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HDMIV\REPORTS\SIDEFRIC Bandung 23 July 1995/KLB HDM4 project report

IMPACT OF SIDE FRICTION ON SPEED-FLOW RELATIONSHIPS FOR RURAL AND URBAN HIGHWAYS
by Dr. Karl-L. Bang, SWEROAD Indonesia TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
1.1 1.2 1.3

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES SCOPE


DEFINITIONS GENERAL SPEED-FLOW MODEL

2.

3.

3-1 3-2 3 -3 3-4

Free -flow speed Capacity Traffic flow Actual speed

4.

SIDE FRICTION
4.1 General 4-2 Identification of side frictional items 4.2.1 Basic issues 4.2.2 Selection of frictional items 4.2.3 Field data collection 4.3 Analysis of the impact of side friction 4.3.1 Weighing of side friction events 4.3.2 Definition of side friction classes 4.4 Impact of side friction on traffic performance 4.4.1 General model 4.4.2 Impact of side friction on free-flow speed 4.4.3 Impact of side friction on capacity

5.

MODELLING OF CONGESTION AND SIDE FRICTION EFFECTS IN BDM-Q


5.1 5.2

Description of the model Comparison between the HDM-Q and IHCM speed prediction models.

6.

CONCLUSIONS

APPEND1CES
A:

Illustration of side friction conditions on interurban and urban roads. Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual, Chapter 6 INTERURBAN ROADS (revised draft 23 July 1995) .

B:

1.

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND In rapidly developing, densely populated countries in Asia and elsewhere considerable resources are invested in road transport which is seen as a sector which is crucial to the development effort. In designing new roads and when maintaining and upgrading existing ones, procedures are needed for the estimation of traffic performance if best use is to be made of the resources spent for construction and maintenance. Two different tools have been developed internationally over the years to meet these demands: a) Highway capacity manuals (HCM), which emanate from the traffic engineering profession and are used for prediction of traffic performance measures (speed,delay etc) as a function of traffic interaction, geometric design and traffic control features. Highway design and maintenance models (HDM), which originate from the highway engineering profession and are primarily used for selection of pavement management strategybymeans of comparisons of road user costs and highway costs for different pavement types and treatments. Free-flow speed is predicted as a basis for these calculations, which normally doe not include "congestion effects".

b)

In HCM-models the analysis normally assumes flexible pavement in good condition, i.e. the effect of roughness is not included in the modelling. In HDM analysis on the contrary pavement condition is a major variable influencing free-f low speed, but congestion effects are normally not modelled . The effect on speed of events happening along the road, commonly described as side friction, is normally not included in HCM-models, which traditionally have originated from developed countries with a high level of motorization and low amount of road side activities. Although HDM-models often are based on field surveys in developing countries, they also fail to include this effect. Attempts to tackle both the congestion and the side friction effects have however been done in Indonesia (Bang et a1 1995) and by the World Bank (Hoban et a1 1994) as described below. 1.2 OBJECTIVES

SWEROAD has been contracted by the SwedishNational Road Administration (SNRA) to support the development of a new Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4,jointly sponsored by IBRD, ADB, ODA and SNRA) concerning modification of vehicle speeds by congestion. This assistance is to a large part based on experiences gained in the ongoing project to develop an Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM) with SWEROAD as Lead Consultant. The objective of this report is to review and discuss these results with special focus on the modelling of side friction impacts on speed and capacity for interurban road links. This includes the following parts: a) b) Summary of analysis results of side friction impacts and speedflow prediction modelling in IHCM. Discussion of speed-flow and side friction modelling in HDM-Q, and recommendations for application in HDM-4.

C)

Discussion regarding the implementation of the results in HDM-4 in the form of the HDM-Q model. SCOPE

1.3

The IHCM speed-flow prediction model assumes that the traffic performance of a road link is a function of the conditions on the road link itself, i.e. the impact of bottlenecks such as major intersections are not included. Minor road junctions and exits/entries to roadside properties are however considered. Two slightly different models have been developed in IHCM for urban and interurban conditions. The latter is used for analysis of a range of conditions from rural, with basically undeveloped roadside land use, to almost continuous roadside (strip) residential and/or commercial development typical for interurban roads in densely populated areas.

DEFINITIONS

The terminology used in this paper has been developed in the IHCM project (see Appendix B). A number of key terms are listed below: C CAPACITY (pcu/h) Maximum sustainable (stable) traffic flow over a road section under given conditions (e.g. geometric design, environment, traffic etc.) . Number of motorized vehicles passing a point on a road per unit of time, expressed in veh/h ( Q , , , , , pcu/h (Qpcu) or AADT (Annual Average Daily Traffic). Factor describing different vehicle types with regard to their impact on average light vehicle speed when added to a mixed flow as compared to that of a light vehicle (i.e for passenger cars and other light vehicles with similar chassis pce =
1-01.

TRAFFIC FLOW

pce

PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT

pcu

PASSENGER CAR UNIT

Unit for traffic flow, where the flow of different vehicle types have been converted to the corresponding flow of light vehicles using pce. Ratio of flow to capacity. DS = Qpcu/Cpcu Free-flow speed for a road segment for a predetermined set of ideal conditions (geometry,traffic flow pattern and environmental factors) .
(1) The theoretical average speed of traffic when density is zero, i - e , there are no other vehicles present.

DS FV,

DEGREE OF SATURATION BASE FREE-FLOW SPEED

FV

FREE FLOW SPEED

(2) Speed of a vehicle which is not restrained by any other vehicles (i.e. speed at which drivers feel comfortable travelling under the geometric, environmental, and traffic control conditions existing on a road segment with no other traffic) .
V

SPEED

Actual space-mean speed during prevailing geometric, environmental and traffic conditions. Carriageway width available for traffic movement, after any reduction due to parking. (Note: Paved shoulders are considered to be a part of the effective carriageway width in certain cases) . Events causing an impact on traffic performance on the road segment. Two-axle motor vehicle on four wheels with an axle spacing of 2.0 - 3.0 m used for passenger and/or goods transportation. Two-axle motor vehicle with an axle spacing of 3.5 - 5.0 m (including small buses, 2-axle trucks with six wheels).
.

W , ,

EFFECTIVE CARRIAGEWAY WIDTH

SF LV

SIDE FRICTION LIGHT VEHICLE

MHV

MEDIUM HEAVY VEHICLE LARGE TRUCK

LT

Three-axle trucks and truck combinations with axle spacing c 3 - 5 m (first to second axle). Two- or three-axle buses with an axle spacing of 5.0 - 6.0 m. Unmotorised vehicle on wheels (including tricycles, bicycles, animal drawn carriages, pushcarts etc) . Note: In IHCM unmotorised vehicles are not considered as a part of the traffic flow but as an element of side friction.

LB
UM

LARGE BUS UNMOTORISED VEHICLE

3.

GENERAL SPEED-FLOW MODEL speed-flow


l/"-l)

The single-regime model can be calibrated to mode1 relationships on most road types:

wx[l - (D/D~) (t-ll]


= =
=

l/(l-ml

Do/Dj=

[ (1-m) / ( P -m)I

where : D Dj DO P, m

Density (pcu/km) (calculated as Q/V) Density at completely "jammed" road Density at capacity Constants

for two-laneundividedroads the speed-flow relationship is often close

to linear. Figure 3:l illustrates Indonesian field data from a number of sites normalized for a standard two-lane,two-way undivided (2/2UD) urban road with carriageway 7 m. The observations are divided into two categories representing stable (marked with circles) and unstable

(marked with stars) flow conditions, where the latter are defined by having density higher than Do.
VALL vs FLOW for 212 URBAN ROADS (CLASS=P)

Flow (pculh)

Figure 3 : 1

Field observations for 2/2 UD urban roads ( I H a )

Figure 3 :2 illustrates a schematical speed-flow model for 2/2 UD roads based on these observations.

Traffic flow Q pcu/h

Figure 3:2

General speed-flow model for 2/2 UD roads (IHCM).

The speed at zero flow (point A) represents the free-flow speed (Fv) as determined by existing conditions. If there is no speed limit (or no enforcement of existing limit) the speed drops continuously as the flow increases. An almost flat portion of the speed-flowrelationship at low flow (represented by the dashed line B-C in the figure) can be observed in cases when the speed resulting from an enorced speed-limit is lower than the free-flow speed as determined by geometric and environmental conditions only. When Q increases to a value (Q,) close to capacity C at point D in the graph flow conditions change from "laminar" to "turbulentM with frequent speed changes. This results in a steeper speed drop until , , , . When the traffic capacity (C) is reached at point E at the speed V demand is near to or higher than capacity, the density will continue to increase which results in congested stop-and-go conditions with reduced flow and speed which stabilizes at Vja,. Prediction of actual speed thus requires the following steps as described in Sections 3.1 - 3 . 4 below. 1.
2.
3.
4.

Prediction of free-flow speed FV; Prediction of capacity C; Conversion of the traffic flow into passenger car units; Calculation of actual speed using the calibrated speed-flow model. FREE-FLOW SPEED

3.1

The basic equation for prediction of FV developed in IHCM is as follows : FV = (FVo+FV,) where : FV
N o

F W s Fx F W R C

Fv,
F%F

FWRC

Free-flow speed for light vehicles at actual conditions (km/h) Base free-flow speed for light vehicles at predetermined standard (ideal) conditions (km/h) Adjustment for effective carriageway width (km/h) Adjustment factor for side friction conditions Adjustment factor for road function class

Base free-flowspeeds for different roadandvehicle types obtained for Indonesian conditions are shown in Appendix B, page 4 7 Table B-1:1 . For flat terrain the vary between 81 - 58 km/h, for hilly terrain between 60 - 38 km/h. IHCM also includes procedures for determination of FV for specific horizontal and vertical alignment conditions, e.g. for specific grades. CAPACITY The basic equation for determination of capacity in IHCM is as follows: , x FC, x F C , , x F C , , C = C where : C = actual capacity (pcu/h) C , = base (ideal) capacity for predefined (ideal) conditions (pcu/h) FC, = road width adjustment

F C , , = F C , , =

directional split adjustment factor for undivided roads side friction and shoulder width adjustment factor

Base capacity values for different road and terrain types obtained for Indonesian conditions are summarized in Table 3:l below. Road type/ Terrain type Four-lane divided - Flat terrain - Rolling terrain - Hilly terrain Four-lane undivided - Flat terrain - Rolling terrain - Hilly terrain Two-lane undivided - Flat terrain - Rolling terrain - Hilly terrain Base capacity (pcu/h) 1900 1850 1800 Per lane 1700 1650 1600 3100 3000 2900 Total in both directions Comment Per lane

Table 3:l Base capacity C, for Indonesian interurban roads ( I H C M ) . 3 -3 TRAFFIC FLOW The speed-flow relationship requires the flow to be expressed in passenger carunits (pcu) throughmultiplicationofthe different parts of a mixed flow with the passenger car equivalent (pce) for each vehicle type and condition.
A set of passenger car equivalents (pce) for Medium heavy vehicles (MHV), Large buses (LB), Large trucks (LT) (including truck combinations) and Motorcycles are given in IHCM as a function of road . For 2/2 UD roads the pce type, terrain type and traffic flow (veh/h) for Motorcycles (MC) also depend on the carriageway width. For Light Vehicles (LV) pce is always 1.0. Unmotorised vehicles (UM) are not included in the traffic flow in IHCM, but are treated as a side friction events (slow-movingvehicles) as describedin Section 3 below.

Table 3 :2 below records pce for two-lane two-way undivided roads as a function of total traffic flow (veh/h). The pce values are determined by means of interpolation. 3.4 ACTUAL SPEED

When the capacity (C) and the hourly traffic flow (Q) have been determined, the degree of saturation (DS) can be calculated by division of the demand flow Q with C (both expressed in pcu):

The actual speed at given traffic, side friction and geometric low speed (FV) conditions is then determined as a function DS and free-f using Figure 3:3 (two-lane undivided roads 2/2 UD) and Figure 3:4 (four-lane roads and one-way roads 4/21.

' ( D H I ) speox ueqxruaquT clfl Z / Z uorqexnqes go aax6ap pue paads ~013-aaxggo uorqaung e se paads

HI) speox
.0 -0 P a0 2'0

an z / z
s-0
L'O P'O P'O 9'0 8'0 S* 0 5-0 L'O 6 '0 9'0 u8 - 9 ( " 1 ' P.0

xog (aad) squa~enrnbaxe3 xa6uassed


5.0 L'O 6'0 9-0 S .0 8'0 0 ' 7: L'O 9'0 6-0 2 ' 7: 8'0 u g > 0.P 0 s S-S 0-9

Z:E

aTqeL

6'7: s-Z Z' S'Z L'7: 0'2 S'Z 9.7: 7 : 9.7: 8'7: 2.7:

9.7: S'Z O'E: Sm P-7: 8'T P'Z 8'7:

OOS7: < 0007: 00s 0

LTT?H

-0 P'O S.0 -0 P-0 S'0 9'0 P' 0 u g <

L-Z S- 0.5 Z-S 5.2 5.2 L'Z 8-7:

0087: < 0027: OOL 0 OOTZ 0057: 006 0

6ur~~ox

-7:
S-T 8'7: 2-T

'
7eTd

qqpr~ Ae~a6erxxea 3W
aad

L?

81

AHW

rl/rlaA

MOT3 TE?OL

ad-h urexxa~

Figure 3 : 4

Speed as a function of free-flow speed and degree of saturation for four-lane and one-way interurban roads (IHCM).

S I D E FRICTION

In densely populated, developing countries there is often a great deal of activity at the edge of the road, both on the carriageway and on shoulders and sidewalks, which interacts with the flow of traffic, causing it to be more turbulent and adversely affecting performance as well as capacity. This effect occurs on both urban and rural roads, although the amount of activity 'and its effect is generally much greater on the former. Roadside activities in Asian cities giving rise to side friction include :

pedestrian movements, often taking place on the carriageway due to sidewalks being blocked by street trading and other activities; undisciplined stopping by small motorised public transport vehicles and human-powered pedal trishaws, which may stop anywhere to pick up and set down passengers; on-street parking, including parking and unparking activities, often assisted by parking attendants; vehicles entering and leaving roadside premises, via gates and driveways, as there is generally no control of access.

These activities either do not occur in Western countries, or their intensity is generally so small that their effects have not been directly takeninto account in any western speed-flowmodels andprocedures for the estimation of highway capacity and performance. Side friction may be taken account of indirectly however, for example in the U. S . Highway Capacity Manual (TRB,rev 1994 in which adjustment factors for capacity and service flow of multilane highways are specified according to whether a highway segment is "rural" or vsuburbanu. The "suburban" classification is intended to reflect the greater density of roadside development and the frequency of minor junctions and driveways on suburban as compared with rural roads. Though an indirect approach of this type was initially considered for Indonesian urban and suburban roads, it was found that with the greater extent and intensity of frictional activities in Indonesia, the indirect approach was inadequate to reflect the importance of side friction in capacity and traffic performance analysis.
4.2

IDENTIFICATION OF SIDE FRICTIONAL ITEMS


Basic issues

4.2.1

Consideration was given in IHCM to incorporate side friction effects indirectly in the analysis, by classify%nghighway segments in relation to a) Location: CBD Collar (the remainder of the urban area) Edge (suburban highways linking with the regional highway network) . Road function Arterial Collector Local Roadside landuse - urban: Percentage of road segment frontage with commercial, educational, residential etc. deve1opment . - interurban: Percentage of road segment frontage which had any built development. Population (only for urban areas)

b)

C)

d)

Although some of these factors were found to have a significant impact on free-flow speed, and were subsequently incorporated in the Indonesian manual, they were not sufficiently correlated with the frequency of side friction events to be able to ignore that variable in the speed-flow model.
A

further issue was whether some potential frictional items should be treated separately or considered to be part of the flow of traffic. One such item was minibuses, which form a large proportion of traffic in some cities, but which stop at any point to pick up and to set down passengers they may also cruise slowly in the hunt for passengers. Many Asian cities also have pedal trishaws which may form a large part of vehicle flow, but which also stop to serve passengers.

4.2.2

Selection of frictional items

In deciding which side-frictional items to measure, as having the potential significantly to affect capacity and performance, general observation of the characteristics of Indonesian traffic was supplemented by prior research on the effects of side friction on three urban/suburban roads in Bandung (Negara, 1991 unpublished) . This work confirmed the prior expectation that pedestrian movements, stopping publictransportvehicles,parking activities andvehicles enteringand leaving roadside premises all had significant capacity effects. Initially, these items were measured in a disaggregated way, but later were combined into fewer, broader classes as described below. The side frictional items which were finally to be included in data collection were as follows, for urban roads: 1. Pedestrian movements: Total flow of pedestrians along the highway (ped/h) Total numbers of pedestrians crossing the highway (ped/h/km) Vehjcles stopping, differentiated according to whether the stop was on the shoulder or the carriageway. (veh/h/km): Public transport minibuses ("angkutan kota") Large buses Unmotorised public transport ("trishaws") Non-public transport vehicles Parking (veh/h/km): No. of parked vehicles (on carriageway or on shoulder) No. of unparking maneuvers Access to roadside premises: No. of vehicles entering and leaving roadside premises (veh/h/km)

2.

3.

4.

For interurban roads, the following items were selected: 1.


2.

Number of pedestrians, whether walking (ped/h/km);

along or

crossing

Number of stopping and parking maneuvers (veh/h/km); Number of motor vehicle entries and exits into and out of roadside properties and side roads (veh/h/km); Flow of slow-moving vehicles (bicycles, trishaws, horsecarts, etc) (veh/h) oxcarts,. Field data collection

3. 4.

4.2.3

Overall, data were collected from 35 urban/suburban road segments in 1991-1992, and 115 interurban road segments in 1993-1994. For urban sites the data collection was based on video observation (flow and speed) and manual observation (friction) over a long base, as shown in Figure 4 - 3:l. Each half of the long base had a separate team of friction surveyors who recorded friction events manually.

Study section 2 0 0 m to 300 rn

Figure 4.2:1

Layout of the long base study section (IHCM)

For interurban roads, friction was collected in conjunction with spot speed data collection by means of pairs of pneumatics tubes. Friction data was manually collected over a long base extending about 100 m each side of the spot-speed measurement station. The side friction survey results weremanually transcribedinto computer files directlyfromthe field data sheets.
4.3

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SIDE FRICTION Weighing of side friction events

4.3.1

A number of factors were identified, initially by correlation and regression analysis for individual sites, variations in which were considered to be likely to affect the speed-flowrelationships. These were as follows:
- Carriageway width - Presence of shoulder or curb - Shoulder width and usability for traffic and parking - Presence or absence of a mediah/divider - Directional split - Side friction events (see above) - City size (a proxy for driver behavior variation) - Road function class - Road side land use

The next step in the analysis was to combine the data from all sites in each road class in one data base, and to make multiple regression analysis with space mean speed as the dependent variable. The results from this analysis were then used to adjust (normalise) the speed observation for eachindividual site to reflect the differences between each actual site and a pre-defined base case for all variables except side friction. The adjustments during the normalisation process were made to flow, thus moving the speed-flow curve to the right or to the left if the studied casewas sub-standardorover-standard respectively The normalised data was then used for multiple regression analysis of the impact of the different side friction events on light vehicle free-

flow speed as a b a s i s f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of r e l a t i v e impact o f e a c h t y p e o f e v e n t , see T a b l e 4 . 3 : 1 b e l o w .

Event type

Code

Relative weight Urban roads Interurban roads 0.6

Pedestrian flow (Walking ped/h + c r o s s i n g pedIh,200m) Vehicle s t o p s and p a r k i n g manuevres (events/h1200m) Vehicle entering and e x i t i n g roadside premises ( v e h / h , 2 00m) Slow-moving (veh/h) Table 4.3:l vehicles

PED

0.5

PSV

1.0

0.8

EEV

0.7

1.0

SMV of side

0.4 friction

0.4 events on light

Relative impact vehicle speed

4.3.2

D e f i n i t i o n o f s i d e f r i c t i o n classes

The r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e 4 . 3 : l w e r e u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e a weighted t o t a l o f s i d e f r i c t i o n e v e n t s (FRIC) a s e x e m p l i f i e d f o r i n t e r u r b a n r o a d s below: FRIC = PEDx0.6

PSVx0.8

EEVxl.0

+ SMVx0.4

To s i m p l i f y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s i d e f r i c t i o n i n t h e s p e e d - f l o w a n a l y s i s a n u m b e r o f s i d e f r i c t i o n classes w e r e d e f i n e d a s s h o w n i n T a b l e s 4 . 3 :2 a n d 4.3:3 b e l o w f o r i n t e r u r b a n a n d u r b a n r o a d s . T h e d i f f e r e n t s i d e f r i c t i o n classes a r e a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d b y m e a n s o f p h o t o g r a p h s made f r o m sites d u r i n g m a n u a l s i d e f r i c t i o n r e c o r d i n g . From t h i s material p h o t o g r a p h s h a v e been s e l e c t e d w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e a c h s i d e f r i c t i o n class f o r u r b a n a s w e l l a s i n t e r u r b a n c o n d i t i o n s a s shown i n A p p e n d i x A.

Weighted frequency of events (both sides of road) FRIC

Typical conditions

Side friction class Very low Low Medium High Very high VL L M H VH

< 50

- 149 150 - 249 2 5 0 - 350


50

> 350

Rural, agriculture or undeveloped; almost no activities Rural, some roadside buildings & activities Village, local transport & activities Village, some market activities Almost urban, market/business activities

T a b l e 4.3:2

Classification of s i d e friction f o r interurban roads


(IHCM)

Weighted frequency of events (both s i d e s of road) FRIC


< 100

Typical conditions

S i d e friction class V e r y low Low Medium High Very high VL L

100

299

300 - 4 9 9 500 - 899


> 900

Residential area, almost n o activities Residential area, some public transport etc Industrial area with some roadside shops etc Commercial area with high roadside activity Commercial area with very high roadside market activity

M
H
VH

Table 4.3:3 4.4


4.4.1

Classification of side friction forurban roads (IHCM)

IMPACT OF SIDE FRICTION ON TRAFFIC PERFORMANCE


General model

Side friction events have a negative impact on traffic performance over the whole flow range as discussed below: a) Im~acton free-flow sweed The desired speed at free-flow conditions is a function of road alignment, cross section and road type as well as environmental conditions regarding type of area and roadside activities. Side friction events such as stopping vehicles, pedestrians etc. reduce the desired speed in order for the driver to maintain a safe speed with consideration tothe risk for unexpected roadway blockage and conflicts with other traffic elements which may suddenly appear. This effect is illustrated with a free-flow V when the speed-flow curve speed reduction from FV, to F :1 intercept with the Y-axis moves from A, to A in Figure 4 - 4 below. Imwact on cawacitv As the speed is reduced due to traffic interaction when the flow increases, the impact of side friction events on speed for reasons of traffic safety is gradually reduced. The side friction however reduces the capacity of the road due to factors such as:
-

temporary reduction of carriageway width at parking and stopping manuevres change from un-interrupted to partially interrupted flow conditions due to crossing conflicts with pedestrians, entry of vehicles from minor roads and roadside premises etc.

This effect is illustrated in Figure 4.4:l by a reduction in capacity from C, to C, and a corresponding drop of the speed at , ~ , , , to V , , , . capacity from V The side friction impacts on free-flow speed and capacity thus cause a reduction of speed over the entire flow range as well as a reduction of capacity. This is illustrated in Figure 4.4:1 by a shift of the speed-flow curve from A,- Do - E, to A - D - E. Since the generalized speed curves in IHCM as shown in Figures 3:3-4 above show the

relationship between free-flow speed, degree of saturation (DS = Q/C) , and actual speed, they are able to cope with both these effects without changing the shape of the generalized model.
Speed Kmlh

Legend : Figure 4.4:1


4.4.2

C Co Traffic flow pculh Curve A, - D, - E, : No side friction Curve A - D - E: High side friction

Impact of side friction on speed and capacity

Impact of side friction on free-flow speed

The normalised data base described in Sections 3 and 4.1-3 above was used to analyze the impact of side friction events on free-f low speed. Since it was found that the impact was correlated with effective shoulder width, this variable was also included in the resulting Table 4.4:l for interurban roads below. The impact of side friction in the most severe case for 2/2 UD interurban roads shown in the table reduces free-flow speed with a factor 0.76, e.g. a free-flow speed at 65 km/h at no side friction is reduced by 16 km/h to 49 km/h at very high side friction and narrow shoulders. Similar analysis for 2/2 UDurban roads showedthatthe free-flow speed was reduced from 44 km/h at no friction to 26 km/h at very high side friction as defined for urban conditions, i .e. by 18 km/h or a factor 0.59. For four-lane roads the observed side friction impact was slightly less, with a small further reduction also observed due to the existence of a median.
4.4.3

Impact of side friction on capacity

Speed-flowdensityregressionsusing the single-regimemodel described in Section 3 above was applied for analysis of the impact of side friction on capacity. Table 4.4:2 shows the resulting side friction adjustment factor for different side friction classes for interurban roads. For urban roads the capacity reduction generally was 30% higher

in each friction class (i.e. a reduction factor 0.90 for interurban roads becomes 0.87 for urban roads).
Road type Side friction class (SFC) Adjustment factor for side friction and shoulder width (km/h)

------------------------

Effective average shoulder width Ws (m)


<1.0 m 1-2 m 1-00 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.86 1-00 0.97 0.95 0.90 0.85 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.88 0.82 >2 m 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.93

Four-lane divided
4/2 D

Very low Low Medium High Very high Very low Low Medium High Very high Very low Low Medium High Very high

1.00 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.82 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.81 1.00 0.96 0.91 0.85 0.76

Four-lane undivided 4/2 UD

Two-lane undivided 2/2 UD

Table 4.4 : 1

Adjustment factor FFV,, for the influence of side friction and shoulder width on the free-flow speed of light vehicles, interurban roads (IHCM).
Side frict ion class Adjustment factor for side fricC , , tion F Shoulder width W ,
< -

Road type

0.5

1.0 1-00 0.97 0 :94 0.91 0.88 0.99 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.83

1.5 1.01 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.93 1-00 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.88

> 2.0

4/2 D

VL

0.99 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.83 0.97 0.93 0.88 0.84 0.80

1.03 1-01 1.00 0.99 0.97 1.02 1-00 0.98 0.95 0.93

L M H
VH
VL

2/2 UD 4/2 UD

L M H VH

Table 4.4 :2

Adjustment factor F C , , for the influence of side friction on capacity, interurban roads (IHCM).

5.
5.1

MODELLING OF CONGESTION AND SIDE FRICTION EFFECTS IN HDM-Q DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL

The World Bank Highway Design and Maintenance Model is widely used for the evaluation of road maintenance and improvement options. A significant limitation of the current standard model (HDM-111)is that it does not take account of speed reduction caused by traffic interactions as the flowincreases. Additional features have therefore been suggested (Hoban et a1 1994) to allow these types of analysis. The expanded model is known as HDM-Q, which is designed primarily for analysis of interurban roads. The generalised speed-f low model used in HDM-Q is shown in Figure 5.1: 1 below.
Speed

t
SI

. s3 S2

Smin

-I
I I I

Q1 (Q 1 = XQ1 x QCAP)

42 (42 = XQ2 x QCAP)

QCAP

Flow

Figure 5.1:l

Speed-flow model used in HDM-Q (Hoban et a1 1994)

The main parameters used in HDM-Q are as follows:


-

QCAP: XQ1 & XQ2 S1, S2, S3: SMIN :


CV:

SJAM: XFRI:

Road capacity 2-way (pcu/h) Default values see Table 5.1:l below Free speed (function of desired speed, road width, grades, curves & roughness determined for each vehicle type using the HDM-I11 model. Speed of a typical slow vehicle (15thpercentile speed for the slowest vehicle class) Coeff. of variation of speeds for the above vehicle class (standard deviation divided by mean) . Default : 0.15. Absolute minimum average speed under heavy traffic condition. Default see Table 5.1:l. Side friction effect: 0 - 1 (from high to low level), regarding impact on s ~ e e d (i.e not capacity) .

Road Type

Width

xQ1
0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4

XQ2

QCAP

SJAM
kmh -

(of traveled way) Single Lane Road Intermediate Road Two Lane Road Wide Two Lane Road Four Lane Road upto4m 4 to 5.5 m 5.5 to 9 m 9to 12m 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.95 600 1800 2800 3200 8000

10 20

25
30 40

12 m or wider

XQl = No volume effect on speed (proportion of capacity) XQ2 = Speeds converge (proportion of capacity) QCAP = Road capacity, 2-way (pch) SJAM = Jam speed at capacity (kmlh)

Table 5.1:l

Speed-flow-capacityparameters in HDM-Q (Hoban et a1 1994)

5.2

COMPARISON OF THE HDM-Q AND IHCM SPEED PREDICTION MODELS

In principal the speed-flow models proposed for 2/2 UD roads in IHCM and HDM-Q are very similar. Some modifications to the HDM-Q model are discussed below which would lead Co better compatibility between the two models and improve the speed-prediction model in HDM-Q. a) Free-flow sweed HDM-111 uses a mechanistic model for the determination of freeflow speed as a function of alignment, cross section and roughness. This method is best suited for analysis of specific segments for which these data is available. For longer road segments the IHCM approach based on general terrain types might low speed, except be more suitable for estimation of base free-f that the impact of roughness has to be added. IHCM also considers road function class and landuse as adjustment factors. In IHCM the side friction adjustment factor is a function of shoulder width, in HDM-Q not. Furthermore it is related to actual

event frequency, which even if it is not measured can be estimated with the help of standard photographs (Appendix A) and descriptions for different friction classes as shown above.

HDM-Q only considers the effect of roadwidth, IHCM also considers the effect of side friction/shoulder width and directional split on capacity. IHCM uses pce regarding the impact on speed which are determined as function of traffic flow level expressed in veh/h.

IHCM uses a relationship between speed and degree of saturation, which has advantages in terms of generalisation of the model. HDM-Q uses a set of linear models to describe the speed-flow relationship. In IHCM a linear model is used for two-lane roads, with the breakpoint 92 and the corresponding speed SJAM determined as function of free-flow speed. For multi-lane roads IHCM uses the single-regime model with parameters determined as a function of free-flow speed and capacity. HDM-Q applies a constant speed-adjustment factor due to sidefriction over the entire speed-flowrange. In IHCM the adjustment is made to free-flow speed and to capacity, which also leads to a side friction impact over the whole range degree of saturation.

6.

CONCLUSIONS

Activities at the roadside can always be expected to affect the capacity of a highway and the speed at which it operates. However, in many developing Asian countries, the range and intensity of such side friction is so great that these activities need to be incorporated explicitly into procedures for calculation of speed and capacity of road links. Empirical studies carried out in the Indonesian HCM project (IHCM)have shown that side friction may reduce free-f low speed on twolane two-way interurban roads with up to 16 km/h, and capacity with up to 20 per cent in comparison with very low friction conditions. It is therefore evident that the impacts of side friction need to be taken into account in geometric design analysis as well as in pavement management analysis for many countries in Asia and elsewhere. The experience from Indonesia (IHCM) has shown how side friction effects can be incorporated in general speed-flowmodels for different road types in urban as well as interurban areas. The HDM-Q model also has this capability, and can already in its present version be calibrated to model most of the factors identified in IHCM with a certain amount of "manipulation".A number of suggestions have however been made for revision of the HDM-Q model, which would improve its speed prediction capability and make it easier to calibrate for local conditions. The HDM-Q model should therefore be a workable base for the ISOHDM project .

REFERENCES

1.

Bang, K-L; Bergh T. and Marler N.W. Highway Capacity Manual Part I Urban Roads. Directorate General of Highways Indonesia NO. 09/T/BNKT/1993, Indonesia, January 1993. Bang, K-L; Carlsson A. Interim Manual for Interurban Roads and Motorways. Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual Project, Bandung. Directorate General of Highways Indonesia August 1994 (revised July 1995). TRB, Highway Capacity Manual (Revision of 1985 edition). Transportation Research Board; Washington D.C. 1994. Hoban, C.J.; William Reilly, Archondo-Callao. Economic Analysis of Road Projects with Congested Traffic. Infrastructure & Urban Development Department, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. USA December 1994. Bang, Karl-L.; Carlsson, Arne; Palgunadi. Development of speedflow relationships for Indonesian rural roads using empirical data and simulation. Paper 950397 presented at TRE3 Annual Meeting, Washington D.C. January 1995 (under publication). Bang, Karl-L.; Harahap, Gandhi; Speed and congestion effect modelling in Indonesia. Proceedings ofthe ISOHDM Workshop, Kuala Lumpur November 1994. Easa, S .M;May A.D; Generalized Procedure for Estimating Singleand Two-Regime Traffic-Flow Models. Transportation Research Records 772; Washington D.C. USA 1980.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

Figure A-4:3

Medium side friction on an interurban road

Figure A-4:4

High side friction on an interurban road


46

F i g u r e 6 . V e r y Low S i d e F r i c t i o n o n An U r b a n R o a d

Figure 7.

Low S i d e ~ r i c t i o n o n An U r b a n R o a d

69

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