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2002 STATE COMPETITION SPRINT ROUND QUESTIONS 1. Segments AB and CD are as shown. 5.

There are 4 marks dividing each length of 1. 1 or 0.2. Therefore, each interval is worth 5 Segment AB starts at the third mark between 0 and 1 or 0.6. Segment AB ends at the second mark between 2 and 3 or 2.4. 2.4 - 0.6 = 1.8 Segment CD starts at the second mark between 1 and 2, or 1.4. Segment CD ends at 4. 4 - 1.4 = 2.6 2.6 - 1.8 = 0.8 Answer 2. The sum of the first n positive integers is 28. The sum of the first n positive integers can be represented by the formula: (n + 1) n 2 (n + 1) n = 28 2 (n + 1) n = 56 The product of two consecutive positive integers is 56. By inspection, these are 7 and 8. Therefore, n = 7 Answer Note: we could carry out the multiplication and factor: n2 + n - 56 = 0 (n + 8)(n - 7) = 0 n = -8, 7 But n must be positive so n = 7 The temperature at 5 AM was -28F. The temperature at 2 PM was 17F. The temperature rose 17 - (-28) = 17 + 28 = 45 degrees in 7 + 2 = 9 hours. The average increase was 45 = 5. Answer 9 Edwina runs at a speed of 8 miles per hour 8 2 = miles per minute. or a speed of 60 15 1 Thus, it takes her 7 minutes to complete 2

one mile. It must then take her 1 15 = 14 7 = 14 2 2 7 15 = 105 minutes to run 14 miles. 105 Answer 1 A rectangle whose dimensions are 1 yards 2 1 by 1 feet can be re-expressed in inches as 2 54 inches by 18 inches. 54 18 = 972 Answer A number n is randomly selected from the set {1, 2, ..., 10}. We must find the probability that 2n - 4 > n. n-4>0 n>4 This means 5 n 10. There are 6 values in the set that can be chosen to fulfill this requirement. 6 3 = Answer 10 5 48 non-overlapping square tiles, each 1 inch by 1 inch, fit within a rectangle. To find the minimum number of inches in the perimeter, inspect the factors whose product is 48. 1 48 2 24 3 16 4 12 68 The perimeter is minimized when the sum of the length and width are minimized. The sum of the length and width are minimized the closer you get to the square root of 48. Thus, the smallest perimeter occurs when the sides of the rectangle are 6 and 8. 2 (6 + 8) = 2 14 = 28 Answer Angelas school day consists of 4 45-minute periods (4 45 = 180 min), one 90-minute period, one 25-minute period, and 5 4minute breaks (5 4 = 20 min). The total is: 180 + 90 + 25 + 20 = 315 min. = 5 hr. and 15 min. 8:50 + 5 hours = 1:50 1:50 + 15 min = 2:05 Answer Two of the central angles are 80 and 130. Therefore, the third central angle is: 360 - (80 + 130) = 360 - 210 = 150 This piece has the largest area. The pizza has a radius of 6 inches so the area is 36. The piece with a central angle of 150 is:

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150 15 5 = = 360 36 12 of the area of the pizza. 5 36 = 15 Answer 12

10. The units digit of 1! is 1. The units digit of 3! is 6. 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = (5 2) (4 2 1) = 10 (4 2 1). Thus, the units digit of 5! must be 0. Similarly, the units digit of 7!, 9! and 11! are all 0. 1 + 6 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 7 Answer 11. f (x) = 5x2 + 3x + 4 f(-2) = 5 (-2)2 + (3 -2) + 4 = 5 4 + (-6) + 4 = 20 - 6 + 4 = 24 - 6 = 18 Answer 12. Every fourth pot is marked with a red balloon. Every sixth pot is marked with a blue balloon. Every tenth pot is marked with a yellow balloon. Pots with all three occur on the least common multiple of 4, 6, and 10. Divisor 4 6 10 2 2 3 5 2 1 3 5 3 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 (The value in the left, or divisor, column is divided into the values in the right column, one row up. If the divisor does not divide the value one row up with zero remainder, the value is brought down to the next row unchanged. The LCM is 2 2 3 5 = 60 So all multiples of 60 have all three colors. 600 = 10 Answer 60 13. If two standard 6-sided dice are tossed, what is the probability that the sum of the numbers shown on the dice is a prime number? What are all the primes 12? They are 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11. For 2, there is only the combination: (1,1). For 3, there are two combinations: (2,1) and (1,2). For 5, there are 4 combinations: (1,4), (2,3), (3,2) and (4,1).

For 7, there are 6 combinations: (1,6), (2, 5), (3,4), (4,3), (5,2), and (6,1). For 11, there are 2 combinations: (5, 6) and (6,5). This makes a total of 1 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 2 = 15. There are a total of 6 6 = 36 combinations. 15 5 = Answer 36 12 14. Every student takes history or science. 85 take both. 106 students take history and 109 take science. We can use a Venn diagram to

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17. Each of the circles P and Q is tangent to rectangle ABCD at three points as shown.

Each circle has a radius of 6 cm. RS = 2 The length of AD is the same as the length of a line drawn parallel to AD through P. This means AD is the same as the diameter of P, or 2 6 = 12. Since the length of RS is 2, the length of PR must be 4 as must the length of SQ. If you draw a line through PRSQ starting at E and F you have a line whose length is the same as AB or CD. The length of EF is EP + PR + RS + SQ + QF. EP and QF are both radii or 6. Therefore AB or CD = 6 + 4 + 2 + 4 + 6 = 22. 22 12 = 264 Answer 18. How many nine-digit numbers can be made using each of the digits 1 through 9 exactly once with the digits alternating between odd and even? If they must alternate between odd and even, then we must start and end with odd digits because there are 5 different odd digits (1, 3, 5, 7, 9) but only 4 different even digits (2, 4, 6, 8). So, there are 5 different choices for the first odd digit, 4 different choices for the first even digit, 4 different choices for the second odd digit, 3 different choices for the second even digit, etc. 544332211= 20 12 6 2 = 240 12 = 2880 Answer 19. Marvelous Mondays are defined as the fifth Monday in the month. To be a Marvelous Monday, the date must be at least the 29th of the month. September 4 is a Monday making the last Monday of the month September 25. The first Monday in October would be October 2. The last Monday in October would be October 30, which is a Marvelous Monday. October 30 Answer 20. The whole numbers are written consecutively in the pattern shown. Row A: Row B: Row C: Row D: Row E: 5 6 7 17 18 19 4 8 16 20 3 9 15 21 2 10 14 22 1 11 12 13 23 24

Note that odd multiples of 6 appear in Row A and even multiples of 6 appear in Row E. 500 = 83 R2 6 83 is an odd multiple of 6. Therefore, 83 6 = 498 is in Row A. Since the multiple of 6 is always followed by one more value in Row A and then one in Row B (look at 7,8 or 19,20, for example). The 500th number must be in Row B. Answer 21. What is the smallest three-digit number that is a multiple of 4 and whose digits sum to 23? Determine first a sum of three digits that equals 23 but whose hundreds unit is as small as possible. If that smallest digit were 1, could we get a sum to 23? No, since 23 1 = 22 and using two 9s would get us a sum of 18. How about 2? Then 23 - 2 = 21 and again this is a problem. The largest value that the 2 other digits can be is 18. Thus, the hundreds unit would be 5. But 599 is not divisible by 4. So try 17. Then, the hundreds unit is 6 and we get either 689 or 698. Neither are divisible by 4. (A number is divisible by 4 if its two lowest order digits are divisible by 4. E.g., 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, etc.) So we must try 16. This means the hundreds digit is 7. We can have either 779 or 788 or 797. 779 is not divisible by 4 (nor is 797) but 788 is. 788 Answer 22. a * b = b a b

(3 * 2) = 2 (2 * 6) = 6

32 = 6 2 6 = 6 2 3 = 48 Answer

23. How many numbers in the range 1-100 are multiples of 2? All even numbers, or 50 of them. How many numbers in the range 1100 are multiples of 3? 33 of them, but every other one is an even number. The 1 33rd number is 99. Therefore, 32 = 16 2 of them are repeats of the numbers divisible by 2. 33 - 16 = 17 more. How many numbers in the range 1-100 are multiples of 5? There are 20 of them. How many are repeats? 10 of them end in 0 and so are also multiples of 2. That leaves 10 more, i.e., those that end in 5. But, of those, the values 15, 45, and 75 are also multiples of 3. That leaves 10 - 3 = 7 that we havent counted

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before. 50 + 17 + 7 = 74 74 37 = Answer 100 50 24. A jet that flies 540 mph flies 9 miles per minute. A jet that flies 480 mph flies 8 miles per minute. Let x = the expected number of minutes it takes to fly between both airports. 9(x + 8) is the number of miles between both airports (when flying at a rate of 9 miles per minute). 8(x + 53) is also the number of miles between both airports (when flying at a rate of 8 miles per minute). 9(x + 8) =8(x + 53) 9x + 72 = 8x + 424 x = 352 It takes 352 + 8 = 360 minutes to fly at a rate of 9 miles per minute. 360 9 = 3240 Answer 25. The area of a triangle bounded by the lines y = 0, x = 12 and y = mx is 1872. The figure looks as follows:

21 + 3 5 = has a remainder of 5. 7 7 22 + 3 7 = has a remainder of 0. 7 7 2 3 + 3 11 = has a remainder of 4. 7 7 2 4 + 3 19 = has a remainder of 5. 7 7 2 5 + 3 35 = has a remainder of 0. 7 7 2 6 + 3 67 = has a remainder of 4. 7 7 And the pattern emerges. When the exponent is divided by 3 and the remainder is 1, the remainder of the expression is 5. When the exponent is divided by 3 and the remainder is 2, the remainder of the expression is 0. When the exponent is divided by 3 and the remainder is 0, the remainder of the expression is 4. 87 = 29 R0 3 Therefore, the remainder is 4. Answer
27. Triangle ABC is a right triangle with angle B a right angle. Points P and Q are on BC so that segments AP and AQ trisect angle BAC as in the figure below.

When y is 0: 0 = mx m=0 When the x-coordinate is 12: y = 12m So the three coordinates are (12,0), (0, 0) and (12, 12m). The length of the vertical side of the triangle is 12m. The length of the horizontal side of the triangle is 12. 1 12 12m = 1872 2 6 12m = 1872 12m = 312 m = 26 Answer 26. What is the remainder when 287 + 3 is divided by 7? Determine whether there is a pattern when dividing by 7.

The measure of angle APC is 114. Therefore, the measure of angle APB is 180 - 114 = 66. This makes the three angles in triangle ABP, 66, 90 and 180 - (90 + 66) = 180 - 156 = 24. Remember that segments AP and AQ trisect angle BAC. This means 1 of angle A. Therefore, that angle BAP is 3 angle A is 24 3 = 72. Angle B is 90. Angle C = 180 - (72 + 90) = 180 - 162 = 18 Answer 28. A line segment drawn from a vertex of a unit square to a point on the square forms 1 of the two regions, one whose area is 3 other region. See the diagram below.

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This means that the area of smaller region is 1 of the area of the square. If we were to 4 draw a line through the square parallel to a vertical edge and bisecting the horizontal edges of the cube, the two resulting regions would have equal area. See the diagram.

30. The mean of six positive integers is 5, and the median is 6. The sum of all 6 integers must be 6 5 = 30. Since there are an even number of items, the average of the third and fourth item must be the median, i.e., 6. If we want the largest mode, then we have to have the rest of the values very small. We know that the middle 2 numbers must add to 12. This leaves 18 to be divided between the largest 2 numbers and the smallest 2. If we assume that the first 2 numbers are 1, then the two largest values would each be 8. To make the largest mode, the middle two values, which must sum to 12, would be 4 and 8, giving us the sequence: 1, 1, 4, 8, 8, 8. 8 Answer

Thus, the diagonal is the line segment in question and it is the hypotenuse of a right 1 triangle whose other sides are 1 and . 2 Let x = the length of the hypotenuse.

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TARGET ROUND Given that two sides of the right triangle are 6 and 8, the hypotenuse must be 10.

1 x 2 = 12 + 2

=1+

1 5 = 4 4

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5 5 = Answer 4 2

29. There are 6 jugs that contain 13, 15, 16, 21, 21 and 22 gallons, respectively. One jug has blue punch. The other five jugs have red 1 of the red punch is sold to punch. If 3 2 Randy and of the red punch is sold to 3 Lisa, this implies that Lisas amount of punch is twice Randys amount of punch. The sum of all the punch is: 13 + 15 + 16 + 21 + 21 + 22 = 108 gallons. If the blue punch is 22 gallons, then there would be 86 gallons of red punch to be divided into thirds. But 86 is not divisible by 3. If the blue punch is 21 gallons, then there would be 87 gallons to be divided into thirds. This works out to 29 + 58. Do we have combinations to create 29 and 58? 16 + 13 = 29 15 + 21 + 22 = 58 Thus, there were 21 gallons of blue punch. 21 Answer

This makes the radii of the three semicircles 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The area of a 1 semicircle is r2 2 The area of the semicircle with radius 3 is: 1 9 32 = 2 2 The area of the semicircle with radius 4 is: 1 42 = 8 2 The area of the semicircle with radius 5 is: 1 25 52 = 2 2 9 25 34 + 8 + = 8 + = 2 2 2 8 + 17 = 25 Answer 2. The product of 4 consecutive positive integers is 1 less than 4612. Let x = 461 Then we can express 1 less than 4612 as x2 - 1. (x - 1) (x + 1) = x2 - 1 or: 460 462 = 4612 - 1 Now we need to factor 460 and 462 into two numbers such that all 4 resulting values can be placed in such an order to make them consecutive positive integers.

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460 = 2 5 2 23 462 = 2 3 7 11 460 = 20 23 462 = 21 22 Therefore: 20 21 22 23 = 4612 - 1 The least of the 4 numbers is 20. Answer Alternate solution: Since calculators are permitted in this round, we could find the value of
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4612 1 2147 . . Therefore

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We must determine for how many integers n between 1 and 100 is the greatest common divisor of 15 and n equal to 3. This would be all the integers that are multiples of 3 but not multiples of 5. There are 33 multiples of 3 between 1 and 100. Of those, 6 are multiples of 5 (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90). Therefore, there are 33 - 6 = 27 integers between 1 and 100 whose greatest common divisor of 15 and themselves is 3. 27 Answer A 6 inch by 9 inch rectangle is cut into three portions of equal area as shown.

2147 . 4 4612 1 , so it would make sense to see if the product of 20, 21, 22 and 23 (the four consecutive integers closest to 21.47) is equal to 4612- 1, which it is. The least of the four numbers is 20.
3. The worlds population passed 6 billion people on July 18, 1999. An average or 4.2 births and 1.7 deaths occurs every second. Thus, the worlds population increases by 4.2 - 1.7 = 2.5 people every second. This is an increase of 2.5 60 60 24 = 216,000 people per day or approximately 78,840,000 people per year (if you dont deal with leap year). It would take: 1,000,000,000 12.68391679 years to get to 78,840,000 7 billion people from July 18, 1999. A half year would place us in 2000. Twelve more years would place us in early 2012. Does the leap year factor in? No. Were only talking about 2 or 3 days more which is less than .01 year. 2012 Answer S is a set of 3 positive integers. Property I says that S has mean of 10. Then, the sum of the 3 numbers is 30. So far, property I holds. Property II says that S has median 8. Can that happen? Sure. 7 + 8 + 15 works fine. Property III says that S has sum 45. No! If S has a mean of 10 the sum must be 30. So Property III can not hold if Property I does. Property IV says that S contains the number 35. That couldnt be true if Property I holds. Suppose Property I doesnt hold. Then S has a sum of 45. Could S have a median of 8? Sure. {2, 8, 35} works. What about if S contains the number 35? {2, 8, 35} still works fine. Thus we can have at most 3 properties holding. 3 Answer

The area of the rectangle is 6 9 = 54. The 1 area of each portion is of the total area or 3 18. We know that one side of the light gray triangle is 6. Let x = the other side of the light gray triangle that is not the hypotenuse. Then: 1 6 x = 18 2 3x = 18 x=6 Therefore, the light gray triangle is half of a 6 inch square and its hypotenuse is 6 2 8.485281374 Now, look at the black triangle. One side is 9. Let y = the other side of the black triangle that is not the hypotenuse. Then: 1 9 y = 18 2 9y = 36 y=4 Let z = the length of the hypotenuse of the black triangle. 9 2 + 4 2 = z2 81 + 16 = z2 z2 = 97 z = 97 9.848857802 Now we can determine the perimeters of each of the triangles. The perimeter of the light gray triangle is 6 + 6 + 8.485281374 = 20.48528137. The perimeter of the dark gray triangle is (9 - 6) + (6 - 4) + 8.485281374 + 9.848857802 = 23.334139176. The perimeter of the black

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triangle is 9 + 4 + 9.848857802 = 22.8488578. The dark gray triangle has the greatest perimeter and to the nearest tenth this is 23.3. Answer 7. The ratio of boys to girls in the upper classes is 3 to 4 and there are 560 upperclassmen. There are 110 freshman boys and 90 freshman girls. First determine the number of upper class boys. There are 3 boys for every 4 girls in the upper classes, or 3 boys out of every 7 students. 3x + 4x = 560 7x = 560 x = 80 80 3 = 240 There are 240 upperclass boys and 110 freshmen boys for a total of 350 boys. There are a total of 560 + 110 + 90 = 760 students in the school. 350 0.460526316 760 0.460526316 100 = 46.0526316 46 Answer The only lines of symmetry that will be possible for the completed pattern will be horizontal and vertical lines. The first 2 squares shown in the problem (the "+" and "x" squares) have both lines of symmetry, but its their horizontal line of symmetry that allows us to create any pattern of three squares with any combination of these two. The three squares in the pattern can be 3 "+" squares (figure 2), 2 "+" squares and an "x" square (figures 4, 11, 12), 2 "x" squares and a "+" square (figures 3, 9, 10), or 3 "x" squares (figure 1). This is a total of 8 different patterns. The remaining two squares, Ill call them the "diagonal" squares, do not have a horizontal line of symmetry and will only give the pattern a vertical line of symmetry if one of the "diagonal" squares is placed first and the other is placed last. In the middle can be the "+" square (figures 5, 6) or the "x" square (figures 7, 8). There are four different such arrangements, for a total of 12 arrangements.

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11 12 Pictures 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 12 have a line of symmetry through their horizontal middle. Pictures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 have a line of symmetry through their vertical middle. 12 Answer TEAM ROUND 1. How many three-digit whole numbers have no 7s and no 9s as digits? First, examine the numbers from 100 to 199. In 100 - 109, 8 do not (everything but 107 and 109). This is also true of 110 - 119, 120 - 129, 130 139, 140 - 149, 150 - 159, 160 - 169 and 180 - 189. Thats a total of 8 8 = 64 numbers. Clearly 170 - 179 and 190 - 199 all contain 7s or 9s. In the same way, there are 64 numbers containing no 7s or 9s in the ranges 200 - 299, 300 - 399, 400 - 499, 500 599, 600 - 699, and 800 - 899 for a total of 64 7 = 448. Of course, all numbers in the 700 - 799 and 900 - 999 ranges have either 7s and/or 9s. 448 Answer Another solution would be to see that to create such a number, there are 7 choices for the first digit (1-6, 8), and 8 choices for each of the second and third digits (0-6, 8), so there are 7 8 8 = 448 such numbers. 2. Let x = the number of meters that Kevin must walk for the race to end in a tie. x x 50 = 3 1.75 1.75x = 3x - 150 1.25x =150 125x = 15000 x = 120 Answer

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a c 1 4

b =ab-cd d 2 3 =12-43 = 2 - 12 = -10

outside wheels. The front two wheels are six feet apart. We must determine the number of feet in the path traced by the inside front wheel in one trip around the circle. Since the car travels a circular path the inner wheels travel the circumference of a circle. The inside wheels are rotating half as fast as the outside wheels so the circumference of the inner circle must be half as much as the circumference of the circle traveled by the outer wheels. Let x = the radius of the circle traveled by the inner wheels. Then x + 6 is the radius of the circle traveled by the outer wheels. 2x 2 = 2(x + 6) 4x = 2x + 12 2x = 12 x=6 The number of feet in the path traced by the inside front wheel is: 2 6 = 12 Answer 6. The easiest way is to list the possible paths.

4 -1

2 3 = 4 2 - (-1) 3 = 8 - (-3) = 8 + 3 = 11

5 0

1 -2 = 5 1 - 0 (-2) =5-0=5

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1 3 = 2 1 - (-1) 3 = 2 - (-3) = 2 + 3 = 5

-10 5

11 5 = -10 11 - 5 5 = -110 - 25 =

-135 Answer 4. A square region has perimeter 60 inches. When a unit tile is removed the remaining tiles create a rectangular region with minimum perimeter. First determine the length of the square. Let x = the length of the square. 4x = 60 x = 15 Therefore, there are 15 15 = 225 unit tiles in the square. Subtracting 1 gives us 224 unit tiles to make the rectangle. A minimum perimeter occurs when the length and width of the rectangle are as close to each other as possible i.e., as close to the square root of the area, or 15. 224 = 2 112 = 2 2 56 = 2 2 2 28 = 2 2 2 2 14 = 222227= 16 14 The perimeter is 2 (16 + 14) = 2 30 = 60. Answer The inside wheels of a car traveling on a circular path are rotating half as fast as the

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From A, the mouse can go to B and from there to E and F. Of those two possibilities only one leads to F. From A, the mouse can go to C and then F. That is one possibility out of one possibility. From A, the mouse can go to D and then to F, making one possibility out of 3 possibilities. The probability that the mouse goes from A to B to F is: 1 1 1 = 3 2 6 The probability that the mouse goes from A to C to F is: 1 1 1 = 3 3 The probability that the mouse goes from A to D to F is: 1 1 1 = 3 3 9 1 1 1 + + = 6 3 9

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3 6 2 11 + + = Answer 18 18 18 18
7. Marianna has some nickels and quarters and their combined value is \$9.15. Their combined weight is one pound. 80 quarters weigh one pound and ninety nickels weigh one pound. We must find the number of nickels. Since 80 quarters weight one pound, one 1 quarter weighs pound. Since 90 nickels 80 1 weigh one pound, one nickel weighs 90 pound. Let x = the number of quarters. Let y = the number of nickels. 25x + 5y = 915 (Eq. 1 -- from the cost) 1 1 x+ y = 1 (from the weight) 80 90 90x + 80y = 7200 (Eq. 2) 400x + 80y = 14640 (Eq. 3: Eq. 1 16) 310x = 7440 (Eq. 3 - Eq. 2) x = 24 25 24 + 5y = 915 600 + 5y = 915 5y = 315 y = 63 Answer 8. What is the base 4 representation of the base 2 number: 110110002 The solution is easy in this case. Instead of transposing to base 10 and then to base 4, you can simply, working from right to left, take groups of 2 numbers and make the translation: 00 => 0, 01 => 2, 10 => 1, 11 => 3 110110002 = 11 01 10 002 = 31204 Answer A farmer has fenced a field as shown.

The field now looks like this:

Instead of a single trapezoid with sides 40, 40, 80 and 40 2 , there are 4 trapezoids with sides 20, 20, 40 and 20 2 . What is new in creating the 4 congruent trapezoids are two lines of length 20, a line of length 40 and a line of length 20 2 . 20 + 20 + 40 + 20 2 = 80 + 20 2 = 108.2842712 108 Answer 10. All the faces on Alisons cube have a 5. The faces on Brians cube have the numbers 1 6. Three of the faces on Noahs cube have a 2 and the other three have a 6. If Allison rolls her cube she always gets a 5. If Brian 1 rolls his cube, he has a probability of 6 getting any one of the values from 1 to 6. If 1 Noah rolls his cube he has a probability 2 1 of getting a 2 and a probability of getting 2 a 6. For Allison to roll greater than Brian, Brian must roll any value between 1 and 4. 4 2 This has a probability of = . For 6 3 Allison to roll greater than Noah, Noah must 1 roll a 2 which has a probability of . 2 2 1 1 = Answer 3 2 3

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The slanted line in the trapezoid (i.e., the one that isnt 40 or 80 m long) is the hypotenuse of a 40 by 40 right triangle. Therefore, its size is 40 2 . The farmer divides the field into 4 congruent trapezoids.

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