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By Prof. C. Radhakrishna

MODELLING OF HVDC SYSTEMS Economics of Power Transmission Technical Performance Stability Limits Voltage Control Line Compensation Problems of AC Interconnection Ground Impedance Disadvantages of DC Transmission Reliability Energy Availability Transient Reliability
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Application of DC Transmission Component Models for the Analysis of AC/DC Systems Converter Model Simplified Continuous Time Model Converter Control Modeling of DC Network Modeling of AC Network Control of HVDC Systems Basic Principles of Control Basic Means of Control Basic for Selection of Controls

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The relative merits of the two modes of transmission (AC and DC) which need to be considered by a system planner are based on the following factors: 1. Economics of transmission 2. Technical performance 3. Reliability

Economics of Power Transmission

The cost of a transmission line includes the investment and operational costs. The investment includes costs of Right of Ways (RoW), transmission towers, conductors, insulators and terminal equipments. The operational costs include mainly the cost of losses. For a given power level, DC line requires less RoW, simpler and cheaper towers and reduced conductor and insulator cost.
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Economics of Power Transmission Cont

The power losses are also reduced with DC as there are only two conductors (about 67% of that for AC with same current carrying capacity of conductors). The absence of skin effect with DC is also beneficial in reducing power losses marginally. The corona effects tend to be less significant on DC conductors than for AC and this also leads to the choice of economic size of conductors with DC transmission. The other factors that influence the line costs are the costs of compensation and terminal equipment. DC lines do not require compensation but the terminal equipment costs are increased due to the presence of converter and filters.

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d*=break even distance Fig 1: Variation of costs with line length The break even distances can vary from 500 to 800 km in overhead line depending on the per unit line costs.

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Technical performance
The DC transmission has some positive features which are lacking in AC transmission. These are mainly due to the fast controllability of power in DC lines through converter control.

1. 2.

Full control over power transmitted. The ability to enhance transient and dynamic stability in associated AC network. 3. Fast control to limit fault currents in DC lines. This makes it feasible to avoid DC breakers in two terminals DC links In addition, the DC transmission overcomes some of the problems of AC transmission.

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Stability Limits
The power transfer in AC line is dependent on the angle difference between the voltage phasors at the two ends. The maximum power transfer is limited by the considerations of steady state and transient stability.

Fig: 2 Power transfer capability vs. Distances

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Voltage Control

The voltage control in AC line is complicated by the line charging and inductive voltage drop. The voltage profile varies with the line loading.

Fig:3 Variation of voltage along the line The maintenance of constant voltages at the two ends requires reactive power control from inductive to capacitive as the line loading is increased.
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Although DC converter stations require reactive power related to the line loadings, the line itself does not require reactive power.
Line Compensation

In AC cable transmission, it is necessary to provide shunt compensation at regular intervals. This is a serious problem in underwater cables.
Problems of AC Interconnection

The operation of AC ties can be problematic due to (i) the presence of large power oscillations which can lead to frequent tripping (ii) increase in fault level (iii) the transmission of disturbances from one system to the other. The controllability of power flowing DC lines eliminates all the above problems. In addition, for asynchronous DC ties, there is no need of coordinated control.
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Ground impedance
In AC transmission, the existence of ground (zero sequence) current can not be permitted in steady-state due to high magnitudes of ground impedance which will not only affect efficient power transfer, but also result in telephone interference. The ground impedance is negligible for DC currents and a DC link can operate using one conductor with ground return (monopolar operation).
Disadvantages of DC transmission

The scope of application of DC Transmission is limited by the fowling factors: 1. The difficulty of breaking DC currents which results in high cost of DC breakers 2. Inability to use transformers to change voltage levels 3. High cost of conversion equipment 4. Generation of harmonics which require AC and DC filters, adding to the cost of converter stations 5. Complexity of control
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Over the years, there have been significant advances in DC technology, which have tried to overcome disadvantages listed above except for (2). 1. Development of DC breakers 2. Modular construction of thyristor valves 3. Increase in ratings of thyristor cells that make up a valve 4. Twelve pulse operation of converters 5. Use of metal oxide , gapless arrestors 6. Application of digital electronics and fiber optics in control of converters Complexity of control does not pose a problem and can actually be used to provide reliable and fast control of power transmission not only under normal conditions but also under abnormal conditions such as line and converter faults.

The reliability of DC transmission systems is quite good and comparable to that of AC systems.
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Energy availability Transient reliability

Both energy availability and transient reliability of existing DC systems with thyristor valves is 95% or more. In comparing the reliability of various alternatives, it must be kept in mind that bipolar DC line can be as reliable as a double circuit AC line with the same power capability.

Application of DC Transmission
The detailed comparison of AC and DC transmission in terms of economics and technical performance leads to the following areas of application for DC transmission. Long distance bulk power transmission Underground or underwater cables Asynchronous interconnection of AC systems operating at different frequencies or where independent control of systems is desired. Control and stabilization of power flows in AC ties in an integrated power system
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The technical superiority of DC transmission dictates its use for asynchronous interconnection, even when the transmission distances are negligible. Actually there are many back to back DC links in existence where the rectification and inversion are carried out in the same converter station with no DC lines.

Component Models for the Analysis of AC/DC Systems

The prediction of the system performance under various conditions helps in assessing the stresses on the various system components and preparing the specifications of the equipment.

Converter model Simplified continuous time model

Fig.4: The Schematic of a converter transformer with Bridge

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Fig.5: Simplified Continuous Time Equivalent Circuit of Bridge Ed = Vdo Cos & Vdo = aV Where a= (3/) 2 Ns /(Np T) Ns /Np = nominal turns ratios of the three phases transformer, T=off nominal ratio, V=line to line voltage at the primary. In Fig.5 , Rc is the commutation resistance given by Rc = (3/) Xc where Xc is the leakage reactance of the converter transformer, Lc is the average inductance given by Lc = (Xc /o) [2(1-k) +1.5k] where k=3u/ , u=overlap angle o= system frequency in rad/sec. The equivalent circuit of fig. 5 is based on assumptions:
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Converter control
Power control, auxiliary control and voltage dependent current order limiter (VDCOL). The output of this block is the current order. Constant Current (CC) and Constant Extinction Angle (CEA) controls. These are usually of feedback type. However, the extinction angle control can also be of predictive (open loop) type. The output of these controllers is a control voltage that determines the instant of gate pulse generation. The input is taken as the current order (generated locally or at the remote station) or the extinction angle reference (generated locally). The communication delay in transmitting the current order may have to be represented. Gate pulse generator which has input from the CC or CEA controller and determines the instant of gate pulse generation for each valve. There are basically two types of firing control schemes. Individual phase control (IPC) and (ii) Equidistant Pulse Control (EPC). The latter can be of pulse frequency control (PFC) or pulse phase control (PPC).
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Fig.6: Power and auxiliary controller block diagram

Modelling of DC Network:
The DC network is assumed to consist of smoothing reactor, DC filters and the Transmission line.

Modelling of AC networks:
For some types of analyses, the AC network can be assumed to be in steady-state (say for load flow analysis or long term stability analysis).
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Control of HVDC Systems

An HVDC transmission system is highly controllable.

Basic Principles of Control

It represents a monopolar link or one pole of a bipolar link.

(a) Schematic diagram

(b) Equivalent circuit.

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(c) Voltage Profile Fig.7: HVDC transmission link The direct current flowing from the rectifier to the inverter is Vdor Cos Vdoi Cos Id = -------------------------------------Rcr + RL Rci The power at the rectifier terminal is Pdr = Vdr Id and at the inverter terminal is Pdi = Vdi Id = Pdr - RL Id2
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Basic Means of Control

The direct voltage at any point on the line and current (or power) can be controlled by controlling the internal voltages (Vdor Cos) and (Vdoi Cos). Power reversal is obtained by reversal of polarity of direct voltages at both ends.

Basis for Selection of Controls

Following considerations influence the selection of control characteristics: 1. Prevention of large fluctuations in direct current due to variations in ac system voltage. 2. Maintaining direct voltage near rated value. 3. Maintaining power factors at the sending and receiving end that are as high as possible. 4. Prevention of commutation failure in inverters and arc-back in rectifiers using mercury-arc valves.
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There are several reasons for maintaining the power factor high To achieve high power factor, for a rectifier and for an inverter should be kept as low as possible. The rectifier, however, has a minimum limit of about 50 to ensure adequate voltage across the valve before firing. The rectifier normally operates at a value of within the range of 150 to 200 so as to leave some room for increasing rectifier voltage to control dc power flow. In the case of an inverter, it is necessary to maintain a certain minimum extinction angle to avoid commutation failure. Typically, the value of with acceptable margin is 150 for 50 Hz systems and 180 for 60Hz system.
REFERENCES [ 1 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. [ 2 ] K. R. Padiyar : HVDC Power Transmission Systems : Technology and System Interaction , New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, 1996.
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