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THIRD EDITION A IMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH GEOFFREY LEECH AND JAN SVARTVIK A Communicative Grammar Geoffrey Leech of Eng lish Jan Svartvik Contents, PREFACE. ‘To the student 4. To the teacher 5. Note on phonetic Part One Varieties of English 9 Part Two Intonation 21 Part Three Grammar in use SECTION A: CONCEPTS. ‘ Referring to objects, substances and materials 26. Abstractions 29. Amount or quantity 31, Definite and indefinite meaning 35. Relations between ideas expressed by nouns 42. Restrictive and non-restrictive meaning 45. ‘Time, tense and aspect 46. Time-when 59. Duration 62. Frequency 64, Place, direction and distance 65. Manner, means and instrument 74. Cause, reason and purpose 76. Condition and contrast 79. Degree 82. Role, standard and’ viewpoint 86. Comparison 87. Addition, exception and restriction 90. Subject matter: about and on 92 SECTION B: INFORMATION, REALITY AND BELIEF Statements, questions and’ respanses 93. Omission of information 99. Reported statements” and questions 100. Denial and affirmation 403. Agreement and disagreement 106. Fact, hypothesis and neutrality 107. Degrees of likelihood 111. Attitudes to truth 115 SECTION C: MOOD, EMOTION AND ATTITUDE, Emotive emphasis in speech 117. Describing emotions 120. Volition 124. Permission and abligation 126, Influencing people 128. Friendly communications 134. Vocatives Be SECTION D: MEANING IN CONNECTED DISCOURSE Linking signals 139. Linking constructions 141. ‘General purpose’ links 143 Substitution and omission 145. Presenting and focusing information 152. Order and emphasis 158 Part Four Grammatical Compendium Haw to use the Compendium 169. Adjectives 172. Adjective or adverb? 1 Adjectives as heads 176. Adverbials 177. Adverbs 182. Apposition 184. Articles 185. Auxiliary verbs 187. Case 191. Clauses 191. Cleft sentences 195. Commands 196. Comment clauses 196. Comparison 197. Complements 200. Concord 200. Coordination 203. Demonstratives 205. Determiners 205. Exclamations 210. Gender 210. Genitive 210. Interrogatives 253. Introductory it 215. Introductory there 216 Irregular verbs 218, Main verbs 222. Nationality words 224, Negation 226. Nominal clauses 228. Noun phrases 231. Number 232. Numerals 233. Objects 236. Operators 236. Passives 237. Personal and reflexive pronouns 239. Phrasal and prepositional verbs 243. Plurals 246. Postmodifires 248. Premoditires 251. Prepositional phrases 253. Prepositions and prepositional adverbs 254. Pronouns 255. Pronuncimion of endings 256. Proper nouns 257. Quantifires 259. Questions 263. Reciprocal pronouns 26S. Relative clauses 265. Sentences 268. Somewords and any-words 269. Spelling changes 271. Subjects 273. Subjunctives 274. Subordination 274. Verb patterns 277. Verb phrases 283. Word-classes 287 Index 289