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Submitted by: Aamir Rauf Memon Submitted to: Dr.

Huma Riaz Subject: Health & Wellness Batch: 5th Semester Date: 18th October 2011 Assignment: 4 CMS #: 7690

Screening Tests for Children (Ages 2 to 12)

ROUTINE TESTS: Obesity IF AT RISK: Diabetes | High cholesterol | Lead poisoning | Tuberculosis

1. Obesity

Overweight: An overweight youth (one whose BMI is between the 85th percentile and the 94th percentile) faces additional health risks. Obese: An obese youth (at or above the 95th percentile or a BMI of greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2, whichever is lower) faces even more serious health risks.

Cholesterol Testing (Blood cholesterol or Total cholesterol)

Relatedtests: HDL-C, LDL-C, Triglycerides, Lipid profile, Cardiac risk assessment

2. Diabetes
The American Diabetes Association makes the following screening recommendation: An overweight youth who has 2 or more risk factors should be screened every 2 years for diabetes, starting at 10 years of age or the onset of puberty if that occurs earlier. Screening for diabetes often involves glucose

Glucose Testing (Blood Glucose; Urine Glucose i.e. FBS, FBG, FPG, OGTT, GTT)
Relatedtests: Urinalysis; Insulin; C-Peptide; A1c; Microalbumin; CMP; BMP

testing and sometimes a glucose tolerance test.

3. High cholesterol
Cholesterol testing is advised for overweight youths, when the individuals body mass index (BMI) is at or above the 85th percentile. High-risk children should have their first cholesterol test before 10 years of age, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, which recommends the fasting lipid profile. Children younger than 2, are too young to be tested. If the results are not worrisome, the fasting test should be given again to the high-risk child in three to five years. The childs age and stage of puberty as well as ethnicity and gender must be considered as well.

Lipid Profile (Lipid Panel, Coronary Risk Panel, Lipid Profile)

Relatedtests: Cholesterol; HDL-C; LDL-C; Triglycerides; Direct LDL-C; VLDL-C;Cardiac Risk Assessment; Lp-PLA2

4. Lead poisoning
The CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that screening be offered at least to the following:

Every Medicaid-eligible child and those children whose families are part of an assistance program at 1 year of age and again at 2 years of age

At-risk children 3 to 6 years of age who have not been previously tested Children who live in or regularly visit a house or apartment built before 1950 or before 1978 if the dwelling has been or is undergoing renovation or remodeling

Children with a playmate or sibling who has or had lead poisoning

These organizations also recommend that children of parents who work with lead be considered for screening and that immigrant, refugee, and other foreign-born children of any age be tested when they enter the United States.

Lead Testing (Blood lead test; Blood lead level; BLL)

Relatedtests: Zinc protoporphyrin; Heavy Metals

5. Tuberculosis
The infection may be detected via a tuberculin skin test and/or a blood test. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) note that more data are needed on the blood tests effectiveness in children and those with HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Although the CDC discourages routine screening of low-risk populations, students are often required to be tested before the first day of school.

Persons who have had contact with an individual who has suspected or confirmed TB and persons with or at risk for HIV infection are the CDCs highest screening priority

TB Screening Tests (Mantoux, Tuberculin Skin Test, Interferon-gamma Release Assays)

Relatedtests: AFB Smear and Culture; Sputum Culture

Screening Tests for Teens (Ages 13-18)

ROUTINE TESTS: Obesity IF AT RISK: Cervical cancer | Chlamydia & Gonorrhea | Type 2 Diabetes | High cholesterol | HIV | Tuberculosis

1. Obesity
Discussed above

2. Cervical cancer
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) currently recommend the following:

Pap smears for women younger than 21 are not recommended because the incidence of cancer in this age group is rare. False results may occur due to normal cell changes and are somewhat common.

Pap smear (: PAP Test, Papanicolaou smear; Cervical smear; Cervical/vaginal cytology)
Relatedtests: Human Papillomavirus (HPV); Trichomonas wet prep

HPV (HPV DNA, Genital Human Papillomavirus)

Relatedtests: Pap smear

3. Chlamydia & Gonorrhea

Adolescent girls The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends the following:

All sexually active females 25 years of age and younger should have a chlamydia test and gonorrhea test each year.

The CDC's 2010 guidelines also recommend annual chlamydia screening for all sexually active females in this age range and recommend annual gonorrhea screening for at-risk females under age 25. The American Academy of Pediatrics points out that although annual screening is recommended, you should get tested again after sex with any new partner. The American College of Preventive Medicine suggests the following for females:

Have your health care provider review your risk factors at each routine care appointment so you know if you are presently at risk.

Get a chlamydia test once a year if you have any of the risk factors.

If pregnant The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends the following:

If you are pregnant and 25 years old or younger, you should be tested for chlamydial infection. If you are pregnant and at increased risk, you should be tested for gonorrhea.

Adolescent boys

The CDC recommends that males who have sex with males be screened at least once a year for chlamydia and gonorrhea as well as syphilis and HIV, with screening at 3- to 6-month intervals appropriate if he or a partner has risk factors such as multiple or anonymous partners or illicit drug use.

Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis culture)

Relatedtests: Gonorrhea Gonorrhea (GC test, Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture) Relatedtests: Chlamydia

Syphilis (Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test; FTA-ABS; Syphilis detection test)
Relatedtests: Hepatitis C; HIV antibody test

4. Type 2 Diabetes
The American Diabetes Association makes the following screening recommendation:

An overweight youth who has 2 or more other risk factors should be screened every 2 years for diabetes, starting at 10 years of age or the onset of puberty.

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test or a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can be used to screen for diabetes.

5. High cholesterol
It is discussed above.

6. HIV
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends screening for this infection as follows:

Everyone 13 to 64 years old should have an HIV screening test at least once. Pregnant women should have at least one HIV test.

HIV Antibody (AIDS test, HIV serology, Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test)
Relatedtests: p24 antigen test; CD4 and CD8; HIV viral load; HIV genotypic resistance testing

7. Tuberculosis
It is discussed above. References: