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Table of Contents

Title PAGE
Historical overview computer......................................................... 2
1.1. Early calculating Devices ................................................................................. 2
1.2. Middle Age Computer ...................................................................................... 2
1.3. Modern Age Computers.................................................................................... 2
1.3.1. First Generation .......................................................................................... 2
1.3.2. Second Generation ...................................................................................... 3
1.3.3. Third Generation......................................................................................... 3
1.3.4. Fourth Generation ....................................................................................... 3
What is Information Technology? .................................................. 3
1.4. Data vs. Information ......................................................................................... 4
Types of Computers........................................................................ 5
1.5. Digital Computers............................................................................................. 5
1.6. Analog computers ............................................................................................. 6
Range of Computers ....................................................................... 6
1.7. Microcomputers ................................................................................................ 6
1.8. Minicomputers .................................................................................................. 7
1.9. Mainframe Computers ...................................................................................... 7
1.10. Super Computers............................................................................................... 7
Anatomy of computer system ......................................................... 8
1.11. Computer Hardware.......................................................................................... 8
1.11.1. Motherboard................................................................................................ 8
1.11.2. Input Devices .............................................................................................. 8
1.11.3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)................................................................... 9
1.11.4. Output Devices............................................................................................ 9
Computer Software......................................................................... 9
1.12. System Software ............................................................................................. 10
1.12.1. Operating Systems .................................................................................... 10
1.12.2. Applications Software............................................................................... 10
Languages Software...................................................................... 11
Computer Network ....................................................................... 11
1.13. Components of a Network Component........................................................... 11
Types of Network ......................................................................... 12
1.14. Local Area Network (LAN)............................................................................ 12
1.15. Wide Area Network (WAN)........................................................................... 12
Introduction computer
1. Historical overview computer
1.1. Early calculating Devices
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, using one-to-one
correspondence with our fingers. The earliest counting device was probably a form of
tally stick. Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included clay
shapes, which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in
containers. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was used in
Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or
tables have been invented. In a medieval counting house, a checkered cloth would be
placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid
to calculating sums of money (this is the origin of "Exchequer" as a term for a nation's
treasury).

As early as 1725 Basile Bouchon used a perforated paper loop in a loom to establish the
pattern to be reproduced on cloth, and in 1726 his co-worker Jean-Baptiste Falcon
improved on his design by using perforated paper cards attached to one another for
efficiency in adapting and changing the program

1.2. Middle Age Computer


Before World War II, mechanical and electrical analog computers were considered the
"state of the art", and many thought they were the future of computing. Analog computers
take advantage of the strong similarities between the mathematics of small-scale properties
the position and motion of wheels or the voltage and current of electronic components and
the mathematics of other physical phenomena, e.g. ballistic trajectories, inertia, resonance,
energy transfer, momentum, etc. They model physical phenomena with electrical voltages
and currents as the analog quantities.

1.3. Modern Age Computers


1.3.1. First Generation

First generation of computer was incorporated during the second world war
by Germany to build a war plane while also in England was used to crack
German secret codes and the mode of operation was the use of valves of
about 1500 to 1800.

1.3.2. Second Generation

Second generation was made, and there was just a little change to the first
generation and its mode of operation was the transistor instead of valves,
these computers were used for calculation of great figures as well as
scientific applications.

1.3.3. Third Generation

Third generation computer was designed to suite a small piece of space and
its mode of operation was based on silicon and its used large silicon
integrated circuit.

1.3.4. Fourth Generation

Forth generation computers was also designed to suite a small piece of


space and its mode of operation was based on silicon of very large silicon
integrated circuit ( VLSI) and ultra large silicon integrated circuit.(ULSI)

1.3.5. Fifth Generation


Fifth generation of computer is the development of softwares to enhance
computer works and its robotic applications.

1.4. What is Information Technology?


The phrase Information Technology (IT) refers to the creation, gathering, processing,
storage, and delivery of information and the processes and devices that make all this
possible, think of these processes and devices as tools that make your life and career
better or more efficient.
The tasks that are handled using information technology continue to increase almost on
a daily basis. For example, a few years ago, cinematography and photography didn’t use
computers at any point in cameras, processing labs, and the editing room. No matter
what field of study you major in, or where you are employed, you’ll be sure to find
information technology at work.
Information technology can do at least three things:
¾ Information technology can process raw data into useful information.
¾ Information technology can recycle processed information and use it as data
in another processing step.
¾ Information technology can package information in a new form so it’s easier
to understand, more attractive, or more useful.

1.4.1. Data vs. Information


Data is the raw material to be processed by a computer. Such material can be letters,
numbers, or facts like grades in a class, baseball batting averages, or light and dark
areas in a photograph. Processed data becomes information, data that is organized,
meaningful, and useful. In school, for instance, an instructor could enter various student
grades (data), which can be processed to produce final grades and perhaps a class
average (information). Data that is perhaps uninteresting on its own may become very
interesting once it is converted to information. The raw facts (data) about your
finances, such as a paycheck or a donation to charity or a medical bill may not be
captivating individually, but together, these and other acts can be processed to produce
the refund or amount you owe on your income tax return (information).
Raw data such as Information such as a
numbers, sounds, Processing letter, chart, check, or
video, or photographs multimedia presentation

Some information becomes


data for the next step.

1.5. Types of Computers


Basically there are two types of computers based on the type of data they process.
o Digital Computers
o Analog Computers
Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s),
which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current. Analog refers
to numerical values that have a continuous range. Both 0 and 1 are analog numbers, but
so is 1.5 or a number like p (approximately 3.14). As an example, consider a desk lamp.
If it has a simple on/off switch, then it is digital, because the lamp either produces light
at a given moment or it does not. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch, then the lamp
is analog, because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all
intensities in between.

1.5.1. Digital Computers


The digital computer is essentially a counting device in which data is represented by
discrete numerical quantities. To process data, it uses the standard arithmetic
operations. Digital computers are much more widely used today, and all standard
business and scientific computers are digital ones.
Most modern computers, however, are digital machines whose components have a finite
number of states—for example, the 0 or 1, or on or off of bits. These bits can be
combined to denote information such as numbers, letters, graphics, and program
instructions.
1.5.2. Analog computers
The analog computer measures continuous type of data and uses a physical quantity,
such as electrical current, to represent and proves the data. Analog computers are
usually built for specific purposes. Examples include slide rule, thermometer and
hydrodynamics.
Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. A popular analog
computer used in the 20th century was the slide rule. To perform calculations with a
slide rule, the user slides a narrow, gauged wooden strip inside a ruler like holder.
Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at one exact value,
the slide rule is analog. New interest has been shown recently in analog computers,
particularly in areas such as neural networks that respond to continuous electrical
signals.

1.6. Range of Computers


Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. The smallest are embedded within
the circuitry of appliances, such as televisions and wrist watches. These computers are
typically preprogrammed for a specific task, such as tuning to a particular television
frequency or keeping accurate time. Programmable computers vary enormously in their
computational power, speed, memory, and physical size. The smallest of these
computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs).
They are used as notepads, scheduling systems, and address books; if equipped with a
cellular phone, they can connect to worldwide computer networks to exchange
information regardless of location.
The size and complexity needed in a computer system depend on the functions required
of the computer.
Computer systems are classified based on their CPU sizes, number of online terminals,
maximum disk storage capacity, and all other available I/O devices into the following
categories:
1. Microcomputers
2. Mini computers
3. Mainframes
4. Super computers

1.6.1. Microcomputers
A microcomputer (or personal computer) is the smallest general-purpose computer
whose CPU is contained on a single integrated circuit chip. Micros are generally
equipped with a keyboard, display, floppy and hard disk drives.
Laptop computers and PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate
on computer networks, for word processing, to track finances, and to play games. They
have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of programs and documents.
They are equipped with a keyboard; a mouse, trackball, or other pointing device; and a
video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display information. Laptop
computers usually have similar hardware and software as Personal Computers, but they
are more compact and have flat, lightweight LCDs instead of video display monitors.

1.6.2. Minicomputers
Minicomputer, a mid-level computer built to perform complex computations while
dealing efficiently with a high level of input and output from users connected via
terminals. Minicomputers also frequently connect to other minicomputers on a network
and distribute processing among all the attached machines. Minicomputers are used
heavily in transaction-processing applications and as interfaces between mainframe
computer systems and wide area networks.
Minicomputers are referred to as task-oriented computers. They were designed to
provide selected user services rather than the full range of activities normally
associated with general purpose computers. Minicomputers can support a wide range of
online processing activities. Minis can support magnetic disks and tape, high-speed
printers and a variety of terminal devices. These are similar to personal computers but
have greater memory and more extensive mathematical abilities, and they are
connected to other personal computers to exchange data. They are typically found in
scientific, industrial, and business environments that require high levels of
computational abilities.

1.6.3. Mainframe Computers


Mainframe computers have more memory, speed, and capabilities than minicomputers
and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers.
They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research.
Mainframe Computer, a high-level computer designed for the most intensive
computational tasks. Mainframe computers are often shared by multiple users connected
to the computer via terminals. The most powerful mainframes, called supercomputers,
perform highly complex and time-consuming computations and are used heavily in both
pure and applied research by scientists, large businesses, and the military.

1.6.4. Super Computers


The most powerful mainframe computers, called supercomputers, process complex and
time-consuming calculations, such as those used to create weather predictions. Super
computers are the largest, most expensive real-time computer systems which support
national defense or fast multinational corporations.
They are complex systems and use high speed telecommunication facilities, such as
satellites. They are used by the largest businesses, scientific institutions, and the
military. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. These computers break a task
into small pieces, and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed
and efficiency. Such computers are called parallel processors.

2. Anatomy of computer system


A system is a group of integrated parts that have the common purpose of achieving
some objective(s). Since a computer is a group of integrated parts that have the
common purpose of performing the operations called for in the program being executed,
it is a system.
A typical computer system consists of a central processing unit (CPU), input devices,
storage devices, and output devices. The CPU consists of an arithmetic/logic unit,
registers, control section, and internal bus. The arithmetic/logic unit carries out
arithmetical and logical operations. The registers store data and keep track of
operations. The control unit regulates and controls various operations. The internal bus
connects the units of the CPU with each other and with external components of the
system.
A computer system has a number of components that are classified as:
o Computer hardware
o Computer software.

2.1. Computer Hardware


Computer hardware is made up of the physical equipment used to make up your
computer system, including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips
and micro-circuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (floppy, hard, CD, DVD,
optical, tape, etc...).

2.1.1. Motherboard
Motherboard is the main circuit board in a computer. The most important computer
chips and other electronic components that give function to a computer are located on
the motherboard. The motherboard is a printed circuit board that connects the various
elements on it through the use of traces, or electrical pathways. The motherboard is
indispensable to the computer and provides the main computing capability.

2.1.2. Input Devices


Input is the data that you put into the computer system for processing. Information and
programs are entered into the computer through Input devices such as the keyboard,
disks, or through other computers via network connections or modems connected to the
Internet. The input device also retrieves information from the disks. You can input data
to a computer in many other interesting ways, including writing, speaking, pointing, or
even by just looking at the data. The input hardware allows you to enter data into the
computer. The primary devices used are the keyboard and mouse.
Other examples of input devices are mouse, scanner, plotter, joysticks …

2.1.3. Central Processing Unit (CPU)


The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on data
taken from memory or on information entered through some device, such as a keyboard,
scanner, or joystick. The CPU is controlled by a list of software instructions, called a
computer program. Software instructions entering the CPU originate in some form of
memory storage device such as a hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM, or magnetic tape.
These instructions then pass into the computer’s main random access memory (RAM),
where each instruction is given a unique address, or memory location. The CPU can
access specific pieces of data in RAM by specifying the address of the data that it wants.

2.1.4. Output Devices


Output, the result produced by the central processing unit, is a computer's whole reason
for being. Output is usable information; that is, raw input data that has been processed
by the computer into information. The most common forms of output are words,
numbers, and graphics. Word output, for example, may be the letters and memos
prepared by office people using word processing software. Other workers may be more
interested in numbers, such as those found in formulas, schedules, and budgets. In many
cases numbers can be understood more easily when output in the form of charts and
graphics.

The most common output devices are computer screens and printers. Screens can vary
in their forms of display, producing text, numbers, symbols, art, photographs, and even
video-in full color. Printers produce printed reports as instructed by a computer
program, often in full color. Output devices such as a monitor or printer make
information you input available for you to view or use.

2.2. Computer Software


Software is actually a computer program. To be more specific, a program is a set of
step-by-step instructions that directs the computer to do the tasks you want it to do and
to produce the results you want. A computer programmer is a person who writes
programs. Most of us do not write programs, we use programs written by someone else.
This means we are users - people who purchase and use computer software. Computer
programs allow users to complete tasks. A program can also be referred to as an
application and the two words are used interchangeably.
Computer productivity is determined by programs, which are step-by-step instructions,
telling the computer how to process data. Software can be divided into two groups,
system and application. A program is a sequence of related instructions, performed one
step at a time by the CPU to accomplish some task. Programs determine how computers
respond to input, what will be displayed and output

2.2.1. System Software


The operation of your computer is controlled by system software. As you boot the
computer, the system software is stored in the computer's memory which instructs the
computer to load, store, and execute an application. Examples of system software are
Windows 2000 and Windows 2002 which use a graphical user interface (GUI) that
provides visual clues (icons) to help the user. DOS, another disk operating system, is text
based and not user friendly.

2.2.2. Operating Systems


The operating system controls the input and output or directs the flow of information to
and from the CPU. Much of this is done automatically by the system but it is possible to
modify and control your system if you need to.

2.2.2.1. Single tasking operating system


It is a type of operating system that used to perform single task at a time.
Eg.Ms-dos

2.2.2.2. Multi tasking operating System


It is type of operating system that used to perform more that one task at a time.
Eg. Ms-windows

2.2.3. Applications Software


Professional programmers write a variety of application software to satisfy needs of the
public who wants to perform specific tasks on their computers. The basic types of
application software are word processing, database, spreadsheet, desktop publishing,
and communication. Applications programs are programs used for all purposes other
than performing operating system chores or writing other programs includes word
processors, spreadsheets, statistics packages and graphics programs, airline reservation
systems, payroll systems etc.
2.2.4. Languages Software

Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to


run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no
ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult
to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine language by a compiler
or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter.
Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. There are
thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose,
others useful only for highly specialized applications.

3. Computer Network
A Network refers to techniques, physical connections, and computer programs used to
link two or more computers. Network users are able to share files, printers, and other
resources; send electronic messages; and run programs on other computers.

3.1. Components of a Network Component


A network has three layers of components:
¾ Application software
¾ Network software
¾ Network hardware.
Application software consists of computer programs that interface with network users
and permit the sharing of information, such as files, graphics, and video, and resources,
such as printers and disks. One type of application software is called client-server.
Client computers send requests for information or requests to use resources to other
computers, called servers that control data and applications. Another type of
application software is called peer-to-peer. In a peer-to-peer network, computers send
messages and requests directly to one another without a server intermediary.
Network software consists of computer programs that establish protocols, or rules, for
computers to talk to one another. These protocols are carried out by sending and
receiving formatted instructions of data called packets. Protocols make logical
connections between network applications, direct the movement of packets through the
physical network, and minimize the possibility of collisions between packets sent at the
same time.
Network hardware is made up of the physical components that connect computers. Two
important components are the transmission media that carry the computer's signals,
typically on wires or fiber-optic cables, and the network adapter, which accesses the
physical media that link computers, receives packets from network software, and
transmits instructions and requests to other computers. Transmitted information is in
the form of binary digits, or bits (1s and 0s), which the computer's electronic circuitry
can process.

3.2. Types of Network

3.3. Local Area Network (LAN)


A network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. Current
LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. For example, a library may
have a wired or wireless LAN for users to interconnect local devices (e.g., printers and
servers) and to connect to the internet.

The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (wide area networks), include
their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased
telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate
at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating
the standardization of 100 Gbit/s, and possibly 40 Gbit.

3.4. Wide Area Network (WAN)

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area
(i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses
transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies.