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2T05 2011

2008 A Level GP P2 Answer Scheme Q1 What is the difference between history and what historians study, according to paragraph 1? [1] Question Analysis Type List clues Requirements Specific steps Direct Identify and Re-express - What is the difference - according to paragraph 1 1 mark for the difference between history and what historians study - Refer to paragraph 1 for answer - Identify history and what historians study in paragraph 1 - Identify 2 separate components near respective quotes: (a) description of history; (b) description of what historians study - Re-express the 2 separate descriptions to show difference 2006 What are the similarities and differences between the new generation born into the age of the internet, email and mobile phone (lines 79-80) and the children in The Chrysalids? Use your own words as far as possible. [3]

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Answer Passage Underline question words Bold answers / context Everything that has ever happened is history the past. It begins with the origins of our solar system, the birth and physical changes of our planet and the evolution of life forms on its surface, and extends to the headlines in this mornings newspaper, Perhaps it would be a little presumptuous for historians to claim all this past as their field of study. In fact, we are happy to leave whole areas of it to the likes of astronomers, geologists and zoologists who investigate what is sometimes called naturaI' history while we confine our attention to human history. Not everyone is fortunate enough to be able to devote their lives to this study. But I firmly believe that everyone should have some knowledge of the past, as members of a family, as citizens in a community or as 21st century inhabitants of planet Earth. History refers to all events that have occurred before the present, including that of nature or the Earth, whereas historians only study the lives of people. [1] Note: No marks are to be awarded. Candidates must identify both parts to score 1 mark.

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2T05 2011

Amelia and Hanya Q2 What is meant by archival evidence (line 15)? How might its dissemination stimulate new interpretations of history? [2] Question Analysis Type Inferential Clarify (in context) - What is meant by - How might 1 mark for explanation of archival evidence - Refer to Paragraph 2 for answer - Identify archival evidence in line 15 - Read line 15 and 16, infer the meaning of archival evidence 1 mark for explanation of how dissemination of archival evidence might stimulate new interpretations of history - Describe what is dissemination - Explain the impact of this dissemination of archival evidence Similar Questions 2007 Q8 Explain what the author means by gender education needs to supplement mere sex education (line 74). [2]

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Specific steps

Answer Passage
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Technologies such as aerial mapping, carbon dating, thermal imaging and deep-sea submersibles afford historians far greater opportunities to recover the distant past than the crude shovels and diving bells of their predecessors, Furthermore, the use of advanced technology to store, catalogue and disseminate archival evidence more efficiently is stimulating new interpretations of the history of our planet. It means historical proofs or records that are kept and organised. [1] The spread of archival evidence to a wider range of audience will generate more opinions and perspectives of history. [1]

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2T05 2011

Yiying and Marilyn Q3 What do the words or indeed impose (line 18) tell you about human nature? [2] Question Analysis Type Inferential - Clarify - What do the words tell you...? - or indeed impose 1 mark for correct identification of the nature of human - Refer to line 18 for answer - Look around line 18 for contextual clues (a) the most fundamental of human instincts... (b) or indeed impose 1 mark for re-expressing and elaborating on this nature Similar Questions 2006 Q1 What does the word rallying (line 1) tell you about the purpose of the call? [1] 2006 Q2 What does the phrase rung down the centuries (lines1-2) tell you about the effect of the call? [1] 2007 Q7 What does the expression brothers-in-arms (line 66) suggest about male behaviour? [1] 2010 Q4 What does the author mean by culinary diversity (line 40) and how is it threatened? [2] Answer Passage
Underline question words Bold answers / context

Requirements

'Interpreting the past is, in fact, the essential business of the historian, who is responding to one of the most fundamental of human instincts: the desire to discover - or indeed impose some kind of order on the seemingly haphazard ebb and flow of happening. Humans are orderly by nature and will seek to enforce some form of structure [1] when faced with chaotic situations[1] Note: No marks are to be awarded if candidates do not state the nature of humans before elaborating upon it.

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2T05 2011

Yiying and Marilyn Q4 In paragraph 3, Anna Banatvala gives four possible explanations of history in a series of four questions. Which explanation would support the idea of humans possessing free will? [1] Question Analysis Type
List clues

Direct Identify - In paragraph 3... - Which explanation... 1 mark for the correct identification of explanation - Refer to paragraph 3 - Identify the 4 possible explanations of history - Pick the one which support the idea of humans possessing free will 2006 Q5 Which of the rights mentioned in lines 23-25 would the following deny? (a) censorship of views [1] (b) banning of demonstrations [1] 2010 Q8 Which aspect of the authors argument in the last paragraph is reinforced by the quotation from J. S. Mill? [1]

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Answer Passage Is there a discernible movement towards an ever-improving condition of the human race, which may be divinely planned or simply the inevitable outcome of a material process of evolution? Has the course of world events been primarily enhanced by the acts of gifted individuals, be they ruthless conquerors or saintly visionaries, whose words and deeds have changed the world map and inspired the beliefs and daily lives of succeeding generations? Is our history determined for us by climatic, topographical and economic forces which dictate what do and what we are? Or is history an endless cycle of recurring - and therefore predictable events according to the dominance of negative, feminin, dark Yin or its Yang opposite? The second explanation supports the idea of humans possessing free will. Note: Not necessary to re-express. If the meaning of the answer paraphrased is different from the original meaning, no marks will be awarded.

Answer

2T05 2011

Amelia and Hanya Q5 What do you understand by the annihilation of distance in line 44? [1] Question Analysis Type Requirements Inferential Clarify (in context) - What do you understand 1 mark for explanation of annihilation of distance - Refer to Paragraph 6 for answer - Identify annihilation of distance in line 44 - Read line 42 and 44, infer the meaning of annihilation of distance 2006 Q2 What does the phrase rung down the centuries (lines 1-2) tell you about the effect of the call?

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Technology is rapidly knitting the earth's inhabitants together more intricately, but they remain far from united politically. We are still strangers to each other in our local ways of life established before the annihilation of distance. We must grow into something like a single family or we will annihilate ourselves, and it is only by understanding our various 'family' histories that we can learn to live together in tolerance and mutual respect. It means that geographical boundaries have been overcome / removed / reduced / eliminated. [1] Cheng Yew and Soon Kiat It means a shrinking world where everyone is more connected through the use of technology [1].

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2T05 2011

Qingjie and Kenji Q7 the only lesson to be learnt from history is that there are no lessons to be learnt from history (lines 7-8). Explain why this is a paradox. [1] Question Analysis Type Inferential Language Use Irony - Explain why this is a paradox 1 mark for showing the expected outcome and the contradiction of the actual outcome - Explain the expected outcome of learning from history - Explain the contradiction of the actual outcome of learning from history 2002 Q7 Now that you have studied the whole article carefully, look again at the opening headline. Explain what is ironic or contradictory about the headline NO SINGLISH PLEASE, WE ARE SINGAPOREAN. [1] 2010 Q5 Using your own words as far as possible, explain the irony which the author describes in lines 54-55. [2] Answer Passage Historians often claim that they look backward in order to show the rest of us the way forward. Bunk! Paradoxically, the only lesson to be learnt from history is that there are no lessons to be learnt from history. The expected outcome is that there should be lessons to be learned from history. However, the irony is that the lesson is that there is no lessons to be learned from history.

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2T05 2011

Qingjie and Kenji Q8 What kind of natural happenings may Lee Min Yen be thinking of, and how do they support his argument? [2] Question Analysis Type Inferential Clarify (in context) - What kind may Lee Min Yen be thinking of? Direct Identify and Re-express - How do they support Requirements 1 mark for explaining the natural happenings - Identify natural happenings in the passage - Infer what these natural happenings refer to, providing as much detail as possible 1 mark for selecting points from the passage that support the argument - Identify relevant idea that shows - Re-express this idea Similar questions 2003 Q8 the mentally- handicapped child or the clinically insane adult (line 28). Explain in your own words as far as possible, the two attributes the author suggests both this examples of handicapped humans lack. Explain how the examples are used to develop the authors argument.

Answer Passage The daily interactions of the billions of people on our planet - not to speak of the equally unpredictable natural happenings on and over its surface - produce an infinitely complex web of causes and effects which are wholly unrepeatable. Natural happenings may be the natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis.[1] Recurrence of such events cannot be foretold. [1]

Answers

2T05 2011

Gerard Chio, Mark and Leonard Q9 Explain in your own words as far as possible why Lee Min Yen thinks it unnecessary to keep alive the memory of former conflicts and atrocities (lines 11-12). [2] Question Analysis Type Direct- Identify and Re-express Requirements Explain in your own words keep alive the memory of former conflicts and atrocities (lines 1112)

2 marks for 2 different reasons Refer to paragraph 2 for answer Identify why Lee Min Yen thinks it is unnecessary Identify 2 different reasons near respective quotes Re-express the two different reasons

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2006 Q3 Explain, in your own words as far as possible, why the author believes There is no such thing as a totally free society [2].

2006 Q7 Using your own words as far as possible, explain why, in paragraph 5, the author claims that paternity solves the contradiction (lines 60-61) of the other two words of the clarion call. [2]

Answer Passage You often hear it said that we should keep alive the memory of former conflicts and atrocities to prevent them happening again. I dont think so. The descendants of former aggressors and victims happily visit each others countries with no feelings of guilt or resentment about their ancestors history. As someone said: The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there. Lee Min Yen thinks it is unnecessary because harmony can still exist even though there is enmity between their predecessors [1]. The people in the present are not affected by the past because they have changed. [1]

Answer

2T05 2011

Tian Yi Lee Min Yen feels that history is unrelated to our modern times, as the cultures can be contrasting [1]. Also, offspring of the previous afflicters and the afflicted do not hold any grudges against one another or feel remorse [1].

2T05 2011

Q10 Explain in your own words as far as possible how and why every age, every country rewrites history to suit its needs (line 26) [2]. Question Analysis Type Direct- Identify and Re-express Requirements Refer to paragraph 4 for answer Identify why it is unnecessary Identify the why and how answer near respective quotes Selection and omission. Justify current policies, suit the prevailing climate of ideas Explain in your own words every age, every country rewrites history to suit its needs (lines 11-12)

Re-express the two points

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2006 Freedom

In democracies, how are rulers (a) chosen by and (b) answerable to (line 17) those they govern? [2]

Answer Passage All history is biased. Every age, every country, rewrites history to suit its needs at worst [1] by falsifying the record, as in the fictional world of Orwell's book 1984 or the reality of the Nanjing Massacre, or by [2] selection and omission to [3] justify current policies and [4] suit the prevailing climate of ideas. This is harmless enough, but it becomes dangerous when distorted and partial history becomes the basis of propaganda to whip up nationalist or religious hatreds. They do so by mentioning only certain facts and exclude those unfavorable to them, at times distorting the complete truth [1], so that their principles seems reasonable and can be accepted by the masses [1].

Answer

2T05 2011

People change historical archives by misrepresenting information, or by deleting certain extracts. [1] This is done so as to support government schemes and match up to the dominant beliefs [1].

Note: Candidates must identify two methods for 1 mark and two reasons for 1 mark. No marks are to be awarded for one method or one reason.

Passage 1 1 Everything that has ever happened is history the past. It begins with the origins of our solar system, the birth and physical changes of our planet and the evolution of life forms on its surface, and extends to the headlines in this mornings newspaper, Perhaps it would be a little presumptuous for historians to claim all this past as their field of study. In fact, we are happy to leave whole areas of it to the likes of astronomers, geologists and zoologists who investigate what is sometimes called naturaI' history while we contine our attention to human history. Not everyone is fortunate enough to be able to devote their lives to this study. But I firmly believe that everyone should have some knowledge of the past, as members of a family, as citizens in a community or as 21st century inhabitants of planet Earth. 2 There has never been a better time, and never a more urgent need, to explore our past than exists today. Technologies such as aerial mapping, carbon dating, thermal imaging and deep-sea submersibles afford historians far greater opportunities to recover the distant past than the crude shovels and diving bells of their predecessors, Furthermore, the use of advanced technology to store, catalogue and disseminate archival evidence more afhciently is stimulating new interpretations of the history of our planet. 3 'Interpreting the past is, in fact, the essential business of the historian, who is responding to one of the most fundamental of human instincts: the desire to discover - or indeed impose some kind of order on the seemingly haphazard ebb and flow of happening. Is there a discernible movement towards an aver-improving condition of the human race, which may be divinely planned or simply the inevitable outcome of a material process of evolution? Has the course of world events been primarily enhanced by the acts of gifted individuals, be they ruthless conquerors or saintly visionaries, whose words and deeds have changed the world map and inspired the beliefs and daily lives of succeeding generations? Is our history determined for us by climatic, topographical and economic forces which dictate what do and what we are? Or is history an endless cycle of recurring - and therefore predictable events according to the dominance of negative, feminine. dark Yin or its Yang opposite? 4 Whether or not we find a satisfying explanation of the past, our study satisfies another basic need curiosity, It is present in our desire to find out about our family and the place where was live. According to how we spend our leisure, we might be interested in the histories of jazz, or of football, or of food, Always we ask, "What came before this? Put together, these various stories amount to the cultural history of the particular society we live in. and this shared knowledge of what our predecessors thought and did in their everyday lives is essential if we are to have a sense of common identity. 5 Reassuringly, we discover that underneath superficial differences earlier generations were very like ourselves, and it is this ccntinuity of human experience which is the basis of another of the

2T05 2011

benefits of history: given that similar causes produce similar results, it can teach us how to avoid their mistakes and inspire us to emulate their triumphs. For the beneficial changes they brought about teach us that we do noi have to put up with things as they are. and this gives us the humility to recognize that our greater knowledge does not make us any wiser than our ancestors. 6 Technology is rapidly knitting the earth's inhabitants together more intricately, but they remain far from united politically. We are still strangers to each other in our local ways of life established before the annihilation of distance. We must grow into something like a single family or we will annihilate ourselves, and it is only by understanding our various 'family' histories that we can learn to live together in tolerance and mutual respect.

2T05 2011

Passage 2 1 Most people know two things about Henry Ford, He built the first mass-produced popular car and famously wrote in 1916: History is more or less bunk... we want to live in the present...'. Though they would probably say rubbish instead of the slang word of Ford's time, his sentiments would be echoed by generations of bored schoolchildren stuffed with dates and sources and consider-the-causes-and-effects-of essays. 2 Historians often claim that they look backward in order to show the rest of us the way forward. Bunk! Paradoxically, the only lesson to be learnt from history is that there are no lessons to be learnt from history, The daily interactions of the billions of people on our planet - not to speak of the equally unpredictable natural happenings on and over its surface - produce an infinitely complex web of causes and effects which are wholly unrepeatable. You often hear it said that we should keep alive the memory of former conflicts and atrocities to prevent them happening again. I dont think so. The descendants of farmer aggressors and victims happily visit each pther s countries with no feelings of guilt or resentment about their ancestors history. As someone said: The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there. 3 The history of the very word history is revealing. It originally meant the narrative of mythical or allegedly factual events, but gradually changed to mean the subject of the narrative. Its abbreviated form story is now used exclusively for fiction. As if there is any difference! The further we get from the past, the more historians have to speculate and fill the gaps with probabilities, theories, rhetoric and pure invention. Its entertaining stuff but lets not pretend that history is anything more than stories based on facts. Even the details of events occurring within living memory, such as the tragic deaths of Princess Diana and President Kennedy, are still hotly disputed, despite the mass of evidence that has accumulated around them, and these facts are subject to differing interpretations according to the prejudice of the commentator. 4 All history is biased. Every age, every country, rewrites history to suit its needs at worst by falsifying the record, as in the fictional world of Orwell's book 1984 or the reality of the Nanjing Massacre, or by selection and omission to justify current policies and suit the prevailing climate of ideas. This is harmless enough, but it becomes dangerous when distorted and partial history becomes the basis of propaganda to whip up nationalist or religious hatreds. 5 Yesterday has happened its a safe place to be. If you are a timid, cautious, unadventurous sort of person, take up history. You can meander round museums, or ruminate in ruins, and you won't get mugged or blown up. But life is not for the faint-hearted. We don't know what will happen tomorrow: it may bring something dreadful, it may offer something exciting and wonderful. But whatever it is, history won't help us to cope with it, In this extraordinary century, which will be quite unlike anything that has gone before, we need to focus all our faculties on the way ahead.

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