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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0333-5319544, 0313-7891989 e-mail: shahzad2sunny@hotmail.com website: www.onlineislamabad.

com BIOLOGY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 2) ============================================================

THEORY
Question: What are the necessary steps that biologists take to solve a biological problem? i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Recognition of biological problem Observation Hypothesis formulation Deduction Experimentation Summarization of results (create tables, graphics etc) Reporting the Results

Recognition of biological problem: A biological problem is a question related to living organisms. Observation: Observations are made with the help of five senses. Observations may be both qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative observations are considered more suitable. Formulation of Hypothesis: The tentative explanation of the observations is called hypothesis. It may be considered as a proposition that might be true. Following are the characteristics of a good hypothesis: i) It should be a general statement ii) It should be a tentative idea iii) It should agree with available observations iv) It should be kept as simple as possible v) It should be testable and potentially falsifiable. Deductions: Deductions are the logical consequences of hypothesis Experimentation: Biologists perform experiments to see if hypothesis is true or not. After experiment incorrect hypothesis are rejected and true ones are accepted. Summarization of Results: Biologists gather actual quantitative data from experiments. This data is then compared statistically. This helps in drawing conclusion. Reporting the Results:
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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0333-5319544, 0313-7891989 e-mail: shahzad2sunny@hotmail.com website: www.onlineislamabad.com BIOLOGY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 2) ============================================================

Biologists publish their findings in scientific journals and books. Publishing of Results is an essential part of scientific method. It allows other people to verify the results or to apply the knowledge. >> Question: Give an example of solving biological problem keeping in view the study of malaria. Introduction: In ancient times (2000 years ago), physician were familiar with malaria. They describe it as a disease of chills and fevers with recurring attacks. They observed that this disease was common in low, marshy areas. The word Malaria was derived from two Latin words: i) Mala means bad. ii) Aria means air. So, the meaning of malaria becomes bad air. Quinine from cinchona bark was an effective remedy for malaria. Observations: In 1878, a French army physician Laveran began to search for the cause of malaria. He observed the blood of malarial patients under microscope and found some tiny creatures in it. His discovery was not believed by other biologists. Two year later same results were drawn by another physician and three years later same observations were found third time. The organism was given the name Plasmodium. By that i) ii) iii) iv) time, there were four major observations about malaria. Malaria and marshy areas have some relation Quinine is an effective drug for treating malaria Drinking the water of marshes does not cause malaria. Plasmodium is seen in the blood of malarial patients.

Hypothesis: Regarding malaria the hypothesis made was: Plasmodium is the cause of malaria Deduction: Regarding malaria deduction was made from above hypothesis is: If plasmodium is the cause of malaria, then all person ill with malaria should have plasmodium in their blood. Experiment: Then blood of 100 malarial patients was examined under microscope. The results showed that all malarial patients had plasmodium in their blood. While 7 out of 100 healthy persons also had plasmodium in their blood.
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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0333-5319544, 0313-7891989 e-mail: shahzad2sunny@hotmail.com website: www.onlineislamabad.com BIOLOGY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 2) ============================================================

In the healthy people plasmodium was in incubation period (The period between the entry of parasite in host and the appearance of symptoms.) The result was convincing and proved the hypothesis.

How Plasmodium enter in Man: Now next step was that how plasmodium gets into the blood of man? In this regard biologists were having following observations: i) Malaria is associated with marshes ii) Drinking water of marshes does not cause malaria. In this regard, A.F.A King made his observations in 1883. His observations were: i) ii) iii) People who slept outdoors in open spaces suffered more from malaria than those who slept indoors. People who slept under mosquito nets did not suffer from malaria. Person who slept near smoky fire also did not suffer form malaria.

On the basis of these observations King suggested a hypothesis: Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and so are involved in the spread of malaria. For this hypothesis, following deductions were made: i) Plasmodium should be present in mosquitoes ii) A mosquito can get Plasmodium by biting a malarial patient Experiment of Ronald Ross: To test these deductions Ronald Ross, a British army physician performed his experiments in 1880s in India. He allowed a female Anopheles mosquito to bite a malarial patient. He killed the mosquito some days later and found Plasmodium multiplying in mosquitos stomach. Next step was to allow the infected mosquito to bite a healthy person. But this was a risky work as that healthy person can be suffered from malaria. So he selected sparrows for his experiment. He allowed a female Culex mosquito to bite a malarial sparrow. Then he allowed those mosquitoes to bite a healthy sparrow. The healthy sparrow also suffered from malaria. In this way he proves that plasmodium is the real cause of malaria and they are transmitted by mosquitoes. In 1898, an Italian biologists performed same experiments on human beings and find the same results. This confirmed that mosquitoes are involved in the spread of this disease. Theory: When a hypothesis has been proved by consistent results it becomes a theory. Scientific Principal or LAW:
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Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0333-5319544, 0313-7891989 e-mail: shahzad2sunny@hotmail.com website: www.onlineislamabad.com BIOLOGY FOR 9TH CLASS (UNIT # 2) ============================================================

When a theory can explain many natural phenomena and consistently supported by experiments, and also universally accepted by scientists it becomes a scientific principal or Law. Question: Why female mosquito is involved in spreading malaria? Female mosquitoes need blood of mammals or birds for the maturation of their eggs. Question: Which mosquito is involved in spreading the dengue fever? Aedes mosquito Question: Define and describe the terms data organization and data analysis in the biological method? Data Organization: Scientists collect and organize data to formulate and test the hypothesis. It is very important to describe data collection methods before experiments as it ensures the quality of experiment. Data is organized in different formats like graphics, tables, flow charts, maps and diagrams. Data Analysis: The process of data analysis prove or disprove a hypothesis. It is done through statistical methods. i.e. ratio and proportion Data analysis is proved very fruitful in publishing the reports. Question: Quantitative observations are better in biological method. How? Quantitative observations are considered more accurate because the former are invariable and measurable and can be recorded in terms of numbers. Question: Justify mathematics as an integral part of the scientific process? Major biological problems in which knowledge of mathematics is used include gene finding, protein structure, and protein-protein interactions etc. Bioinformatics refers to the computational and statistical techniques for the analysis of biological data. =*=*=*=*=

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