Convergence and Confinement Method of Rock Support Design for tunnels

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Convergence and Confinement Method of Rock Support Design for tunnels

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Classication of tunnel supports in terms of time of installation (1)

Topic 9: Tunnel support systems. Technologies and design. The Convergence-Connement Method written by Dr. C. Carranza-Torres and Prof. J. Labuz

These series of notes have been written for the course Rock Mechanics II, CE/GeoE 4311, co-taught by Prof. J. Labuz and Dr. C. Carranza-Torres in the Spring 2006 at the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, USA.

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Common support systems used in tunnel construction Steel ribs (or steel sets) and lattice girders. Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Cast-in-place concrete. Prefabricated segmental lining (used with mechanized excavation). Note: Rockbolts do not fall into the category of support systems but into the category of reinforcement systems they will be treated separately in these series of notes.

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Bracing bars, wood or steel plates are normally installed between steel sets and lattice girders. For squeezing ground, sliding joints and sliding arches are emplaced between segments conforming the steel section.

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Description photographs in previous slide The previous slide shows photographs of tunnel sections supported with steel sets. Photograph (a) shows wood blocks used between the steel ribs and the rock (shotcrete is seen ahead of the steel sets). Photograph (b) shows steel sets failing under extreme ground loading. Photograph (c) shows heavy steel sets used while traversing a fault zone (note the bracing bars between steel sets). The photographs have been taken Dr. Evert Hoek, Rock Mechanics Consultant (www.rocscience.com/hoek/Hoek.asp) at various underground sites. (a) Drainage tunnel at Chuquicamata mine, Antofagasta, Chile. (b) Drifts at Sullivan mine, British Columbia, Canada. (c) Headrace tunnel for at Victoria Hydroelectric Scheme, Sri Lanka.

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Description photographs in previous slide The photographs in the previous slide show the use of circular steel sets (with sliding joints and shotcrete) as a mean of supporting a tunnel in highly squeezing ground at the Yacambu-Quibor project, Lara State, Venezuela. The Yacambu-Quibor tunnel is a 24 km hydraulic tunnel of mean diameter 4 m with maximum overburden of 1,200 m excavated in low strength phyllites and schists. The tunnel has been called the most difcult modern tunnel ever to excavate excavation has been taking place since the late 70s (by late 2004, 3.5 km of tunnel were still to be excavated). The photographs in the previous slide have been taken by Drs. Mark Diederichs, Brent Corkum and Carlos Carranza-Torres, during a visit to the project in 2004, together with Dr. Evert Hoek and Dr. Rafael Guevara (members of the panel of experts in the project).

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Description photographs in previous slide The photographs in the previous slide show the sequence of construction of steel sets and sliding joints used as primary support in the Yacambu-Quibor tunnel, Lara State, Venezuela. Photograph (a) shows the steel section before being bent into a curved segment (note the steel plates welded to the central ange of the section, to avoid bucking during the process of bending). Photograph (b) shows the steel section during an early stage of bending in the press. Photograph (c) shows the curved segment after further pressing (note that the oscillations of the upper and lower anges in photograph (b) have been removed). Photograph (d) shows the different segments comprising the steel section alienated for assembly. Photograph (e) shows the nal assembly of the circular steel set. Note the sliding joints installed between different segments. These photographs have been taken by Drs. Mark Diederichs, Brent Corkum and Carlos Carranza-Torres, during a visit to the project in 2004, together with Dr. Evert Hoek and Dr. Rafael Guevara (members of the panel of experts in the project).

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University of Minnesota

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Description photographs in previous slide The photographs in the previous slide show views steel sets used in the Driskos tunnel of Egnatia project, Greece (www.egnatia.gr), a tunnel excavated in weak rock. Photograph (a) shows shotcrete being applied in the vicinity of the (top heading) front. Note the forepoling and berglass reinforcement used in the front, as a means of stabilizing the front during excavation. Photograph (b) shows the complete section after the lower bench has been excavated and supported. The photographs described above have been taken by Prof. Paul Marinos (from the Department of Geotechnical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, http://users.ntua.gr/marinos/) who is a member of the Panel of Experts in the Egnatia project.

University of Minnesota

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University of Minnesota

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Description photographs in previous slide The photographs in the previous slide show views of lattice girders used in tunnels of the Egnatia project, Greece (www.egnatia.gr). During excavation, lattice girder sections are delivered in segments to the front of the tunnel, where they are assembled and installed. The photographs have been taken by Prof. Evert Hoek (and independent rock mechanics consultant, www.rocscience.com/hoek/Hoek.asp) who is a member of the Panel of Experts in the Egnatia project.

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Steel ribs and lattice girders. Technological aspects (14) To learn more about the system see: Chapter 5, Design of Steel Ribs and Lattice Girders in document Tunnels and shafts in rock, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997 (available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil). Use of arches in the construction of underground works, Document No 27, 1978, Recommendations from AFTES (available for downloading at www.aftes.asso.fr). For use of sliding joints and sling arches, see Chapter 12, Tunnels in weak rock, in document Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek (available for downloading at Hoeks Corner, www.rocscience.com). To nd supliers of the system in the market see: American Commercial Inc. (www.americancommercial.com) see pages Steel ribs, Liner Plates and Lattice Girders. Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to Suppliers and choose Support. InfoMine, Mining Intelligence and Technology. (www.infomine.com). Go to Suppliers and search for Steel Ribs, Lattice Girders, etc. (as keyword).

Description photographs in previous slide The photographs in the previous slide show the use of steel sets in tunnels. In photograph (a) steel plates are emplaced between steel ribs. In photograph (b) bracing bars are emplaced between steel ribs (in this case, a wire mesh has also been installed before shotcreting the space between rock and steel sets). The photographs were taken by Ing. Luca Perrone, Tunnel Design Engineer, Geodata Spa., Torino, Italy (www.geodata.it). Photograph (a) is at the portal for the St. Martin de la Porte tunnel (1,400 m), in France this is an access tunnel for the future Torino-Lyon railway system (to formally start construction this year). Photograph (b) is at the front of Trafc Release Tunnelling System (1,400 m), Western Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Shotcrete is frequently applied on a wire mesh bolted to the rock face (wire mesh acts as reinforcement). Steel bers are sometimes added to the shotcrete mixture to increase the strength of the shotcrete.

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University of Minnesota

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Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Technological aspects (4) To learn more about the system see: Document Standard practice for shotcrete, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993 (available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil). Shotcrete or sprayed concrete. Technological aspects (3) Sprayed Concrete Technology and Practice, Document No 1, 1974, Recommendations from AFTES (available for downloading at www.aftes.asso.fr). Design of sprayed concrete for underground support, Document No 164, 2001, Recommendations from AFTES (available for downloading at www.aftes.asso.fr). Chapter 15, Shotcrete support, in document Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek (available for downloading at Hoeks Corner, www.rocscience.com). To nd supliers of the system in the market see: American Commercial Inc. (www.americancommercial.com) see pages Hany and Aliva. Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to Suppliers and choose Support. InfoMine, Mining Intelligence and Technology. (www.infomine.com). Go to Suppliers and search for Shotcrete.

Description photographs in previous slide The photographs in the previous slide shows shotcrete used as support for an underground excavation. Photograph (a) shows a drift supported by steel sets near the front. A robotic sprayer is applying shotcrete on top of a wire mesh between steel sets. Photograph (b) and (c) show shotcrete with ber reinforcement (the bers are the steel wires embeded in the mortar). The photographs have been taken by Prof. Mark Diederichs, from the Geological Engineering Group at Queens University (www.geol.ca), also an independent consultant, at Kidd Creek Mine, near Timmins, Ontario.

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Traditionally, the use of cast in place concrete as a tunnel support method has followed standard technological practices in general civil engineering works (e.g., standards regarding material component mixtures, additives, curing, etc.). For the case of nal support, considering that the concrete structure works mostly in compression, the use of plain concrete (i.e., massive unreinforced concrete) is also a standard practice in tunnel construction see The use of plain concrete in tunnels, recommendation by AFTES (full reference in the last slide on this topic).

The photographs above show views of cast-in-place concrete support used in Tunnel Tazon (6700 m), Central Railway System, Caracas, Venezuela. The photographs have taken by Ing. Luca Perrone, Tunnel Design Design Engineer, Geodata Spa., Torino, Italy (www.geodata.it).

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University of Minnesota

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Cast-in-place concrete. Technological aspects (3) To learn more about the system see: Document Standard practice for concrete for civil works structures, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1994 (available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil). The use of plain concrete in tunnels, Document No 149, 1998, Recommendations from AFTES (available for downloading at www.aftes.asso.fr). To nd supliers of the system in the market see: Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to Suppliers and choose Support. InfoMine, Mining Intelligence and Technology. (www.infomine.com). Go to Suppliers and search for concrete.

The photographs above show views of pre-cast concrete blocks used as support in tunnels of the Light Rail System at the Minneapolis-St.Paul International airport. The photographs have been reproduced from the article Design and Construction of Minneapolis-St.Paul International Airport Precast Concrete Tunnel System, by Johnson R.M. et al., published in Precast-Prestressed Concrete Institute Journal, Vol. 48, No 5, September/October 2003.

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University of Minnesota

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Types of analyses used in the design of tunnel support (1) Analyses that focus on structural behavior e.g., structural frames with dead load, representing the action of the ground on the structure.

Pre-fabricated concrete blocks. Technological aspects (2) To learn more about the system see: Chapter 5, Construction of Tunnels and Shaftsin document Tunnels and shafts in rock, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997 (available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil). The design, sizing and construction of precast concrete segments installed at the rear of a tunnel boring machine (TBM), Document No 147, 1998, Recommendations from AFTES (available for downloading at www.aftes.asso.fr). To nd supliers of the system in the market see: Tunnel Builder (www.tunnelbuilder.com). Go to Suppliers and choose Support. American Commercial Inc. (www.americancommercial.com) see page Charcon Segment.

- From the models above, thrust, bending moments and shear forces are computed, and based on their magnitudes, the structural sections designed (e.g., given appropriate dimensions). - Main drawback of the approach: how to quantify realistically the values of qx and qy ? and in the second case, how to quantify realistically the stiffness of springs representing the ground?

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University of Minnesota

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Types of analyses used in the design of tunnel support (2) Analyses that focus on rock-support interaction e.g., pre-stressed elastic or elasto-plastic ground that unloads onto the support. Types of analyses used in the design of tunnel support (3) Rock-support interaction analyses (continuation): - Few (mechanically sound) closed-form solutions are possible in this category. When the geometry of the tunnel and support are circular, and the materials are elastic, Einstein and Schawrtz (1979) present an elegant solution of the rock support interaction problem (see, list of references). - A semi-rigorous graphical-analytical approach is the ConvergenceConnement Method of support design. The method is based on strong restrictive assumptions (see next slides), but it provides a basis for reducing a complex 3D problem (increasing support loading with tunnel face advance) into simpler 2D (plane-strain) problem see list of references. - The most powerful approach in this category is the use of numerical models (e.g., nite elements, nite difference methods). In these numerical models, the support can be represented by linear structural elements (a type of element supported by commonly used codes, that does not require discretization of the structure along its thickness) or by normal material elements (e.g., elastic-isotropic solid elements).

- The main difference between approaches in this category lies on the type of models considered for the ground and for the interface between ground and support (e.g., elastic material, elastic-perfectly plastic material, frictional or frictionless interface between ground and support, etc.).

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The Convergence-Connement Method. Generalities The Convergence-Connement Method is a 2D simplistic approach for resolving the 3D rock-support interaction problem associated with installation of support near a tunnel front. The methodology allows estimation of the load that the rock mass transmits to the liner once the supporting effect of the tunnel front on the section analyzed has disappeared (the face has moved away from the section).

Basic assumptions of the Convergence-Connement Method Tunnel is circular. Far-eld stresses are uniform (or hydrostatic). Material is isotropic and homogeneous e.g., elastic or elasto-plastic. Support is axi-symmetric e.g., shotcrete layer forms a closed ring. Effect of the tunnel front in the vicinity of the tunnel section regarded as a ctitious support pressure.

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Basic ingredients of the Convergence-Connement Method Ground Reaction Curve (GRC): The Ground Reaction curve is the graphical representation of the relationship between radial convergence and internal pressure for a circular tunnel excavated in a medium subject to uniform (hydrostatic) far-eld stresses. Support Characteristic Curve (SCC): The Support Characteristic curve is the graphical representation of the relationship between support radial displacement and uniform pressure applied to the extrados of a circular (closed) support. Longitudinal Deformation Prole (LDP): The Longitudinal Deformation Prole is the relationship between radial displacement and distance to the front for a circular tunnel excavated in a medium subject to uniform (hydrostatic) far-eld stresses.

[Note: Positive radial displacement means inward radial displacement in the Convergence-Connement Method.]

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Construction of Ground reaction curves - The elasto-plastic solutions described in the notes for Topic 6, Elastoplastic solution of a circular tunnel, can be used to construct Ground Reaction Curves. - Construction of GRC requires computing the values of radial displacement for various values of internal pressure to outline the curve in the previous slide. - For an elasto-plastic material, the radial displacement for the critical internal pressure picr (point C in the previous slide), and the radial displacement for various values of internal pressure in the interval [picr , 0] (between points C and M in the previous slide) must be computed note that the upper most point of the GRC (point C in the previous slide) has the coordinates pi = o and uw r = 0. - In the case of complex material behavior, numerical models can also be used. To construct the GRC with numerical models, radial convergence of the tunnel wall is recorded for decreasing values of internal pressure, in the interval [o , 0].

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Support characteristic curve (SCC) Construction of SCC (1) The elastic solution described in the notes for Topic 8, Elastic solution of a closed annular support, for the particular case of uniform loading, can be used to construct a Support Characteristic Curve. From those notes we saw that the radial convergence of the closed annular ring expressed as a function of the pressure applied on the extrados of the ring was us r =

2 1 s 12R ps Es 12(ts /R) + (ts /R)2

(1)

where E is the Youngs modulus and is the Poissons ratio (for an explanation of the other variables see previous slide). Therefore, the stiffness Ks of the support, that represents the slope of the elastic part of the Support Characteristic curve (see previous slide) is Ks =

[Note: Positive radial displacement means inward radial displacement in the Convergence-Connement Method.]

(2)

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max = ps

Construction of SCC (2) The relationship between the thrust Ts and the pressure ps applied on the extrados of the support is (see notes for Topic 8, Elastic solution of a closed annular support) Ts = R ps

(3)

(R tc )2 cc 1 2 R2

If the ultimate compressive strength of the material is smax , considering that the normal stress on a radial section of the support is s = Ts /t , max that makes the support then the maximum value of support pressure ps yield is (see gure in previous slide)

max = ps

where cc is the unconned compressive strength of the shotcrete or concrete [MPa] Ec is Youngs Modulus for the shotcrete or concrete [MPa] c is Poissons ratio for the shotcrete or concrete [dimensionless] tc is the thickness of the ring [m] R is the external radius of the support [m] (taken to be the same as the radius of the tunnel)

ts max R s

(4)

Note: The equations above are from Hoek and Brown (1980), Underground Excavations in Rock. The notation has been changed to make it consistent with the notation used in previous slides. For typical ranges of parameters to use in these equations see the above mentioned reference. These equations and typical parameters are also summarized in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) see list of references.

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ys S tB EB R (5) is the yield strength of the steel [MPa] is the steel set spacing along the tunnel axis [m] is half the angle between blocking points [radians] is the thickness of the block [m] is Youngs modulus for the block material [MPa] is the tunnel radius [m]

max = ps

The elastic stiffness is, SR 2 SR 4 ( + sin cos ) 2StB R 1 = + 1 + Ks Es As Es Is EB B 2 2 sin2 where B D As Is Es is the ange width of the steel set and the side length of the square block [m] is the depth of the steel section [m] is the cross-sectional area of the section [m2 ] is the moment of inertia of the section [m4 ] is Youngs modulus for the steel [MPa] (6)

Note: The equations above are from Hoek and Brown (1980), Underground Excavations in Rock. The notation has been changed to make it consistent with the notation used in previous slides. For typical ranges of parameters to use in these equations see the above mentioned reference. These equations and typical parameters are also summarized in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) see list of references.

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The parameters in the equations in the previous slide are db l Tbf Q Es sc sl is the bolt or cable diameter [m] is the free length of the bolt or cable [m] is the ultimate load obtained from a pull-out test [MN] is a deformation-load constant for the anchor and head [m/MN] is Youngs Modulus for the bolt or cable [MPa] is the circumferential bolt spacing [m] is the longitudinal bolt spacing [m]

max ps =

Note: The equations above are from Hoek and Brown (1980), Underground Excavations in Rock. The notation has been changed to make it consistent with the notation used in previous slides. For typical ranges of parameters to use in these equations see the above mentioned reference. These equations and typical parameters are also summarized in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) see list of references. Tbf sc sl

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Example of Support Characteristic Curves The advancing front The objective of the Convergence-Connement method is to determine nal load in the support section A-A , installed at time t0 , once the effect of the tunnel face has disappeared, at time tD .

The gure above is from Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) see list of references.

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Equations for the denition of LDP With reference to the diagram in the previous slide, the equation proposed by Dr. M. Panet (see list of references) based on the analysis of results from nite element axi-symmetric elastic models is 0.75 ur = 0.25 + 0.75 1 umax 0 . 75 + x/R r

2

(7)

With reference to the diagram in the previous slide, the equation proposed by Dr. E. Hoek based on the analysis of actual data and results from numerical models is x/R ur = 1 + exp max ur 1.10

1.7

(8)

The equations above are discussed in Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) see list of references.

The gure above is from Carranza-Torres and Fairhurst (2000) see list of references.

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Numerical models of a longitudinal section of circular tunnel (including the front region) can be used to compute LDPs. The material constitutive models used in these numerical models should be the same used to construct the GRCs. The most efcient way of setting up and running these models is as 2D axi-symmetric numerical models (commercial codes like Phase2 and FLAC do have an axi-symmetry option). The gure in the next slide shows: (a) an axi-symmetric mesh in the nite difference code FLAC (www.itascacg.com); (b) a 3D representation of the actual problem that the axi-symmetric mesh represents; (c)the LDP obtained from the model.

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Example of Ground-support interaction analysis Ground-support interaction analysis. Final support pressure The nal support pressure pinal is obtained from the superposition of the GRC and the SCC (see point P in the diagram below). The LDP denes the starting point of the SCC (point S, of horizontal coordinate ). This point is the horizontal projection of point A on the GRC. uA-A r The vertical coordinate of point A is pA-A and represents the ctitious i support pressure provided by the tunnel front at the time of installation of the support at section A-A .

A proper support design according to the Convergence-Connement method is one for which the ratio of the maximum support pressure pimax and the nal support pressure pinal is larger than a factor of safety, F.S., chosen for the design (normally F.S. 1.5 ).

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The Ground Reaction Curve (GRC) will be computed with Lams solution (see equation 16, in notes on Topic 3, Elastic solution of a circular tunnel), i.e., ur (pi ) = 1 (o pi ) R 2G (9)

The Support Characteristic Curve (SCC) will be computed with equations for elastic loading of a closed annular ring (see equations 8 through 10 in notes on Topic 8, Elastic solution of a closed annular support, and equations 1 through 4 in notes on Topic 9, The Convergence Connement Method). Thus the relationship between radial displacement and support pressure is, ur (pi ) = uI r +

2 1 c 12R pi Ec 12(tc /R) + (tc /R)2

(10)

and the maximum pressure that makes the ring of shotcrete (of compressive strength cc ) yield plastically is

max = ps

tc cc R

(11)

In equation (2), uI r is the horizontal coordinate of the intersection of the SCC with the horizontal axis, that will be computed in this example using the expression for Longitudinal Deformation Prole (LDP) for elastic materials proposed by Dr. Hoek see slides Equations for denition of LDP in this note, i.e.,

max uI 1 + exp r = ur

x/R 1.10

1.7

(12)

is the coordinate of the intersection of the GRC with the In the equation above, umax r horizontal axis, that for the case of elastic ground considered here is computed with equation (1) above, considering pi = 0, i.e., The purpose of this exercise is to verify that the characteristics of the shotcrete liner (thickness, strength, distance to the front) for this tunnel are appropriate. = umax r o R 2G (13)

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The following slides shows the LDP, GRC and SCC for the properties considered in this example, constructed with the equations described earlier. The following values are obtained from application of the mentioned equations and graphical construction of LDP, GRC and SCC: umax = 3.9 mm (from GRC) r

max uI = 2.65 mm (from LDP) r = 0.679 ur max uF = 1.2 mm (from LDP) r = 0.308 ur F ps = 0.32 MPa (from GRC, see Note below the diagram) max = 0.583 MPa (from SCC) ps nal ps = 0.131 MPa (from intersection of GRC and SCC)

unal = 3.39 mm (from intersection of GRC and SCC) r From the values above, the factor of safety FS for the shotcrete liner is found to be FS = Since F S

max ps 0.583 MPa = 4.45 = nal ps 0.131 MPa

nal and results to Note: The nal thrust in the liner can be computed as Tsnal = Rps nal be Ts = 0.39 MN/m.

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Rocsupport implements the Convergence-Connement Method (creation of GRC, SCC and LPD) through a user-friendly graphical interface. The code allows to perform deterministic and probabilistic analyses of tunnel support design. Rocsupport is developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com).

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For technological aspects of tunnel support systems, see all references (including web sites) mentioned in the slides. For a rigorous solution of the problem of rock-support intereaction in the case of a circular tunnel lined by an elastic closed ring in an elastic ground subject to non-hydrostatic far-eld stresses, see: Einstein, H. H. and C. W. Schwartz (1979), Simplied analysis for tunnel supports. ASCE J. Geotech. Eng. Div., 105(4):449518.

For tunnel support design and Convergence-Connement method: Hoek, E. & Brown, E. T. (1980), Underground Excavations in Rock. London: The Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Brady B.H.G. and E.T. Brown, 2004, Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining, 3rd Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hoek E., 2000, Rock Engineering. Course Notes by Evert Hoek. Available for downloading at Hoeks Corner, www.rocscience.com.

Rocsupport implements the Convergence-Connement Method (creation of GRC, SCC and LPD) through a user-friendly graphical interface. The code allows to perform deterministic and probabilistic analyses of tunnel support design. Rocsupport is developed and commercialized by Rocscience (www.rocscience.com).

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1997, Tunnels and shafts in rock. Available for downloading at www.usace.army.mil.

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Recommended references (2) The Convergence-Connement Method, Document No 170, 2002, Recommendations from AFTES (available for downloading at www.aftes.asso.fr). Panet M. (1995), Calcul des Tunnels par la Mthode de ConvergenceConnement. Press de lcole Nationale des Ponts et Chausses. Carranza-Torres, C. and C. Fairhurst (2000), Application of the convergence connement method of tunnel design to rock-masses that satisfy the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Underground Space, 15(2), 2000.

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