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Joseph in Egypt:

1- King Senusret II (1897 BC-1878BC) or Senwosret II or Sesostris II was the fourth


pharaoh of the Dynasty 12. He was the first pharaoh who thought in drainage canal in
Faiyum between bahr Yusuf (“Joseph” is the Hebrew name of the Arabic one “Yusuf”)
and Lake Moeris. The purpose of Senusret II's project was to increase the amount of
Egypt cultivable land.

Note : Many evidences associate Senusert II with Joseph assuming that he is the pharaoh
of the dream mentioned in (Ge 41:1)

Israelites exodus from Egypt:


2- Accepting assumption # 1 then the anticipated exodus date should be after this pharaoh
with 430 years as mentioned in (Ex12:41) making the Exodus date to be 1448 BC.

3- From 1684 BC till 1567 BC the Hyksos invaded and occupied lower and middle Egypt
(Northern part) where Israelites settled.

4- The fact in line # 3 gives us historical explanation for appearance of new Egyptian
king for upper Egypt (Southern part) who was not knowing Joseph in the way mentioned
in (Ex 1:8).

Note : The occupation of lower Egypt for long time led to alienation between Israelites
and Egyptians.

5- Ahmos I was the founder of dynasty 18 who drove Hyksos out of lower Egypt (1567
BC).

6- Thutmose I, (The third pharaoh of 18 dynasty 1525-1512) should be astonished by


existence of big Israelite nation in the liberated land and this could gives to us the
historical explanation to the fears and suspicions of Egyptians against Israelites in the
way mentioned in (Ex 1:9)

7- One of understood fears from Israelites was certainly concerning their possible loyalty
to the ex-occupant (Ex 1:10).

8- So the Israelites suffering period began historically starting from Thutmose I (1525-
1512) period.

Note : The Israelites population increased tremendously under Hyksos occupation and
this caused one of big unexpected surprises to the liberators.

9- Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and ruled Egypt (ruled from 1504 BC to
1482 BC) after the death of her half-brother Thutmose II.

10- Hatshepsut had only one daughter named Nefrur.


11- The fact of Hatshepsut was not given male Childs making us to accept the possibility
of that she was the Pharoah's daughter that drew Moses out of the Nile in order to adopt
as a son (Ex 2:5-10) .

12- Moses spent first 40 years of his life in the royal palace fortified with the caring and
protection of Hatshepsut (his mother in law).

13- Thutmose III (1504-1450 BC) was very young when his father, Thutmose II, died and
was until 1482 the co-regent of his aunt, Hatshepsut. Some time after he became sole
monarch.

14- The fact in line # 12 gives us historical explanation to the change happened in Moses
life that caused him to leave the royal palace and look for his burdened people in the way
mentioned in (Ex 2:11).

Note : The dispute of power between Hatshepsut and Thutmose III affected Moses stable
life in Hatshepsut royal palace.

15- So now we can conclude that Moses escaped from Thutmose III for another
consecutive 40 years after he killed the Egyptian (Ex 2:11 – 2:15).

Note : According to this theory, we can anticipate Hatshepsut age when she died to be
within 55-60 years old divided as follows 15-20 years old at time of Moses adoption, 20
years as princess and 20 years as pharaoh.

16- Amenhotep II, the 7th king of the 18th dynasty, son of Thutmose III, ruled Egypt
from (1450 to 1425 BC).

Note : Thutmose III / Amenhotep II destroyed all monuments related to Hatshepsut era
thus the most recorded references to Moses/Israelites existence were abolished.

17- Thutmose IV succeeded his father Amenhotep II although he was not actually the
crown prince and the one chosen by Amenhotep II as successor to the throne.

18- The facts in # 16 and # 17 lead us to believe that Amenhotep II was the Exodus
pharaoh and the one who lost his elder successor to throne in the death of firstborn plaque
mentioned in (Ex 12:29).

19- Although the mummy of Amenhotep II (who ruled 1450-1425 BC) was discovered in
1898, with no sign that he drowned at sea, a close perusal of the Biblical account in
(Exodus14:23-31) does not state that he entered the sea with his army, which was
destroyed when the waters returned.

20- Despite the fact of mentioned city named "Raamses" built by Israelites (Ex 1:11),
there is a possible explanation that such name was the famous name of the city at the time
of writing Exodus book two hundred years later during reign of Ramses II of the 19th
dynasty (1292BC-1190BC).

Solomon’s Temple erection:


21- Solomon's Temple was erected 480 years after exodus (1Ki 6:1) making its estimated
date to be 968BC which is quiet consistent with most of historian calculations.

Effect of Israelites monotheism on Egyptians


22- Affected by Israelites monotheism, Akhnaton the grandson of Thutmose IV started to
call for monotheistic worship of Aten 100 years after Israelites Exodus date.