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ASEN 3112 - Structures


ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 1

ASEN 3112 - Structures

From Statics To Kinematics

Lectures 1-3 dealt with topics in Statics: Applied Forces Internal Forces Stresses This lecture takes us into Kinematics: Stresses Strains Displacements Body Size & Shape Changes

Specifically, we cover strains and their connections to displacements

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 2

ASEN 3112 - Structures

What is Strain (in Mechanics)?

A measure of deformation of a flexible body All real materials deform under the action of stresses as well as temperature changes. The connection between strains and stresses (and temperature changes) is done through constitutive equations that encode material properties. These are covered in Lecture 5.

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 3

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Strains and Displacements

Undeformed body Displacement vector y Position vector z x P P'

Deformed body

The displacement of a body particle (mathematically a point P in a continuum model of the body) is a vector that defines its motion, joining the initial position P to the final position P'. Displacements of all particles form a vector field. Point strains are connected to partial derivatives of displacements with respect to the position coordinates {x,y,z} These are called the strain-displacement equations

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 4

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Strains Flavors (1)

Average vs. Point. Average strain is that taken over a finite portion of the body, for example using a strain gage or rosette. Point strain is obtained by a limit process in which the dimension(s) of the gaged portion is made to approach zero. Normal vs. Shear. Normal strain (a.k.a. extensional or dimensional strain) measures changes in length along a specific direction. Shear strain is measures changes in angles with respect to two specific directions. Mechanical vs. Thermal. Mechanical strain is produced by stresses. Thermal strain is produced by temperature changes.

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 5

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Strains Flavors (2)

Finite vs. Infinitesimal. Finite strains are obtained using exact measures of the changes in dimensions or angles. Infinitesimal strains (a.k.a. linearized or small strains) are obtained by linearizing a finite strain measure with respect to displacement gradients. Strain Measures. For finite strains, several mathematical measures are in use, often identified with a person name in front. For example Lagrangian strains, Eulerian strains, Hencky strains, Almansi strains, Murnaghan strains, Biot strains, etc. They have one common feature: as strains get small, meaning <<1, all measures coalesce into the infinitesimal (linearized) version. A brief discussion of Lagrangian versus Eulerian in provided when defining 1D normal strains later.

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 6

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Average Normal Strain in 1D

(a) Undeformed Bar

(b) Deformed Bar
undeformed length L0

deformed length L = L0 +
def av

L L0 = Lre f Lre f

Two common choices for the reference length are Lref = L 0 , the initial gage length: Lagrangian strain L ref = L, the final gage length: Eulerian strain

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 7

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Strain Measures: Lagrangian vs. Eulerian

Lagrangian strains are preferred in solid and structural mechanics Eulerian strains are preferred in fluid mechanics For large strains the difference between these two measures can be huge, as will be seen in Problem 3 of Recitation #2. If the strain is small, say <1%, the difference becomes insignificant, as the example in the Notes shows.

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 8

Point Normal Strain in 1D

(a) Undeformed Bar x

ASEN 3112 - Structures

(b) Deformed Bar

uP =u uQ = uP +(uQ uP) = u+u



Take the limit as the distance between P and Q goes to zero:

P def = lim

x 0

(u + u) u u du = lim = dx x x 0 x


In 3D (*) generalizes to

x x =

u x

with involves three changes: (1) point label P is dropped as point becomes "generic", (2) subscript xx is appended to identify normal component, and (3) the ordinary derivative becomes a partial derivative.

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 9

Normal Strains in 3D (1)

ASEN 3112 - Structures

(b) Deformed configuration

(a) Undeformed configuration


y x P
x z



Displacement vector PP' has components u,v,w along x,y,z, respectively

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 10

Normal Strains in 3D (2)

(b) Deformed configuration (a) Undeformed configuration y+v

ASEN 3112 - Structures

y x P
x z



Average normal strains: def v + v v u def u + u u = yy ,a v = = x x ,a v = y x x w def w + w w = = zz ,a v z z Point strains at P: v v def u u def = = lim = yy x x = lim y 0 y y x 0 x x w w def = zz = lim z 0 z z

v y

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 11

Average Shear Strain in x,y Plane

(a) 3D view

ASEN 3112 - Structures

(b) 2D view of shearing in x-y plane

yx = y xy =

(c) 2D shear deformation (grossly exaggerated for visibility)




Q' P' measured in radians, positive as shown

The average shear strain is

x y ,a v = .

Positive if original right angle decreases by , as shown

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 12

Average Shear Strain in x,y Plane in Terms of Corner Displacements

2 C'

ASEN 3112 - Structures


C x
90 = 2


D' Shear-Deformed = 1+ B' 1

D y B





uA uC

x y ,a v = = 1 + 2

uB uD uC A vB A + = x y

v + x

u . y

See Notes for derivation details

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 13

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Arbitrary Body in 3D - see Notes

S'(x+u+ 6 u dx+6 u dy,y+v+ 6 v dx+6 v dy) 6y 6y 6x 6x Q'(x+u+6 u dx,y+v+6 v dx) 6x 6x zoom (b) Deformed body P'

R'(x+u+6 u dy,y+v+6 v dy) 6y 6y P'(x+u,y+v) R(x,y+dy) dx S(x+dx,y+dy) dy Q(x+dx,y) P(x,y) zoom (a) Undeformed Displacement vector body
dx dy

vP = v

y z

Position vector

uP = u

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 14

ASEN 3112 - Structures

3D (Point) Strain-Displacement Equations

u xx = x v u + = y x v = y w u + z x x y zy



w z w v + z y

x y

x z =

yz =

Strain matrix:

yx zx xy = yx


x z yz

in which the shear strain components verify reciprocity:

yz = zy

zx = x z

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 15

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Displacement Calculations for Truss

(a) LAB B E, Ab E, Ab LBC

C (c)

; ;



F AB = L BC sin

q LBC 2sin

LBC /2 RCy

RCx BC =

AB = q LBC /2




F AB =

q LBC 2sin

F BC =

q LBC 2tan

B =

See Section 4.5 of Notes for the worked out example

;; ;;



(e) B BC B

;; ;;

q LBC (LBC +LAB ) cos L AB sin 2 E Ab sin

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 16

ASEN 3112 - Structures

Displacement Vector Composition Differs From That of Force Vectors

(a) force composition

(b) displacement composition (assuming small deformations)

The physical significance of the diagram on the right will be illustrated with Problem 1 of Recitation #2

ASEN 3112 Lecture 4 Slide 17