You are on page 1of 5

# 28

## Elastic analysis of multilayered thick-walled spheres under external load

A.V. Borisov
Branch Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Technical University) in Smolensk, Energeticheskiy proezd. 1, 214013 Smolensk, Russia, E-mail: borisowandrej@yandex.ru 1. Introduction Working on issues of walking of anthropomorphic mechanisms, the author had to meet a problem of simulation of mobile articulations of kinematic links of devices, in the form of multilayer elements [1-4]. This research was conducted by a trial-and-error way. However, in the process of models complication the need of their thoretical description arose. The stuff set forth in the given article, is a theoretical generalization of models of a hip joint modelled with a different degree of accuracy, with allowance for its structure being multilayer and multicomponent [5-11]. Thus the solution of the given problem has an independent nature and can be applied to the description of any multilayer structures in compliance with the suppositions, used in the given model. Further on, being set the concrete values of the number of the spheres, it is possible to receive partiular solutions. Each solution for a definite model is complete and they can be directly used performing calculations in actual situations arising in practice. The object of the work is the study of stress and deformations distribution in a system of thick-walled spheres under external pressure. The analytical solution, as presented, is obtained for the first time and is complete. 2. Main equations and dependences Let us create a universal mathematical model for different arbitrary finite number of layers, of which the system of spheres consists. Let us then consider, as the first approaching, a model a hollow sphere, with the outer radius R1 and internal radius R2 , under external pressure p1 and internal pressure p2 (Fig. 1). L.D. Landau and .. Livschitz  defining deformation of a hollow sphere give the solution of the problem for a single-layer shell. They obtained components of strain tensor in spatial spherical coordinates
u rr = a 2b r3 u = u = a + b r3

R1

p2 p1

Fig. 1 Model of a single-layer sphere under external and internal pressure The constants a and b are determined by them from boundary conditions: rr = p2 at r = R2 and rr = p1 at r = R1 :
a=
3 1 2 p1 R13 p2 R2 R3R3 ( p p ) 1 + , b = 1 23 1 3 2 (3) 3 3 E 2E R2 R1 R2 R1

The authors limited themselves to this solution. But it opens a way to the solution of more complex problems, and includes the possibility to describe a model, analytically offered by us. On the basis of the resuls offered by L. D. Landau and .. Livschitz it is possible to present the formulas of stress distribution on the depth of spherical layer for the considered single-layer sphere.

(1)

rr =

R3 R3 1 3 1 3 2 ( p1 p2 ) p R 3 p2 R2 3 1 1 R R1 r
3 2

## and radial pressure (voltage, stress)

E [(1 )urr + 2u ] = rr = (1 + )(1 2 ) E 2E b a = 1 2 1+ r3

(4) 3 3 R1 R2 1 3 3 = 3 ( p1 p2 ) p1 R1 p2 R2 + 2r 3 R2 R13

where and are angular components of stress ten(2) sor. Similarly, substituting Eq. (3) in Eq. (1) we receive components of the strain tensor.

29
urr =
3 3 3 p1 R13 p2 R2 1 2 1 R1 R2 ( p1 p2 ) 1 + 3 3 E E R13 R13 R2 r3 R2 3 p R3 p2 R2 1 2 + u = u = 1 13 (5) 3 E R2 R1 3 3 1 R1 R2 ( p1 p2 ) 1 + + 3 3 2E R13 r R2

where rri is radial component of the stress tensor of isphere, i and i are angular components of the stress tensor of i-sphere. Similarly we receive the formulas for components of the strain tensor.
urri = pi Ri3 pi +1 Ri3+1 1 2 i Ei Ri3+1 Ri3 1 2 i + Ei

Thus, the first approaching for one sphere under the load is reviewed. Further on there is a problem of extention of the given consideration on the greater, arbitrary, finite number of shells (envelopes) n . 3. Method and construction of the solution Let us consider n shells and a sphere inside (Fig. 2). The outer shell is under external pressure p1 . Under pressure there is a deformation of the outer shell, it changes its shape, contracts, taking on an inner shell p2 . The inner shell takes on the outer shell with same pressure modulus p2 . In its turn, the inner shell, under pressure p2 takes on the following shell and so on until the pressure is transmitted from the last shell to the sphere. It is located inside under pressure pn . The sphere takes on the last shell with the same pressure.

## Ri3 Ri3+1 ( pi pi +1 ) 1 + i r 3 Ri3+1 Ri3

Ei

u i = u i +

p R3 p R3 = i i 3 i +13 i +1 Ri +1 Ri

(7)

## Ri3 Ri3+1 ( pi pi +1 ) 1 + i r 3 Ri3+1 Ri3

2 Ei

where u rri is radial component of the strain tensor of isphere, ui and ui are angular components of the strain tensor of i-sphere. Supposing in formula (7) r = Ri , (i = 2, 3, , n ) where Ri is internal radius of the outer and the inner spheres, from radial components of the strain tensor we derive a system of n equations, linear in relation to the unknowns of pressure pi (i = 2, 3, , n ). We receive the system of equations which was written in supposition that all the spheres have identical elastic modules.
3 3 p1 R13 p2 R2 1 2 R1 ( p1 p2 ) 1 + = 3 3 3 E E R2 R13 R2 R1 3 3 3 = p2 R2 p3 R3 1 2 R3 ( p2 p3 ) 1 + , 3 3 3 3 E E R3 R3 R2 R2 3 3 3 p2 R2 p3 R3 1 2 R2 ( p2 p3 ) 1 + = 3 3 3 3 E E R3 R2 R3 R2 p R 3 p R 3 1 2 R 3 ( p p ) 1 + 4 3 4 4 4 = 3 3 , 3 3 3 3 E E R4 R3 R4 R3 (8) p R 3 p R 3 1 2 R 3 ( p p ) 1 + 3 3 4 4 4 3 33 = 3 3 3 E E R3 R4 R4 R3 3 3 3 = p4 R4 p5 R5 1 2 R5 ( p4 p5 ) 1 + , 3 3 3 3 E E R4 R4 R5 R5 3 3 3 pn 1 Rn 1 pn Rn 1 2 Rn 1 ( pn 1 pn ) 1 + = 3 3 R3 R3 E E Rn Rn n n 1 1 1 2 = pn E

Fig. 2 Model of a n-layer sphere under external and internal pressure Let us copy the Eqs. (4) and (5) of stress distribution on the depth of each spherical layer for the considered multilayer sphere

rri =

## Ri3 Ri3+1 3 3 p R p R ( pi pi +1 ) i +1 i +1 3 i i r i = i = (6) Ri3 Ri3+1 1 3 3 = 3 + p R p R p p i i i +1 i +1 i +1 ) 3 ( i 2 Ri +1 Ri3 r

1 3 Ri +1 Ri3

R1

Solving this system of equations we find (as and E are identical for all the spheres), that p2 = p3 = = pn = p1 , i.e. for a homogeneous sphere. It is a natural outcome that proofs the mathematical description of the model. In reality, elastic modules of materials E and are different. It will be taken into further consideration of system (8) of equations with the help of in-

30 dexes. For the outer shell there is index 1, for inner - 2, and so on, and for the sphere - n . Then the system of Eqs. (8) becomes
3 3 p1 R13 p2 R2 1 2 1 R1 ( p1 p2 ) 1 + 1 = 3 3 3 E1 E1 R2 R13 R2 R1 3 3 3 = p2 R2 p3 R3 1 2 2 R3 ( p2 p3 ) 1 + 2 , 3 3 3 3 E2 E2 R3 R3 R2 R2 3 3 3 p2 R2 p3 R3 1 2 2 R2 ( p2 p3 ) 1 + 2 = 3 3 3 3 E2 E2 R3 R2 R3 R2 3 p R 3 p R 3 1 2 R4 ( p3 p4 ) 1 + 3 , 4 4 3 = 3 3 3 3 3 3 E3 E3 R4 R4 R3 R3 3 3 3 p3 R3 1 2 3 R3 ( p3 p4 ) 1 + 3 p4 R4 = 3 3 3 3 E3 E3 R3 R4 R4 R3 3 3 R 3 p p5 ) 1 + 4 = p4 R4 p5 R5 1 2 4 5 ( 4 , 3 3 3 3 E4 E4 R4 R4 R5 R5 p R 3 p R 3 1 2 n n n 1 n 1 n 1 3 3 E Rn Rn n 1 1 3 1 2 n Rn 1 ( pn 1 pn ) 1 + n 1 = pn 3 3 E En Rn Rn 1 n 1

(9)

p2 ( d1c1b1 + d3c2b2 d2 c1a1 d2 c2 a2 ) + + p3 ( d3c2 a2 d3c2b2 ) = = p1 ( d1c1b1 d1c1a1 ) , p d c a d c b + 2( 2 2 2 2 2 2) + p ( d c b + d c b d c a d c a ) + 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 + p4 ( d4 c3 a3 d4 c3b3 ) = 0, p3 ( d3c3 a3 d3c3b3 ) + + p4 ( d3c3b3 + d5 c4b4 d4 c3 a3 d4 c4 a4 ) + + p d c a d c b = 0, 5( 5 4 4 5 4 4) pn 1 ( dn1cn 1an1 dn1cn1bn1 ) + + pn ( dn1cn 1bn1 dn cn1an1 + an ) = 0

(11)

The system of Eqs. (11) can be presented in a more compact view if we introduce the following notations
ei = d i 1ci 1bi 1 + d i +1ci bi d i ci 1ai 1 d i ci ai f i = d i ci 1ai 1 d i ci 1bi 1 g i = d i ci ai d i ci bi hi = d i 1ci 1bi 1 d i ci 1ai 1 + ai

## Let us introduce the following notations:

1 2 i 1+i = ai , = bi , Ei Ei (i = 1, 2, 3, , n ).
R = di ,
3 i

1 = ci 3 Ri +1 Ri3

## where i = 1, 2, , n . The system (11) becomes

p2 e2 + p3 f 3 = p1 g1 , p2 g 2 + p3e3 + p4 f 4 = 0 , p3 g 3 + p4 e4 + p5 f 5 = 0, pn1 g n1 + pn hn = 0.

## The system of equations (9) becomes

c1a1 ( p1d1 p2 d 2 ) d1c1b1 ( p1 p2 ) = = c2 a2 ( p2 d 2 p3 d 3 ) d 3c2b2 ( p2 p3 ), c a ( p d p d ) 3 3 2 2 2 2 d 2 c2b2 ( p2 p3 ) = = c3 a3 ( p3 d 3 p4 d 4 ) d 4 c3b3 ( p3 p4 ), c a ( p d p d ) 4 4 3 3 3 3 d 3c3b3 ( p3 p4 ) = = c4 a4 ( p4 d 4 p5 d 5 ) d 5 c4b4 ( p4 p5 ), c a ( p d p d ) n n n1 n1 n1 n1 ( d c b p n1 n1 n1 n1 pn ) = pn an .

(12)

## Let us record determinant of the system (12)

e2 g2 f3 e3 g3 0 0 f4 e4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 hn

(10)

1 = 0
0

f5 0

(13)

g n1

## 1 by replacing of the column drawn up with factors at the

corresponding unknown, with the column drawn up with the free members of the system of equations
p1 g1 0 f3 e3 g3 0 0 f4 e4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 hn

## Let us set down the determinants received from

As pressure applied to the outer sphere p1 is known, we shall copy the system of Eqs. (10), linear in relation to the unknowns of pressure p2 , p3 , , pn in the standard form.

2 =

0 0

f5 0

g n 1

31
e2 g2 p1 g1 0 0 0 f3 e3 g3 0 f3 e3 g3 0 0 f4 e4 0 0 f4 e4 0 p1 g1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 hn 0 0 0 hn 0 0 0 hn

4. Conclusions 1. In the given work a method of solution of a problem of defining the component of stress and deformation tensor for the system of spheres with different properties of materials is offered for the first time. 2. The given approach allows to receive analytically the values of pressure on the limits and inside the spheres, and also stress and pressure tensors. 3. Theoretical findings obtained in the given study may be used in practice. References 1. Borisov, A.V. Approximated mathematical models of deformed joints of the person and numerical evaluation of arising deformations. -Scientific works of international conference of MADI (GTU), MSHA, LNAU scientists June 17-18, 2008. /MADI (GTU), MSHA, LNAU. -Moscow Lugansk, 2008, v.4. p.160-171 (in Russian). 2. Borisov, A.V., Chigarev, A.V. Calculation of the sizes of irreciprocal demolition of two ellipsoids of a software to the limit of a contact.-Mechanika 2010. Proceedings of the 15th international conference. April 8-9, 2010 Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2010, p.116-121. 3. Borisov, A.V., Chigarev, A.V. Problems of strength at loading multilayer bones of the person. -Mechanika 2009. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference. April 2-3, 2009 Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2009, p.76-79. 4. Borisov, A.V. Simulation of a Locomotorium of The Person and Application of the Obtained Outcomes for Model Building of the Anthropomorphic Robot. -Moscow: Sputnik +, 2009. -212p. (in Russian). 5. Branas, A., Vaiiulis, D. Determination of stresses and strains in two-layer mechanically inhomogeneous pipe subjected to internal pressure at elastic plastic loading. -Mechanika. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2009, Nr.6(80), p.12-17. 6. Chakrabardty, J. Theory of Plasticity. -Oxford: Published by Elsevier Butterworth- Heinemann. Jordan Hill, 2006.-882p. 7. Ghannad, M., Zamani Nejad, M., Rahimi, G. H. Elastic solution of axisymmetric thick truncated conical shells based on first-order shear deformation theory. -Mechanika. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2009, Nr.5(79), p.13-20. 8. Malinin, N.N. The Applied Theory of Plasticity and Creep. -Moscow: shinostrojenije, 1975.-399p. (in Russian). 9. tlin, M., Kaznkin, E., Kznkin, V. Mechanics of initial dot contact. -Mechanika. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2009, Nr.2(76), p.20-23. 10. idonis, I. Method for a direct calculation of stressstrain state parameters at normal right-angled sections of structural members given curvilinear stress diagrams. -Mechanika. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2009, Nr.3(77), p.27-33. 11. Zilinskaite, A., Ziliukas, A. General deformation flow theory. -Mechanika. -Kaunas: Technologija, 2008, Nr.2(70), p.11-15. 12. Landau, L.D., Livschitz, .. A Theory of Elastity.

3 = 0
0 e2 g2 4 = 0 0 e2 g2

f5 0 0 0

g n1 0 0 0

f5 0

(14)

g n 1 0 0 0

p1 g1 0 0 0

5 = 0
0

g n1

e2 g2 f3 e3 g3 0 0 f4 e4 0 0 0 0 0 0 p1 g1 0 0 0

n = 0
0

f5 0

g n1

Further on, solving the given linear system of Eqs. (12), consisting of n 1 equations with n 1 unknowns, using the written out determinants (13) and (14), under the formulas of Cramer, we discover unknowns of pressure p2 , p3 , , pn .
p2 p3 p4 p5 pn

2 1 = 3 1 4 = 1 = 5 1
= =

(15)

n 1

Substituting the found values of pressure on intermediate shells and the sphere in Eqs. (6) and (7), we receive stress and deformations distributions inside the outer shell, the inner shell, the following shell and so on up to the sphere accordingly. In view of alwardness of received expressions, they are not given here. Thus, the stress and pressure tensors for the offered system of shells and a sphere inside are obtained. Therefore, the considered problem is solved.

32 -Moscow: Nauka, 1987.-246p. (in Russian). A.V. Borisov DAUGIASLUOKSNI STORASIENI SFER VEIKIAM IORINE APKROVA TAMPRUS TYRIMAS Rezium Praktikoje danai tenka analizuoti sistemas, kuriose naudojami daugiasluoksniai objektai su skirting savybi sluoksniais. Straipsnyje tiriamos deformacijos ir tempiai sistemoje, sudarytoje i bet kurio skaiiaus strorasieni sfer. Kiekviena sfera apibdinama savo tamprumo moduliu, be to, kiekviena sfera su gretima sfera lieiasi visu paviriumi. is udavinys sprendiamas analitikai. Nustatytos slgio pasiskirstymo sfer paviriuose priklausomybs bei deformacij ir tempi tenzoriai sfer viduje. Gauti teoriniai rezultatai turi svarbi praktin reikm. A.V. Borisov ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF MULTILAYERED THICKWALLED SPHERES UNDER EXTERNAL LOAD Summary In practice it is often necessary to conduct analysis of systems, with multilayer objects, each layer of which has individual properties. Deformations and stresses inside a system consisting of an arbitrary finite number of thickwalled spheres are investigated in the present article. Each sphere is characterized by its elastic modules. The zone of contact between each of the spheres is continuous on the surface. This problem can be completely solved analyticaly. The relations of pressure on the limits of the sphres, stress tensors and deformations inside the spheres are obtained. The findings have the relevant practical value. .. , , , . , . . . . , . . Received April 14, 2010 Accepted July 02, 2010