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Guidance Curriculum and Standards

Part 1: Using data target setting and target getting

Promoting inclusion and tackling underperformance

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

Guidance for SENCOs, school strategy managers and inclusion managers

Status: Recommended Date of issue: 11-2004 Ref: DfES 1040-2004 G

Disclaimer The Department for Education and SkilIs wishes to make clear that the Department and its agents accept no responsibility for the actual content of any materials suggested as information sources in this document, whether these are in the form of printed publications or on a website. In these materials icons, logos, software products and websites are used for contextual and practical reasons. Their use should not be interpreted as an endorsement of particular companies or their products. The websites referred to in these materials existed at the time of going to print. Tutors should check all website references carefully to see if they have changed and substitute other references where appropriate.

Promoting inclusion and tackling underperformance

Part 1: Using data target setting and target getting

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

The materials and how you might use them
These materials are designed to maximise the attainment of the growing number of pupils with special education needs and disability within mainstream secondary schools who are working within national expectations but currently under-attaining. However, the guidance will also help you to reflect on the progress of all pupils in your school are identified as having SEN. The materials are intended to help SENCOs align their work with other learning and teaching initiatives from the Strategy aimed at raising attainment for all pupils across the school. They aim to ensure that SENCOs are fully conversant with the Strategys approaches to learning and teaching as part of whole-school improvement. The SENCO is in a key position to identify the barriers to progress and challenges faced by identified pupils and to guide the work of departments in addressing these. Overall, the guidance consists of a file containing three booklets, a CD-ROM and a key messages leaflet based on the following. Part 1: Using data: target setting and target getting Part 2: Approaches to learning and teaching in the mainstream classroom Part 3: Managing the learning process for pupils with SEN

How to use these materials

Although these are guidance materials you may wish to adapt them for training purposes or as PowerPoint slides or handouts for CPD. Tasks and reflection boxes can also be adapted to create activities for training purposes. Some of the key aspects of the three parts of the guidance will be available on the CD-ROM accompanying the final pack of materials. You might choose to work with the materials in the following ways. Within the LEA The three booklets could provide material for the equivalent of a whole days training for SENCOs. This could be jointly delivered within LEAs by SEN advisers, consultants or Strategy managers. This would ensure consistency of messages about approaches to learning and teaching and raising attainment across the school. All or part of the materials can be used with governors who have responsibility for pupils with SEN. Governors may be in a better position to consider underperformance, value for money and the need for higher expectations for all pupils with SEN.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

Alternatively, the LEA SEN adviser and consultants may choose to use the material to support a group of school SENCOs across a number of meetings. ASTs (advanced skills teachers) might also be involved. This would allow colleagues to establish and follow up the activities between sessions in their own schools and would provide powerful opportunities to share good practice.

Within a school cluster The materials might be used by SENCOs and inclusion managers to support a series of separate twilight sessions for a cluster of schools where subject leaders, SENCOs and inclusion managers are focusing on underperforming pupils, for example, a LIG collaborative. Within your school The materials could contribute to a whole-school INSET day where inclusion issues, targeting intervention or raising the attainment of particular groups of pupils are a major feature. SENCOs might share in using the materials, together with the school strategy manager and/or inclusion manager, to provide training for their colleagues across the school community. Each booklet would provide material for a session lasting approximately 75 minutes so that the materials could be used to provide three separate twilight sessions. The materials could be used by the SENCO with a SEN faculty or department as part of auditing, action planning and CPD.

NB: Although the materials are designed for SENCOs in mainstream secondary schools, you may wish to invite and involve key staff from local special schools and LEA services who will have a specific contribution to make to discussion. This would work particularly well when schools or units are working together to integrate pupils or where there is specific expertise to share.

l Key Stage 3 National Strategy l

Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

Part 1: Using data target setting and target getting

Introduction 1 2 3 Using data Target setting Target getting 3 12 16 25

Introduction and rationale

The materials are intended to: update SENCOs with key messages from recent materials produced by the Strategy; enable SENCOs to enhance rates of progress made by pupils with SEN through: aligning support that is provided in subject departments; monitoring and tracking the progression of pupils with SEN to ensure sufficient challenge and appropriate support; focusing particularly on monitoring the progress across the key stages of all those pupils on the SEN register who are working within national expectations and who enter Key Stage 3 at levels 3 and 4 in core subjects. SENCOs and subject leaders are key players in maximising the learning and attainment opportunities for pupils with SEN now included within mainstream secondary schools. The Strategy has been working to raise standards and to ensure better progress for all pupils in the first three years of secondary school. This is seen as essential in: providing a smooth transition and bridging from the pedagogical approaches at Key Stage 2 and maximising learning and achievements made; ensuring access for all pupils to a broad and balanced curriculum; ensuring that pupils are prepared for, and have the best possible chance of achieving, good grades at the end of Key Stage 4.

Some groups of pupils are making considerably less progress than others. The Strategy sets out to ensure that Strategy messages reach all teachers and school managers to ensure the meaningful inclusion of all underperforming and low-attaining groups of pupils, including those with SEN.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

The need to enhance the progress of pupils with SEN

Expectations of the success that pupils with SEN can have, remain at the heart of the matter. Many of those in mainstream schools could do better, provided that the curriculum, teaching and other support were better adapted to their needs and greater rigour was applied to setting and pursuing targets for achievement. Until more is expected from the lowest-attaining pupils, improvement in provision for pupils with SEN and in the standards they reach will continue to be slow. SEN and disability: towards inclusive schools Ofsted 2004

Analysis of the 2003 results shows us that far fewer pupils with SEN (with and without statements) make one level of progress than their peers. Some worrying statistics emerge. Among 2003 pupils, the national figures for pupils attaining level 5+ were: English 69%; mathematics 71%; science 68%, but Only 10% of pupils with statements reach the expected level (5+) in English at Key Stage 3; 13% in mathematics and 16% in science. Of pupils at School Action and School Action Plus, 27% reach the expected level in English. Approximately a third fewer pupils with statements of SEN who enter secondary school at level 4 make one level of progress in English and mathematics compared with their peers. In science this drops to 50%. In science over a quarter of pupils with SEN statements who enter secondary school at level 5 do not achieve level 5+ at the end of Key Stage 3. A fifth of non-statemented pupils with SEN who enter Key Stage 3 with level 5 do not maintain progress to achieve a level 5 in science at the end of the key stage. In science only 50% of all pupils with statements make one level of progress.

Few schools evaluate their provision for pupils with SEN systematically so that they can establish how effective the provision is and whether it represents value for money. The availability and use of data on outcomes for pupils with SEN continue to be limited. SEN and disability: towards inclusive schools Ofsted 2004

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

Helping pupils maximise learning

All pupils, including those with SEN, respond to a positive learning environment where there are high expectations through: a belief in what may be possible; a view of ability as flexible, not fixed.

Inclusion and pupils with SEN

The inclusion framework .... contributed to a gradually and unevenly growing appreciation in mainstream schools about the potential benefits of the inclusion of pupils with SEN. SEN and disability: towards inclusive schools Ofsted 2004

Inclusion in the Strategy: is not synonymous with pupils with SEN or disability; is about valuing diversity and showing respect for all individuals; refers to all groups of underperforming pupils; promotes equity and entitlement rather than just equal opportunity; is a collective whole-school responsibility; requires effective tracking and monitoring of the progress of all pupils (and use of that information to inform learning and teaching and plan appropriate intervention); goes beyond social inclusion to including all pupils by holding them into the learning occurring in the lesson; requires individual teachers to think carefully about lesson design to ensure that barriers to learning are removed.

Inclusion concerns all groups of pupils who may be underperforming because their personalised learning needs are not being met. Schools have been asked to specify the interventions they have planned to help targeted pupils bridge their learning gaps. Audits carried out by subject leaders or monitoring by senior managers or subject leaders should identify and define these groups of pupils.

Task 1

Defining inclusion
What does educational inclusion mean to you? Working with a colleague, come up with a definition of inclusion. Find another pair and share your definition. Negotiate or rewrite a shared definition.

The Strategy uses a definition of inclusion that encompasses pupils with SEN within a broader context of the inclusion of all pupils. It aligns with Ofsteds view:

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

An educationally inclusive school is one in which the teaching and learning, achievements, attitudes and well-being of every young person matter. ... the most effective schools do not take educational inclusion for granted. They constantly monitor and evaluate the progress each pupil makes They take practical steps in the classroom and beyond to meet pupils needs effectively and they promote tolerance and understanding in a diverse society. Evaluating educational inclusion, Guidance for inspectors and schools Ofsted (2000)

Legislation (Education Act 1996) and guidance (SEN Code of Practice 2001 and Inclusive Schooling for Children with SEN 2001) with regard to pupils with SEN are commonly referred to as the inclusion framework and have now been in place for two years. The 2001 SEN Code put a greater emphasis on learning outcomes for pupils than on the statutory procedures and paperwork. It set out five principles that: children with SEN should have their needs met; their needs will normally be met in mainstream schools; the views of children should be sought and taken into account; parents have a vital role to play in supporting their childrens education; children with SEN should be offered full access to a broad, balanced and relevant curriculum in the Foundation Stage and in later years.

This was reiterated in the National Curriculum 2000 inclusion statement which set a national requirement for all teachers. A recent Ofsted report Special educational needs and disability: towards inclusive schools 2004 sought to assess the extent to which the vision of inclusion is becoming a reality in schools. It also sought to make recommendations to support the governments recent published strategy for SEN Removing Barriers to achievement (DfES 2004) which has taken further the principles enunciated in the previous legislation.

Inclusive teaching
A minority of mainstream schools meet special needs very well and others are becoming better at doing so. High expectations, effective whole-school planning seen through by committed managers, close attention on the part of skilled teachers and support staff and rigorous evaluation remain the keys to effective practice. SEN and disability: towards inclusive schools Ofsted 2004

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

The broader definition of inclusion within the Strategy has, at its heart, the criteria set by QCA that established a statutory obligation for all teachers in National Curriculum 2000 with three principles of inclusion: setting suitable learning challenges; responding to pupils diverse learning needs; overcoming potential barriers to learning and assessment for individuals and groups of pupils.

In terms of the Strategy, these are addressed through three major elements of lesson design that teachers need to balance in order to ensure real inclusion in learning for all pupils.

Promoting effective learning opportunities for all pupils

Learning objectives

Setting ...


n sio

Overcoming ...

Responding ...


Teaching styles

How these elements might be translated into action in the classroom is summarised on the following chart.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

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Key elements of inclusion: raising pupils performance

Key elements of inclusive teaching Learning objectives Establishing learning objectives and learning outcomes that help pupils know what they have to do to succeed and how to do it Reflecting objectives in the plenary Can be achieved through: maintaining high expectations planning and teaching key objectives from Key Stage 3 Frameworks and QCA schemes of work sharing objectives and learning outcomes with pupils promoting self-assessment for learning setting challenging and achievable targets using varied teaching strategies to address and accommodate pupils different learning styles using a teaching sequence to scaffold the learning promoting independent learning modelling specific subject skills and reading, writing, speaking and listening explicitly targeting questions (then waiting for answers, prompting) engaging and motivating pupils through interesting tasks well-paced teaching encouraging reflection guided teaching within a small group focusing on specific pupil targets Access Organising classes and groupings Targeting additional intervention to support learning Establishing good communication systems that inform all teachers of specialist resources effective use of additional adults guided group work matched to learning needs using well-matched resources using response partners for oral rehearsal and thinking out loud

Teaching styles Selecting an appropriate pedagogy and strategies for the lesson Using assessment for learning to establish starting points for pupils, build on their prior learning and experiences and to ensure progression

Inclusive teachers: Plan lessons carefully so that all pupils: are able to participate; access the key learning at their own level; take some new learning away with them.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

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Task 2

Inclusive lessons
Try to observe a lesson as part of your monitoring of the teaching of pupils with SEN in your school. If possible, choose a lesson without additional support. (The section in part 2 on effective use of additional adults will focus on observing the role of teaching assistants.) Use the chart above to consider how the teacher includes the pupils with SEN in the lesson. Focus particularly on the following questions. Are clear expectations set? Are pupils clear about what is to be learned and what they are expected to achieve? How actively engaged are pupils in the learning? What strategies does the teacher use to ensure this? How are pupils with SEN seated and grouped for specific purposes? How successfully are questions pitched for these pupils? How are objectives and learning outcomes followed up in the final plenary? Are the pupils with SEN clear about their targets and next steps in their learning?

How well included do you feel the pupils with SEN were during this lesson? What additional strategies are required? How might you support the teacher in developing more inclusive teaching strategies?

Ensuring progress
Taking all the steps needed to enable pupils with SEN to participate fully in the life of the school and achieve their potential remains a significant challenge for many schools. Expectations of achievement are often not well enough defined and pitched high enough. Progress in learning remains slower than it should be for a significant number of pupils. SEN and disability: towards inclusive schools Ofsted 2004

The role of the Key Stage 3 Strategy

See How to get more pupils from Level 3 to 5 and Increasing rates of progress in English, mathematics, science and ICT website references (www.standards.dfes. gov.uk)

A major focus of work in English, mathematics, science and ICT for 2004/5 is to target the learning and teaching of pupils who may make less than the expected progress during the key stage. Colleagues in the core subjects have focused training upon increasing pupils rates of progress across the key stage and particularly upon more pupils get from level 3 to level 5.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

Task 3

Increasing pupils rates of progress

Ask your school strategy manager or subject leaders about the impact of the 2004/5 training Increasing pupils rates of progress (autumn 2004) in your school. Try to get hold of the key message leaflets for English, mathematics and science which summarise the main messages. It will also be helpful to see key messages from the related training materials on How to get more pupils from level 3 to level 5 Part 1 (summer 2004 and Part 2 (spring 2005).

How do you track and monitor the rates of progress of pupils with SEN? What are your systems for doing this? How do they fit within whole systems at your school? How does your work as SENCO align with the work of departments in identifying those pupils whose rates of progress are causing concern? How do you ensure that targeted intervention offered is appropriate to the learning needs of pupils with SEN and effective in ensuring the intended progress?

While there may be very good reasons why many pupils with SEN do not make progress at the same rate expected of their peers, there is an expectation that the majority of those pupils on your school SEN records entering the key stage with levels 3 or 4 in core subjects should make at least one level of progress across the three years of Key Stage 3. Currently, there is inconsistency nationally in the ways in which schools and LEAs define pupils as having SEN. There are wide variations in the numbers of pupils recorded by school SENCOs as those at School Action and School Action Plus. This can be identified through data analysis. Many of these pupils, though by no means all, fall within the lowest-attaining groups. SEN provision is about additional or different intervention and the use of individual education plans (IEPs) is only one method by which the school can plan and record the actions taken. They are not statutory and will not be necessary if school systems plan to track and monitor the individual progress of all pupils. A recent Ofsted report suggests that, if all pupils were included in the classroom and curriculum targets were set for them, then IEPs would not be needed for most pupils with learning difficulties. This would be a result of successful inclusive teaching that is designed to incorporate and meet a range of learning needs within the mainstream classroom. It would also cut down duplication and unnecessary paperwork. Where pupils have IEPs, targets are often generic and related to personal development, social or behaviour needs which are not always directly linked to learning attainment or to sufficient external challenge. A key part of the process of maximising attainment for pupils with SEN is the essential dialogue between SENCOs, subject leaders and teachers so that objectives become meaningfully focused on cross-curricular or subject-specific learning linked to pupils needs.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

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In the most effective inclusive schools, expectations are high for all pupils. Staff see little tension between meeting their targets to raise standards generally and in including pupils with SEN and lower-attaining pupils generally. They are keen to improve the provision they make for all low or below average attainers. They can clearly see that the considerations and planning required to ensure successful inclusive teaching equally benefit the learning and teaching of other pupils.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Introduction and rationale

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1 Using data
Effective use of data
The SENCO, along with other subject leaders, has a key role to play in judging standards of pupil performance in order to raise expectations and bring about improvement. Schools and LEAs have a range of pupil performance data available. Effective analysis of this data can have a direct impact in the classroom on learning and teaching. An awareness and use of a range of available attainment and progress data builds a rounded picture of performance and establishes links between attainment and curriculum targets.

What pupil performance data is available?

DfES data
The DfES produces sets of data that include results at level 5+, the cohort size, year targets for each subject, difference across subjects and changes in each subject across years. DfES data School A 2003 cohort size 235 2003 English level 5+ 94% 2003 maths level 5+ 94% 2003 science level 5+ 97% 2003 average points 5+ 40.6 2003 value added 101.3 2003 VA cover 97%

Average point scores are calculated using the autumn package points system to equate each level to a number of points. This data does not take account of the context of the school.

Progress data
The 2007 national targets are based on 100% of pupils who attained level 4+ gaining one level of progress, that is level 5+ at Key Stage 3, and 40% of pupils who attained a level 3 at Key Stage 2 gaining a level 5+ at Key Stage 3. This is commonly referred to as conversion data. This analysis uses pupil-matched data to show the percentage of pupils progressing from level 3 or 4 in a subject at Key Stage 2 to a Key Stage 3 level 5+ in the same subject.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Using data

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Progress data School A % level 5+ English mathematics science 94 94 97 Difference from best subject 3 3 0

235 pupils

Conversion level 3 to 5+ Pupils with Key Stage 2 level 3 4 6 0 % level 3 to 5+ 0 33.3 Group (1 to 7) 7 3

Conversion level 4 to 5+ Pupils with Key Stage 2 level 4 78 96 73 % level 4 to 5+ 89.7 93.8 91.8 Group (1 to 7) 2 2 1

Current national performance patterns include pupils not making even one level of progress in Key Stage 3. Some LEAs have an agreement with schools that all pupils will be expected to make at least one level of progress. For some, this expectation may be at least 1.25 or 1.3 levels of progress across the key stage. Other LEAs work with point score figures.

The Pupil Achievement Tracker (PAT)

The Pupil Achievement Tracker (PAT) is a powerful tool for in-depth analysis and for setting school targets. It enables schools to make the most of the attainment data they hold about each pupil. Using software like PAT can make a significant difference to the efficiency and effectiveness of a schools approach to tackling underperformance. It does much of the routine administrative work involved in data processing and target setting, leaving school leaders and teachers to think about the implications for learning and teaching. PAT draws from the huge national pupil database which includes all the PLASC characteristics. It is possible to enter your own categories of data into PAT for different pupil groups at your school, for example, pupils who have attended additional Year 9 booster lessons or those in Year 7 who have Reading Challenge mentors. Similarly, you could add the names of pupils with SEN. This will need regular updating by your schools data manager but will enable you to interrogate and cut the data in different ways. From January 2004, PLASC included collection of SEN data for the first time, using the four broad areas of need set out in the SEN Code of Practice, subdivided into the twelve categories used by Ofsted.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Using data

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Task 4

Data analysis
Use the pupil performance data used by subject leaders in your school and check the extent of underperformance of pupils in Year 9 who entered your school with a level 3 or 4 at Key Stage 2. Depending on what you have found out, formulate an action plan to analyse the current pupil cohorts, starting with the current Year 9, and identify individuals with SEN who are at risk of not making ONE level of progress. Identify their individual and particular barriers to learning. Do the same for pupils in Year 7 and Year 8. You may want to work with subject leaders or Key Stage 3 coordinators on this task or ask them to provide you with a list of those pupils at risk. Work together to coordinate support and intervention and to monitor these pupils closely. Write down three points for action to improve the management of data in relation to pupils with SEN. What assistance, within school, from the LEA or from external experts is required to support this task?

Maximising progress for pupils with SEN, as for all other pupils, requires a clear picture of individual learning strengths, weaknesses and levels of independence. In addition to using data, schools use a variety of means to build up this picture, including information from an analysis of scripts, work sampling, day-to-day marking, classroom observation and pupil self-assessment as well as national and standardised tests of different kinds. The point of gathering all this information is to identify clearly the next steps in learning for pupils. The key to moving pupils forward and assuring maximum progress is to build on strengths so that they do not stand still and to target weaknesses so that gaps in knowledge, skills and understanding are prevented from becoming serious obstacles to progress with the resulting loss of self-esteem and confidence. School management teams, including SENCOs and subject leaders, must together establish: what information most helps teachers track their pupils progress; how best to collect and analyse that information; how to use the analysis to evaluate and adjust teaching and lesson design to meet individual needs.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 1: Using data

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Task 5

Features of effective monitoring and tracking

How well do you feel that the systems in your school do the following? Pupils progress is closely monitored and tracked across time and subjects. Initial assessment of pupils underperformance is early, rapid and accurate. Pupils are actively involved in setting their own targets. Data collected is shared with pupils and all staff involved in teaching the pupils. Pupil achievement is bench-marked against local and national data. Resulting information informs both lesson design and planned intervention on a regular basis. Parents are informed and involved in order to support pupils achievements.

As a school, what are your strongest features? Where do you think there is room for improvement? Try to discuss this with your Strategy manager or with colleagues at senior management meetings, or governors linked to SEN.

Reflect on your own system for tracking pupil progress within each year of Key Stage 3 and what information is currently available. What could be done to improve the management and use of data within your school?

Fischer Family Trust data

This is a more sophisticated model where an estimate or prediction is made of the expected Key Stage 3 or 4 result for individual pupils. It takes account of pupils prior attainment in both test and teacher assessment for all three Key Stage 2 subjects. Gender and school contextual indicators are used as part of the calculation. FFT data School A pupils 20012 20023 236 235 matched 230 229 Actual level overall 5+ level 95 96 7.0 7.0

Value-added level 5+ 2% 2% overall level 0.18 0.19

Percentile rank level 5+ 36 70 overall level 15 89 boys L 8 4 M 20 26

Pupil groups girls U 87 82 L 6 M 13 16 U 96 101

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2 Target setting
Target setting helps teachers to: review the range of evidence about a pupils learning; consider the next steps related to the curriculum and a pupils individual learning needs; understand the place of curricular targets; explore the process of layering targets; involve pupils in setting and reviewing their targets.

Collecting evidence of learning

Effective schools have good systems in place for regularly monitoring pupils progress against whole-school targets. These normally relate to the tracking of an individual pupils progress against individual learning targets within subjects (see page 16). Subject leaders then analyse the data and inform teachers of issues to be addressed within the curriculum. For example, the use of PAT can provide evidence of areas of strength and weakness in test questions at a cohort and individual level. Such information can be used to ensure that specific teaching is planned for within schemes of work. Effective schools also monitor progress against whole-school targets for attendance, behaviour and punctuality.

The purposes of target setting

Target setting has the greatest impact when it focuses on precise curriculum objectives for individuals and when it forms part of a whole-school improvement process. Setting targets for pupils with SEN Ofsted 2004

Mainstream schools are required to set performance targets for all pupils, including those with SEN. Those that have developed expertise in tracking pupils progress and in analysing school data will wish to include information about the progress made by all pupils as part of their whole-school systems. In some schools there is confusion about the relationship between IEPs and curriculum targets and in worstcase scenarios this can result in two or more sets of targets. Inclusive schools set individual learning targets for all groups of pupils or individuals. Where this is the case pupils with SEN will not usually require separate IEP targets. This is because of the processes involved in target setting which: use sources of information, including attainment data, to focus plans on raising standards of pupil attainment; ensure that a pupils prior attainment and achievement is built upon throughout the key stage; identify and focus teaching on areas of underperformance; actively support improved learning outcomes for pupils with SEN.

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Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 2: Target setting

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Setting curricular targets: moving from numeric to curricular targets

A curricular target expresses in words, supported by data, a specific aspect of the curriculum as a focus for improvement. Targets can be identified from a range of sources of evidence as an area of weakness in pupils learning and may be focused by numeric outcomes. Effective and SMART curricular targets are those that define the next steps for pupils within the context of a particular skill and subject. Curricular targets: express in words a specific focus for improvement; are derived from detailed analysis of pupil attainment; detail specific groups of pupils who need more effective provision in a certain area; are matched to year groups and classes to ensure progression towards planned improvement; are addressed through teaching objectives in teaching plans; are supplemented by targets addressing the needs of particular groups or individuals; are intended to be time-limited and checked regularly to ascertain progress; are recognised as achievements once pupils have mastered them and then replaced them with the next steps.

See AfL pack (DfES 0043-2004 G) for more examples and further subject exemplification.

Curricular targets can be for a whole class, a group of pupils, an individual pupil. They may be long-term (a term or year), medium-term (a few weeks), short-term (a few lessons). They may be informed by data and can be expressed as numeric targets, for example: In science 75% of pupils are to achieve level 5 or above.

or as a more qualitative outcome: 90% of pupils are to be able to select and justify the appropriate software for presenting information by the end of Key Stage 3.

All numeric targets need to be translated into curricular targets to ensure that teachers focus on and address identified aspects and pupils are clear what they need to do to improve.

A cycle for setting curricular targets related to pupils learning needs

SENCOs need to understand the processes by which teachers set targets and the relationship to assessment for learning. In order to set curricular targets that are matched to the curriculum and pupils learning needs, teachers need to establish: what pupils can do (what are the available sources of evidence?); what pupils need to learn to do; what are pupils' next steps towards achieving this; how this information will inform the teachers planning and teaching; whether additional resources will be needed; how they will teach and communicate targets meaningfully to pupils; how they will mark, monitor and assess a pupils progress towards the target.
Maximising progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN Unit 2: Target setting Crown copyright 2004 DfES 1040-2004 G

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Layering targets
Layering targets helps provide the steps between achieving numeric targets and curricular targets that establish personal targets, i.e. the next steps in learning, for the pupils. It can also help to ensure that targets are understood and owned by the pupils themselves. Subject teachers and subject leaders will know their curriculum content well; the SENCO will know the learning needs of pupils with SEN well. It is therefore vital that a regular dialogue regarding the setting of appropriate targets is sustained.

Case study
Working from a numeric target to personal targets in Year 7 science
Numerical target To meet LEA and school targets, performance of pupils in science needs to improve from 65% to 75% at level 5 through the improvement of investigative skills by July 2006.

Curricular target for Key Stage (from Frameworks, QCA SoWs looking at priority for cohort) The enquiry skills of all pupils are improved

Curricular target Year 7 Pupils can use the science departments planning posters to plan their own investigations

Curricular target (medium-term plan or unit of work) In an investigation, pupils are able to identify the key variables that they can and cannot control

Individual or group target In my next investigation I will identify which variables can be changed and which cannot

Personal pupil target I will plan the next investigation on my own and be able to tell my teacher: what I think will happen; what variable will change; what variables I will keep the same; what variables I will measure. Note that layered targets include pupils in two ways; they can meet needs of individual pupils and indicate where they need to be next, while ensuring that all pupils are held into the pace of learning to meet the overall lesson objectives.
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Examples of layering a curricular target in different subjects

Subject science Key stage target Pupils are able to identify independent and dependent variables in an investigation. Promote pupils independence as language learners. Year group target Year 8 pupils are able to identify the key variables that they can and cannot control in an investigation. Year 8 In spoken work, pupils can sustain short unscripted exchanges building on the supported scripted work in Year 7. Year 8 When writing, pupils will use topic sentences to begin paragraphs. Pupils will be able to use the unitary method to solve simple word problems involving ratio and direct proportion. Class target Pupils can use the science department posters to plan their own investigations. Pupils can read aloud from a simple written text of familiar language using correct pronunciation and expression. Pupils can explore and compare different ways of grouping sentences into paragraphs. Pupils will consolidate understanding of the relationship between ratio and direct proportion. Pupils can explain the development of landscape as a series of sequential events and processes. Group or pupil target I can plan my own investigation and say what I will change, what I will measure and what I will keep the same. I can understand and speak some simple sentences describing what I have done and what Im going to do. I can write a paragraph using a topic sentence and group all the following points so that they are clear and support the topic sentence. I can identify when proportional reasoning is needed to solve a problem. Personal target

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Ensure that pupils use paragraphs appropriately.


Pupils should be able to use proportional reasoning to solve a problem, choosing the correct numbers to take as 100% or as a whole.


Pupils need to improve the Year 7 pupils can explain how extent to which they can physical processes change a explain and describe the landscape. physical and human features contributing to the distinctive character of places. Pupils should practise, rehearse and demonstrate awareness of different parts, the contribution of different group members, audience and venue. Improve pupils visual literacy, i.e. their ability to select, acquire, extract, deploy, information from a variety of visual resources. Pupils perform significant parts from memory and from notations with awareness of their own contribution such as leading others, taking a solo part or providing rhythmic support. In communicating information, make appropriate use of different categories of still imagery, in particular clip art and photographic quality images.

I can explain, by putting events in order, how landscapes changed.


In a small group, pupils can perform a standard 12-bar blues from memory using internalised rhythm to keep in time with others in the group. Pupils can make a presentation fit for audience and purpose, sequenced appropriately and deploying appropriate images from a limited selection.

I can perform a standard 12-bar blues from memory and keep in time with the other people in my group.


I can make a presentation describing what makes a website good, choosing clip art and detailed images to make a point.

Setting personal pupil targets

As seen in the case study for science, targets need to be written in terms of actions that are meaningful to pupils and in language that is comprehensible to them. Pupils should be involved at this stage so that they have some ownership of their own targets.

Case study
Example of a personal target in Year 7 English
The pupils in a Year 7 class are working on a unit from the scheme of work focused on non-fiction texts. Writing, in particular boys' writing, has been identified as a particular school-wide concern. The class are working on persuasive texts and the focus of the lesson is: use standard English consistently in formal situations and in writing English Framework objective S17 (Curricular target) The curricular target has been translated into a personal learning target in a set of actions in language that will be meaningful to the pupil. It also begins to define what Sam will need to do to achieve it and helps to get him to define the way in which actions may be realised in different learning contexts. In discussion with the learning support assistant (LSA), the pupil with SEN has the following personal target put into a grid to stick into his book. The LSA has filled in the following actions for Sam and will discuss with him what he might put in the other spaces. The teacher has annotated her lesson plans to ensure that she models and refers to these during her teaching and when setting criteria for assessing the final piece of writing to persuade.

Also see the examples given in IPRoP for English in Session 4 (DfES 0465-2004 G).

Personal pupil targets for Sam

Sams writing target: use standard English consistently when writing formally to persuade Actions: What I need to do I need to be clear about the audience and purpose for each writing task. I will draft the writing, making sure that I use standard English. I will redraft my writing and use my help sheet to check that my use of verb tenses is correct. in subject lessons in my group/ with my helper on my own

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Task 6

Taking responsibility for working on personal targets

Can you help Sam complete this sheet with some actions in other subjects?

Task 7

Devising personal targets

Think of two pupils with SEN you know well (one with and one without a statement). For one or two of the curriculum examples given on page 19, devise a meaningful personal target appropriate for the pupils you have in mind. How similar are the personal targets to the group targets? What additional factors did you need to consider? Are the actions clear for the pupil? To what extent are you able to relate the targets you have devised to the statemented pupils record or IEP?

Given the pupils personal targets, reflect on the following questions. What are the implications of this practice for short-term planning? What will you need to do to ensure that pupils are held into subject lessons? How will you relate the targets to the areas identified on the pupils statement? How will you monitor movement towards targets across other subjects? How will you share these targets with other staff, so that they may inform their planning where appropriate?

Aligning curricular targets with statements

The quality of targets set for pupils with statements of SEN can be very variable. Where there is little evidence of any external challenge to the pupil, the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring is likely to be less clear. This emphasises the importance of connecting the work of the SENCO and subject teachers in meaningful target setting for pupils with SEN. It is vital that monitoring the progress of these pupils meshes with other elements of whole-school systems for: analysing data; setting and reviewing targets with pupils; assessment within the classroom which identifies clear next steps; methods of communication to share and report information on progress made.

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Think about the process illustrated in terms of your own school. What evidence could you access to identify what might be needed at each point in the process? Who would you consult at each stage? Who would be responsible for each stage? Who is responsible for communicating targets to all staff concerned with the pupil and parents? How would this work?

Task 8

Target setting who is responsible?

Use the cards provided below (with additions of your own if you wish) to explore some of the questions in the Reflection box in terms of your own school.

Work scrutiny Key Stage 2 test analysis

Class/test/ homework analysis Question analysis

Plenary task Starters and introductory activities, e.g. show me

Lesson observations Information from primary records

Key Stage 3 test analysis/PAT

Oral review task in class

Pupil questionnaire

Evidence from teaching assistant/learning mentor/academic tutor

IEP targets

Information from any targeted intervention

Information from teachers from class guided group sessions

Subject leader (HoD) or Key Stage 3 subject coordinator

Self- or peerassessment

Specialist staff from LEA service

Subject teacher



(Photocopy and cut up the table to make sorting cards for this task. You may wish to use the blank boxes to add cards with other information, or have more than one copy of each card.)

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The relationship of curricular targets, statements and Individual Educational Plans (IEPs)
In the best practice, individual education plans were incorporated well into whole-school systems of assessment and target setting. Special educational needs in the mainstream Ofsted 2003

Schools should have systems for overall planning and target setting for all pupils as part of monitoring and tracking the progress of every pupil over the key stage. IEPs cannot be considered in isolation. They are but one means of planning and recording the additional or different provision made for a pupil and of recording and tracking individual progress. Where a pupil has a statement of SEN, such records can be used to inform discussions at an annual review. All teachers need to discuss progress, set and review targets for all pupils so that IEPs, or targets for pupils with SEN, should be simply a subset of what happens as part of a wholeschool process for all pupils. This is an essential element of real inclusion. The management (and efficacy) of setting and monitoring IEP targets will be enhanced if it is an integral part of the schools overall system. In inclusive schools, ICT systems often facilitate the monitoring of progress by giving all staff access to updated information on the progress of individual pupils at all times. As far as possible, the IEP targets should build on the curriculum the pupil is following alongside their peer group and make use of strategies, activities, material, and methods of assessment for learning that are readily available to teachers. The plan should be implemented largely in an inclusive classroom environment. The aim of any additional targeted intervention offered to pupils outside this should be to contribute towards greater access to learning for individual pupils back in the subject classroom. In many classes there will be a group of pupils who share similar learning needs and some targets may be common to all in this group. The subject teacher will then focus learning objectives and learning outcomes for this group within the normal planning. However, assessment as to whether targets have been met, will need to be made at an individual level.
See Unit 9 of Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools (DfES 0432-2004 G)

The teacher may organise particular support for this group through some guided teaching; spending time within the lesson teaching with this group while other pupils work on group or individual tasks. The possibilities for guided work are greatly enhanced when there is additional support in the classroom. The school may also organise group intervention for targeted pupils with particular needs in common, outside the classroom. This may involve teaching in an appropriate setting within the extended school day or include short-term periods of withdrawal for targeted work.

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Task 9

Intervention planning
Collect a copy of your school intervention plan from the Key Stage 3 Strategy manager. How does this fit with the bigger picture of the range of interventions in the school and deployment of available personnel to support various groups of pupils, for example SEN, EMA, learning mentors? Does the plan identify the pupils? Are pupils with SEN included in the plan? (If not, what other support systems are in place for these pupils?)

See the Intervention audit (DfES 0121/2003) and Intervention toolkit

What is your role, as SENCO, within whole-school provision? Who are the pupils for whom you actively manage support? What is the range of ways in which this is provided?

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3 Target getting
It is important that targeted intervention is carefully monitored to ensure that pupils are appropriately helped to make, sustain and transfer learning to where it is needed in order to make gains within subject classrooms. The Key Stage 3 Strategy has a range of intervention programmes that have already been introduced to schools. There is also a wide range of commercial and locally devised intervention programmes used by schools. It is essential for the SENCO, senior managers and governors to evaluate stringently the effectiveness of these in terms of value for money and learning gains for pupils. Where pupils have needs that are significantly different from the rest of the group, then the IEP should be used to record and plan the features that are additional to, or different from, the general curriculum and lesson design.

Task 10

Curricular target setting

Work with a colleague to suggest ways of promoting the most effective use of curricular targets to support pupils learning. Follow up one or two statements, pursuing possible solutions in your own school. Possible solutions? With whom do you need to discuss this?

A curricular target will be: related or aligned to pupils particular needs holding pupils into subject lessons monitored as part of an overall profile of the pupil across all subjects shared with other staff to inform their plans explicit in shortterm planning

Potential problems?

shared with and owned by the pupil

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Task 11

Layering and personalising targets: a school-based task

Look at a writing sample from two or three pupils with SEN (School Action or Action Plus) in one core subject class as part of your monitoring of progress. Work with the teacher on the class target related to the data and curricular planning for the subject. Layer it appropriately for the pupils. Devise personal targets for at least one pupil.

Try to work through the following sequence: Numeric target for subject: X % of pupils at level Y need to attain level Z by (date) Curricular target for the key stage: In order to achieve this, pupils need to improve Curricular target for the year group (of the class containing the pupils identified above) Curricular target for medium-term plan or for unit of work (try to build on the scheme of work used in the section above) Group or pupil targets: In order to improve ... I need to Personal targets for

Involving pupils
If we want the processes of target setting to make an impact on pupils work and achievement then we need to help them to participate in the decision making. It is important to develop decision making skills from an early stage, as the decisions made can contribute toward greater ownership and independence in learning and increase confidence. Wherever possible, pupils should be encouraged to monitor their own progress towards their targets with support from teacher and assistants and, as they mature, to take more responsibility as part of the ownership. Discussions of learning targets, and what pupils might need to do as a next step, will help the pupils to articulate their views, to know that they are listened to and that their views are valued. Pupils need to: understand the importance of the information given and of target setting in making progress have an opportunity to articulate their feelings as learners participate in discussion indicate their views Adults need to: give information and guidance to support choices provide a supportive environment but also some challenge learn to listen to pupils endeavour to incorporate these views into planned actions

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Tracking and monitoring attainment

Reflection How will you monitor pupils movement towards targets? How will you make targets accessible and owned by pupils? How will you inform all staff of targets and pupils progress towards them? How will targets be used to inform planning? How will you know they are being acted upon in classrooms?

Task 12

Tracking pupils
Identify four pupils with SEN in Year 9, two of whom entered Key Stage 3 with a minimum level 3 and two of whom entered with a minimum level 4 in core subjects. Pupils may have SEN statements or continue to be identified on the schools record of those with SEN at School Action or School Action Plus. Enter the following codes next to their names on the top line: SA School Action SA+ School Action Plus S statement

Fill in the grid for the four pupils, noting their prior and current levels (teacher assessment). Track at least two of them, observing their learning and the teaching they receive across core subjects in the curriculum. What additional targeted intervention might help them to achieve a one level gain across the key stage in the national tests? What would be the effect on pupils self-esteem to know they have made the gain? Pupil B now KS 2 now Pupil C KS 2 now Pupil D KS 2 now

Pupil A Name/code Maths KS 2




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What are the challenges for SENCOs and schools?

The quality of provision for low-attaining groups and its effect on achievement and self-esteem was seldom well enough assessed SEN and disability: towards inclusive schools Ofsted 2004 Raising the attainment of all pupils, including those with SEN, is a whole-school responsibility. All teachers are teachers of pupils with SEN. The SENCO has a clear role to play both as a member of the senior management team, with regard to establishing appropriate targets for lower-attaining pupils, and in supporting subject leaders and teachers with appropriate strategies and resources to help pupils with SEN maximise progress in learning. Effective two-way communication is key. The learning and teaching team can do this by: recognising and building on pupils prior attainment; modelling high expectations: acknowledging that ability in pupils with SEN is not fixed and that all staff should expect that pupils can make progress; identifying pupils for particular targeted support and monitoring its effectiveness; identifying subject-specific learning needs and discussing the most appropriate curricular targets and intervention in line with pupils stated needs; supporting the setting of appropriate curricular targets based on an analysis of performance in subjects; understanding progression in reading and writing across levels literacy skills underpin educational achievement in many other subjects; helping teachers to use inclusive teaching approaches that engage and motivate pupils; tracking and securing pupils progress, particularly in relation to any additional provision made, and ensuring added value through monitoring transfer of skills learned back into classroom settings.

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Next steps
This booklet has set out some challenges about the use of data, target setting and monitoring the progress of pupils with SEN in your school. The following space is for you to consider actions you will need to take as a result of the tasks and your reflections throughout the booklet.

THREE actions I intend to take

Whom do I need to involve?

What is the time line for implementing this?

How will we know that we have been successful?

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Copies of this document may be available from: DfES Publications Tel: 0845 60 222 60 Fax: 0845 60 333 60 Textphone: 0845 60 555 60 e-mail: dfes@prolog.uk.com Ref: DfES 1040-2004 G Crown copyright 2004 Produced by the Department for Education and Skills www.dfes.gov.uk If this is not available in hard copy it can be downloaded from: www.standards.dfes.gov.uk

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