICA 870 336-352 0.092 0.098 0.104
1040 368-400 0.101 0.108 0.105

MINERAL FIBRE
Glass,
Organic bonded, block and
boards 200 48-160 0.023 0.024 0.026 0.027 0.029 0.032 0.035 0.036 0.037 0.048 0.058
Non-punking binder 540 48-160 0.037 0.045 0.055 0.075
Pipe insulation, slag or glass 180 48.0-64.0
0.029 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.042
260 48-160 0.029 0.035 0.036 0.037 0.048 0.058
Inorganic bonded-block 540 160-240 0.048 0.055 0.065 0.079
980 240-384 0.046 0.053 0.060 0.075 0.089 0.107
Pipe insulation slag or glass 540 160-240 0.048 0.055 0.065 0.079

61
TABLE 5E (Thermal conductivity (k) of industrial insulation ± Continued)
Form Accepted Typical Typical Conductivity k at Mean Temp oC
Material Composition Max Density
Temp for (kg/m3)
Use, oC 73.3 59.4 45.6 31.7 17.8 3.9 10.0 23.9 37.8 93.3 148.9 260.0 371.1 482.2
MINERAL FIBRE
Resin binder 240 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.037 0.040 0.042
RIGID POLYSTYRENE
Extruded, Refrigerant 12
exp. smooth skin surface 80 35.2 0.023 0.023 0.024 0.023 0.024 0.026 0.027 0.029
Extruded cut cell surface 80 28.8 0.024 0.026 0.027 0.029 0.030 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.039
Moulded beads 80 16.0 0.024 0.027 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.035 0.036 0.037 0.040
24.0 0.023 0.024 0.027 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.037
20.0 0.024 0.026 0.027 0.029 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.036 0.039
28.0 0.023 0.024 0.026 0.027 0.029 0.032 0.033 0.035 0.036
32.0 0.022 0.023 0.026 0.027 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.033 0.035
RIGID
POLYISOCYANDRATE
Cellular, foil-faced glass
fibre reinforced, Refrigerant
11 exp 120 32.0 0.017 0.019 0.020 0.022
POLYURETHANE
Refrigerant 11 exp
(unfaced) 100 24.0-40.0 0.023 0.024 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.024 0.023 0.023 0.024
RUBBER, Rigid Foamed 70 72 0.029 0.030 0.032 0.033
VEGETABLE & ANIMAL
FIBRE
Wool felt (pipe insulation) 80 320 0.040 0.043 0.045 0.048
INSULATING CEMENTS
MINERAL FIBRE
(Rock, slag or glass)
With colloidal clay binder 980 384-480 0.071 0.079 0.088 0.105 0.122
With hydraulic setting
binder 650 480-460 0.108 0.115 0.122 0.137

62
TABLE 5 (Thermal conductivity (k) of industrial insulation ± Continued)
Form Accepted Typical Typical Conductivity k at Mean Temp oC
Material Composition Max Density
Temp for (kg/m3)
Use, oC 73.3 59.4 45.6 31.7 17.8 3.9 10.0 23.9 37.8 93.3 148.9 260.0 371.1 482.2
LOOSE FILL
Cellulose insulation (milled
pulverised paper of wood 40.0-48.0
pulp) 0.037 0.039 0.042
Mineral fibre, slag, rock or 32.0-80.0
glass 48.0-80.0 0.027 0.030 0.033 0.036 0.037 0.040 0.045
Perlite (expanded) 122 0.032 0.035 0.036 0.039 0.040 0.043 0.045 0.048 0.050
Silica aerogel 112-131 0.019 0.020 0.022 0.022 0.023 0.024 0.026
Vermiculite (expanded) 64-96 0.056 0.058 0.060 0.063 0.065 0.068 0.071
0.049 0.050 0.056 0.058 0.060 0.063 0.066

63
Basic types of insulation ± selected properties

TABLE 6
TYPE FORM TEMPERATURE k-FACTOR * NOTES
RANGE

Calcium Silicate Pipe Covering Up to 982oC .066 at 150oC Good mechanical abuse
Block Segments (1800oF) .45 at 300oF characteristics, non-com-
bustible. Some are water
absorbent.

Cellular Glass Pipe Covering 267oC to 482oC .077 to 150oC Good strength, water and
Block Segments ( 450oF to 900oF) .53 at 300oF vapour resistant, non-com-
bustible. Poor abrasion re-
sistance.

Glass Fibre Pipe Covering to 455oC (850oF) .035 at 24oC Properties variable. Good
Board .24 at 75oF handling and workability.
0.050 at 150oC May be water absorbent.
Blanket to 510oC (950oF) .35 at 300oF Some are non-combustible.
varies see man-
uf. data

Mineral Fibre Pipe Covering to 870oC (1600oF) .035 at 24oC Non-combustible, good
.24 at 75oF workability water absor-
.061 at 150oC bent.
Board .42 at 300oF
conductivity
varies with
density

Ceramic Fibre Blanket or Board to 1760oC .30 at 93oC Temperature ranges varies
(3200oF) (200oF) with manufacturer, style
and type.

Cements Hydraulic setting to 650oC 1.75 at 315oC One coat application ±


cement (1200oF) (600oF) Insulating and finishing.
High tempera- to 1040oC .69 at 315oC Slow drying, rough texture
ture mineral (1900oF) (600oF) ± filling and insulating. Used
wool over basic insulation ±
smooth finish, usually 3.175
Pointing and to 760oC .55 at 93oC mm (1/ 8") to 6.35 mm (1/ 4")
finishing cement (1400oF) (200oF) thick application.
(Mineral or
Vermiculite)

64
Protective coverings and finishes

TABLE 7

WEATHER BARRIERS
TYPE COMPOSITION FASTENERS NOTES
JACKETS: 1. Films laminated to felts or Contact adhesives and/or Corrosion resistant bacteria
foil tape and mildew resistant
2. Stainless steel (various Corrosion resistant bands, Excellent mechanical
alloys ± available with screws or rivets strength, corrosion, mildew
factory-applied moisture and bacteria resistant
barrier)
3. Galvanised Steel (coated Corrosion resistant bands, Good mechanical strength
and with factory-applied screws or rivets
moisture barrier)
4. Aluminium alloys (usually Corrosion resistant bands, Good mechanical strength,
with factory-applied screws or rivets good workability
moisture barrier)
5. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Mechanical fasteners, May require protection from
adhesive or matching tape ultra-violet radiation.
6. High Impact Plastic (ABS) ABS welding adhesive or Resists chemicals and
matching tape bacteria
7. Roofing felt Bands or wire Water base, a breather
mastic
MASTICS: 1. Asphalt emulsion Apply with reinforcing mesh Solvent base, also a vapour
barrier
2. Asphalt cut-back Apply with reinforcing mesh Tough, resilient film
3. Resin emulsion Apply with reinforcing mesh Tough, resilient film
4. Polyvinyl acetate Apply with reinforcing mesh Tough, resilient film
5. Acrylic Apply with reinforcing mesh Tough, resilient film

Covering shall not be termed a weather barrier unless its joints and overlap are adequate to prevent the entry
of rainwater.

65
Vapour retarders

TABLE 8
TYPE COMPOSITION NOTES
JACKETS: 1. Foil Scrim Laminate Seal joints. Mechanical strength is less than metal or plastic.
Generally for indoor applications.
2. Metal Jacketing Seal joints. Mechanical strength is good.
3. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Seal with compatible adhesive and/or tape.
4. High Impact Plastic (ABS) Seal with welding adhesive.
5. Film Laminate Seal with contact adhesive and/or tape
MASTICS: 1. Asphalt cut-back Apply with reinforcing mesh. Combustible.
2. Resins ± advent type Brush or spray application.
3. Elastomeric Polymer Apply with reinforcing mesh. Combustible.

66
Energy Content of Some Fuels

TABLE 9
Fuel Energy content
blast furnace gas 3.1 MJ / cubic metre
coal: bituminous 25 MJ / kilogram
coke oven gas 17.3 MJ/cubic metre
gasworks gas 18 MJ / cubic metre
LPG (liquid) 27 MJ / litre
natural gas 33-42 MJ / cubic metre
oil 42 MJ / kilogram
paraffin 35 MJ / litre
SASOL gas: hydrogen rich 18 MJ / cubic metre
SASOL gas: methane rich 33-36 MJ / cubic metre
wood, air dried 17 MJ / kilogram

67
SOURCES OF
FURTHER
INFORMATION

For the latest news in energy efficiency technology:

ªEnergy Management Newsº is a free newsletter issued by the ERI, which contains information on the
latest developments in energy efficiency in Southern Africa and details of forthcoming energy
efficiency events.

Copies can be obtained from:

The Energy Research Institute


Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Cape Town
Rondebosch 7700
Cape Town
South Africa
Tel No: (+27 21) 650 3892
Fax No: (+27 21) 686 4838
Email: eri@eng.uct.ac.za

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