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FEDERA L REPUBL IC OF NIGERI A

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress" Anthem: "Arise, O Compatriots"

Capital

Abuja

Largest city Official language(s) Recognised national languages Recognised regional languages Demonym Government President Vice President Legislature Upper house Lower house Independence Unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria Declared and recognized Republic declared Area

Lagos English Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba Edo, Efik, Fulani, Idoma, Ijaw Kanuri Nigerian Federal presidential republic Goodluck Jonathan Namadi Sambo National Assembly Senate House of Representatives from the United Kingdom 1914 1 October 1960 1 October 1963 923,768 km2 (32nd)

Total

356,667 sq mi

Water (%) Population 2012 estimate 2006 census Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita GDP (nominal) Total Per capita

1.4 170,123,740[2] (7th) 140,003,542 184.2/km2 (71st) 477.0/sq mi 2011 estimate $413.402 billion[3] $2,578[3] 2011 estimate $238.920 billion[3] $1,490[3]

Gini (2003) HDI (2011) Currency

43.7 (medium) 0.459[4] (low) (156th) Naira () (NGN)

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims in the North and Christians in the South; a very small minority practice traditional religion. Since 2002 there have been a spate of clashes, particularly in the North of the country, between government forces and the Islamists Boko Haram, militant jihadists who seek to establish sharia law. The people of Nigeria have an extensive history. Archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BCE. The area around the Benue and Cross River is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. The British colonised Nigeria in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, setting up administrative structures and law while recognizing traditional chiefs. Nigeria became independent again in 1960. Several years later, it had civil war as Biafra tried to establish independence. Military governments in times of crisis have alternated with democratically elected governments. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the seventh most populous country in the world, and the most populous country in the world in which the majority of the population is black. Its oil reserves have brought great revenues to the country. It is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies, and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Government and politics


Nigeria is a Federal Republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president and with overtones of the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. The current president of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan, who succeeded Umaru Musa Yar'Adua to the office in 2010. The president presides as both Head of State and head of the national executive and is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms. The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. The House contains 360 seats and the number of seats per state is determined by population. Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have played a visible role in Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics and has spurned various attempts by tribalists to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests. Nationalism has also led to active secessionist movements such as MASSOB, Nationalist movements such as Oodua Peoples Congress, Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta and a civil war. Nigeria's three largest ethnic groups (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics; competition amongst these three groups has fuelled corruption and graft. Because of the above issues, Nigeria's current political parties are pan-national and irreligious in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities). The major political parties at present include the ruling People's Democratic Party of Nigeria which maintains 223 seats in the House and 76 in the Senate (61.9% and 69.7% respectively); the opposition All Nigeria People's Party has 96 House seats and 27 in the Senate (26.6% and 24.7%). There are also about twenty other minor opposition parties registered. The immediate past president, Olusegun Obasanjo, acknowledged fraud and other electoral "lapses" but said the result reflected opinion polls. In a national television

address he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years. Like in many other African societies, prebendalism and extremely excessive corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria, as vote rigging and other means of coercion are practised by all major parties in order to remain competitive. In 1983, it was adjudged by the policy institute at Kuru that only the 1959 and 1979 elections witnessed minimal rigging.
Flag Emblem Anthem Animal Bird Flower Sport Bicolour Coat of arms of Nigeria Arise, O Compatriots Eagle Black Crowned Crane Costus spectabilis Football National Symbols of Nigeria

NIGERIAN CULTURE - KEY CONCEPTS AND VALUES


Ethnic groups More than 250 ethnic groups with different languages and cultural costumes can be found in Nigeria. The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani, which adhere to Islam and the Yoruba and Igbo (Ibo), which adhere to Christianity. Traditional religious beliefs often mix within the two big religious groups. Family Family relations play a very important role in Nigerian culture. Generally, families in Nigeria have a patriarchical structure. Polygamy amongst members of the Muslim community is not uncommon. Family bonds help to achieve social status while nepotism is a major issue in Nigeria even though it is illegal. Time The perception of time in Nigeria differs from that in the West. Generally, everything Moves at a more relaxed pace. An individuals needs are considered more important than Sticking to a schedule. Keep this in mind and be flexible when doing business in Nigeria. Communication styles Communication styles in Nigeria may vary significantly depending on the individuals cultural ancestry. Nigerians from the south usually speak in a direct way and use a louder voice. Many of the people from the South-Western part of Nigeria make use of proverbs and sayings, thus their communication style is more indirect. In general, Nigerians are a friendly and outgoing people. Inquiring about a persons health and wellbeing is essential. A lot of gestures and facial expressions of empathy are used amongst Nigerians.

BUSINESS CULTURE IN NIGERIA


After an unsettled period of military rule, colonialism and several civil wars, today, Nigeria is Ruled by a democratic government. The government is making an effort to restructure and Improve Nigerias economy. Since the 1960s Nigerias economy has focussed on oil production and export rather than agriculture. As Africas largest oil producer, Nigeria attracts a lot of foreign business and trade. The National Monetary Fund expects a potential growth of 8.3% in 2009. Due to the declining number of people working in the agricultural sector, Nigeria has to import food to provide for the growing population.

Working culture in Nigeria Due to the Nigerians more relaxed attitude to time, schedule business meetings well in advance, preferably a month or two before the intended visit. Confirm the appointment by calling the day before. Aim to arrive on time for business meetings. However, this may be difficult due to the rather chaotic traffic in major cities of Nigeria. Being punctual is appreciated. Working hours in Nigeria are Monday to Friday, 8-8.30 am to 5pm. In the northern part of Nigeria, Friday is a holiday for the Muslim community.

Structure and hierarchy in Nigerian companies

Senior executives and colleagues expect a degree of respect. Therefore, be prepared for interruptions by people of a higher rank when in meetings. In Nigerian business culture, decisions are typically made by the most senior manager. Nevertheless, input from employees is rewarded and encouraged.

Business relationships in Nigeria

Establishing a personal relationship with your Nigerian counterpart is common practice before starting to do business. Be prepared to spend the first hour or two of the first meeting for that purpose only. Dont try to avoid this practice, as it might affect your business.

In the first few business meetings, expect the atmosphere to be rather formal. When Nigerians start to feel comfortable with you as a person and mutual trust has been established, they will become less formal. Then follow suit.

Business culture in Nigeria

Nigerians like to be addressed by Mr/ Mrs/ Ms and their last name. Titles are often used, as the person having a title sees this as a privilege.

Shaking hands is the common greeting procedure. Women normally dont shake hands. Due to the various cultures and languages prevalent in Nigeria, greeting one another in English is the most common practice.

Business dress in Nigeria is smart. Outer appearance is very important, because its an indicator for status. Some Nigerians tend to wear traditional native dresses (colourfully printed long gowns)

Laws in Nigeria
There are four distinct systems of law in Nigeria:

English law which is derived from its colonial past with Britain; Common law, a development of its post colonial independence; Customary law which is derived from indigenous traditional norms and practice, including the dispute resolution meetings of pre-colonial Yorubaland secret societies and the kp and Oknk of Igboland and Ibibioland;

Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Muslim north of the country. It is an Islamic legal system which had been used long before the colonial administration in Nigeria but recently politicised and spearheaded in Zamfara in late 1999 and eleven other states followed suit. These states are Kano, Katsina, Niger, Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Gombe, Sokoto, Jigawa, Yobe, and Kebbi.

The country has a judicial branch, the highest court of which is the Supreme Court of Nigeria.

FOREIGN RELATIONS
Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made the liberation and restoration of the dignity of Africa the centrepiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid regime in South Africa. One notable exception to the African focus of Nigeria's foreign policy was the close relationship the country enjoyed with Israel throughout the 1960s, with the latter country sponsoring and overseeing the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings. Nigeria's foreign policy was soon tested in the 1970s after the country emerged united from its own civil war and quickly committed itself to the liberation struggles going on in the Southern Africa sub-region. Though Nigeria never sent an expeditionary force in that struggle, it offered more than rhetoric to the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed tough line with regard to the racist regime and their incursions in southern Africa, in addition to expediting large sums to aid anti-colonial struggles. Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organisation for African Unity (now the African Union), and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and ECOMOG, economic and military organizations respectively. With this African-centred stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time); Nigeria also supported several Pan African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding anticolonial struggles in Mozambique, and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) military and economically. Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement, and in late November 2006 organized an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts. Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was temporarily expelled in 1995 under the Abacha regime.

Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) which it joined in July, 1971. Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes vicissitudinous international relations with both developed countries, notably the United States and more recently China and developing countries, notably Ghana, Jamaica and Kenya Millions of Nigerians have emigrated at times of economic hardship to Europe, North America and Australia among others. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. Of such Diasporic communities include the "Egbe Omo Yoruba" society.

WIND-DIESEL TECHNOLOGY
Wind-diesel hybrids are a viable option for nigerian villages. The best hybrid system for villages is the parallel system, in which a diesel generator and alternator are installed beside a free-standing wind turbine providing AC power directly into the village grid. The diesel generators and the wind turbines are independently attached to the grid, and a control system manages the two connections to meet electricity needs without disturbing the power frequency of the grid.

Since most villages are already electrified, wind-diesel hybrids are usually retrofits of existing diesel-only systems. The operator installs the wind turbines and connects them directly to the grid alongside the diesel generator. Wind powers share of power produced by a hybrid system can range from one third in areas of moderate wind (low penetration) to over two-thirds in areas with very high winds (high penetration). In both cases, the hybrid system involves smaller diesel generators compared to stand-alone diesel, efficient operation of the diesel generator at all times, lower fuel consumption and emissions, and better economics. In areas that have to fly in diesel fuel over long distances, even low penetration hybrids offer substantial savings

Fortunately, wind speeds in Nigeria are often constant on an hourly basis, offering good reliability for wind power and reducing the required size of the diesel generator. Wind speeds range from moderate (Class 3) to high (Class 6 and 7) on and near the coast, and from low (Class 1) to moderate (Class 3) in interior regions.

The most appropriate wind turbines for villages are small, not the type normally associated with large-scale wind farms in the contiguous forty-eight states. Small wind turbines range from 300 watts to 10 kW for individual homes, and up to 225 kW for small industrial and village loads. Portability is the keythe turbine components must fit on a plane for shipment.

WIND-DIESEL POWER SYSTEMS


Wind-diesel power systems can vary from simple designs, where wind turbines are connected directly to the diesel grid with a minimum of additional features, to more complex systems. Two overlapping concepts define the system design and required components: the amount of energy that is expected from the wind system (system penetration) and the decision to use thermal loads and/or a storage device to remedy system energy fluctuations. Given todays technology, these issues are usually determined by the system designers as a starting point for overall system design. These concepts are described in the following section. When incorporating renewable-based technologies such as wind onto a diesel grid, the amount of energy that will be obtained from the wind resource relative to the diesel generators must be determined, because this will dictate which components will be used. A three level classification system has been developed that defines different levels of penetration on the grid. These classifications, defined as low, medium, and high penetration, separate systems along power and system control needs (see table 1 below).

St Paul Wind-Diesel System Architecture

WIND-DIESEL POWER SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS


Low-Penetration Systems
The wind farm in Kotzebue is one of many low-penetration systems that have been installed worldwide. Low-penetration systems vary from small to relatively large isolated grids. Some large grids, such as those found in certain areas of the United States and Europe, reach a wind power penetration that would classify them in the same category as low-penetration systems. In low-penetration systems, the wind turbines act as just another generation source, requiring no special arrangements. The control technology required at this level of generation is trivial, especially given the control, flexibility, and speed of modern diesel and wind systems. In many systems, no form of automated control is required; the wind turbines act under their existing controllers, and an operator monitors all system functions. Because the diesel engines are designed to allow for rapid fluctuations in power requirements from the load, the addition of wind has very limited impact, if any, on the ability of the diesel control to supply the remaining difference. Issues of spinning reserve, a term used to represent the availability of instantaneous system capacity to cover rapid changes in system load or energy production, are addressed by the allowable capacity of the diesel engines, which in many cases can run at 125% rated power for short periods of time with no adverse impact.

Medium-Penetration Systems
Systems with larger ratios of wind power fall into this category. The concept is that by allowing power penetrations above 50%, any under-loaded diesel generators in power plants consisting of multiple generators will be shut off and, if necessary, a smaller unit will be turned on. This in turn will reduce plant diesel consumption and diesel engine operation. It might also make the system vulnerable to potential shortfalls, assuming the loss of one or more of the wind generators or diesel engines. In addition, with a large penetration of energy being produced by the wind turbines, it will become harder for the operating diesel units to tightly regulate system voltage and maintain an adequate power balance. There are options to insure that the high-power-quality requirements of the power system are maintained, even

with half of the energy provided by wind. Some of these options include power reduction capabilities within the wind turbine controller, the inclusion of a secondary load to insure that no more than a specified amount of energy will be generated by the wind, installation of capacitor banks to correct power the factor, or even the use of advanced power electronics to allow real-time power specification. Spinning reserve on medium-penetration power systems requires experience with regard to proper power levels and system commitments, but is not considered technically complex. Such spinning reserve issues should be handled on a case-by-case basis. They can be partially resolved through the use of advanced diesel controls, the installation of a modern, fuelinjected diesel engine with fast start and low-loading capabilities, controlled load shedding or reduction, power forecasting, and proper system oversight. Combined with the use of variable-speed or advanced-power conditioning available on many modern wind turbines, the control requirements of medium-penetration systems are relatively simple. The ability to provide high power quality in medium-penetration power systems has been demonstrated for years in a number of critical locations. The most notable examples are the military diesel plants on San Clemente Island and Ascension Island, and the power systems in Kotzebue, Toksook Bay and Kasigluk, Alaska. All of these systems have experienced power penetration at or above the guidelines set for medium penetration systems.

High-Penetration Systems
Although demonstrated on a commercial basis, high-penetration wind-diesel power systems require a much higher level of system integration, technology complexity, and advanced control. The principle of high-penetration systems is that ancillary equipment is installed in addition to a large amount of wind capacity (up to 300% of the average power requirements), so that the diesel can be shut off completely when there is an abundance of wind power production. Any instantaneous wind power production over the required electrical load, represented by an instantaneous penetration over 100%, is supplied to a variety of controllable secondary loads. In these systems, synchronous condensers, load banks, dispatchable loads (including storage in the form of batteries or flywheel systems), power converters, and advanced system controls are used to insure power quality and system integrity. Spinning reserve is created through the use of short-term storage or the maintenance of a consistent oversupply of renewable energy. Although these systems have been

demonstrated commercially, they are not yet considered a mature technology and have not been demonstrated on systems exceeding 200 kW average load. Wind-diesel systems that employ the high-penetration system are operating in St. Paul and Wales. Because of the large overproduction of energy, high penetration wind-diesel systems are economically feasible only if there is a use for the additional energy generated by the wind turbines. In the case of Alaska, this extra energy can be used to heat community buildings and homes (thermal energy), displacing fuel oil. Another use could be to power electric or hybrid cars, ATVs, and snow machines. Storage use in high penetration wind applications Until recently, it was assumed that high penetration wind-diesel systems without storage were only theoretically possible. This is no longer the case. Commercially operating short-term storage and no storage systems have been installed in recent years, demonstrating that both technology choices are viable. In systems incorporating storage, the storage is used to cover short-term fluctuations in power. During lulls in wind generation, the battery bank or other storage device supplies any needed power. If the lulls are prolonged or the storage becomes discharged, a diesel generator is started and takes over supplying the load. Studies have indicated that most lulls in power from the wind are of limited duration, and using storage to cover these short time periods can lead to significant reductions in the consumption of fuel, generator operational hours, and generator starts. The storage system does not necessarily need to be able to carry the full community load, since in larger systems the storage is only used to smooth out lulls in wind energy or to buy enough time to start a standby generator. In these cases, the storage capacity should be approximately the same size as the smallest diesel and have an accessible capacity up to 15 minutes. In wind-diesel applications, the requirements for storage systems will depend on local wind resources, the costs of different components, capacity and power response times, and the power system performance required. Different storage options are discussed in a separate section of this report, but care should be taken to insure that the storage technology selected meets the specific needs of the particular wind-diesel application.

All high-penetration systems, with and without storage, have been installed in northern climates where the extra energy can be used for heating buildings or water, displacing other fuels. In these systems, it may be wise to install uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) on critical loads. Although only a limited number of systems have been installed, the concept is economically attractive and has the potential to drastically reduce fuel consumption in remote communities in Nigeria.

ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN NIGERIA


The Electric Power Sector Reform Act of 2005 established NERC's authority to impose mandatory reliability standards on the transmission system and to impose penalties on companies that manipulate the electricity markets. The EPSRAct of 2005 gave NERC additional responsibilities as outlined in NERC's Wide Important Goals. As part of that responsibility, NERC:

Regulates the generation, transmission, distribution and marketing of electricity in Nigeria (and with Nigeria);

Licenses and inspects private and corporate electric power projects (10MW and above; where 1-10MW are issued Captive Licenses);

Ensures the reliability of generation plants, high voltage transmission system and the zonal distribution system;

Ensures occupational health and safety of persons involved with electricity in the whole sector.

Monitors and investigates energy markets; Uses civil penalties and other means against energy organizations and individuals who violate NERC rules in the energy markets;

Administers accounting and financial reporting regulations and conduct of regulated companies.

In recent years, the NERC has been promoting the voluntary formation of Independent Electric Transmission Networks (IETNs) and Independent Electric Distribution Networks (IEDNs) to eliminate the potential for undue discrimination in access to the electric grid. However since the generation capacity is even low and the transmission not robust, NERC has aggressively developed regulations to push for the primary provision of supply, electric reliability and implementation of new regulations keeping in sight when the sector fully develops. NERC regulates over 40 licensees in Nigeria. It is also responsible for permitting the construction of network of transmission lines by the Transmission Company of Nigeria (the tranmission monopoly in Nigeria formed as a successor company of the PHCN). NERC also works closely with the Nigerian Ministry of Environment and other related bodies in reviewing the safety, security and environmental impacts of proposed power plants and transmission networks.

WHY NIGERIA?

THE e-mail from Nigeria claimed to come from an aide to the president and touted a business opportunity with potentially vast returns. But unlike similar-sounding messages from Nigerian princes and finance ministersknown in Nigeria as 419 scams after a section of the penal codethis one seemed genuine. President Goodluck Jonathan, who early next year will stand in an election that could split his party and spark violent protests, has asked investors to participate in a grandiose privatisation programme meant to raise $35 billion over ten years. He wants to flog state power-generation and distribution companies, and put the grid under private management. The scheme may be hisand his country'sbest hope of salvation from chronic power cuts. At a prayer meeting on October 4th Mr Jonathan was reading a biblical passage in front of many of the country's elite when the grid failed and his microphone cut out. He walked off in a huff. Ordinary Nigerians are angry too. The power supply, they say, is epileptic. Nigeria is a big oil exporter, but its people get only a few hours of electricity a day. The entire population

around 150mis said to use as much grid power as the area around Narita airport in Tokyo. South Africans consume 55 times more energy per head, and Americans 100 times more. The problem is not new. Nigeria's power supply has been stagnant for 30 years. During the tumultuous 1990s there was no investment despite surging demand. Since then, generation capacity has risen by half but distribution is so dysfunctional that actual supply has remained flat. One result is a laughably small manufacturing sector, about 4% of GDP. There have been reform attempts in the past. The Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), the monopoly supplier, is known to consumers as Please Have Candle Nearby. Five years ago it replaced the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), nicknamed Never Expect Power Again. Mischarging and other sins continued. I just got a bill for the last four months but had no lights for three, says a doctor 20 miles (32km) outside the capital, Abuja. To survive, many Nigerians have their own power plants, creating the world's highest concentration of small-scale generators. Two-thirds of all electricity is produced in basements and backyards, at a cost of $13 billion a year. Generator merchants say the government is their best client. Some have set up steel plants to keep up with demand. One has 3,000 workers assembling the grunting machines. All this could change if the privatization scheme succeeds. It aims to raise $3.5 billion a year and boost the power supply 13-fold over a decade. The government is offering to guarantee some bank loans and may cap the interest at 7%. At a recent conference in Abuja Mr Jonathan wooed hundreds of investors, including executives from Goldman Sachs and General Electric. Other African leaders are watching closely, sensing that this may prove to be a test bed for the continent. Some, though not all (see article), are asking what alternatives there are to growing dependence on Chinese investment. Like most of its neighbors, Nigeria is making big infrastructure deals with China. In May, it inked a $23 billion Chinese oil refinery project. But Mr Jonathan acknowledges that China's interest in Africa is no panacea. The case for privatization will get a boost if he can keep the lights on at home. There are reasons to be optimistic. The programmed has a sound legal basis. It follows a conventional privatization model. Its pricing scheme seems transparent. That has reassured

investors. They also welcome the easy access to local-currency loans in Nigeria, one of Africa's most developed capital markets. And they like the country's strong GDP growth, expected to top 7% this year. Yet there is still plenty to worry about. Supplying new power stations with gas is a headache, as is recruiting competent staff. But it is the politics of privatization that investors fear most. There will be plenty of losers, many with vocal lobbies. Trade unions are protesting against staff cuts, although the president has set aside money for compensation. Consumers fear steep price hikes. The fuel mafia that supplies generator owners is up in arms. Even more worrying, the corrupt state bureaucracy is drooling in anticipation. The influx of billions of dollars will create long queues at the trough. Observers warn of the rascality of Nigerian officials. The president says he will work hard to make his privatization plan work. To convince investors, he has appointed himself electricity minister and scheduled weekly power summits (11am on Tuesdays). He has also surrounded himself with men familiar to potential investors. The central bank governor and the finance minister are career bankers with experience abroad. He calls them his war cabinet, although they have limited influence. The strongest pitch the government could make would be its own re-election. Voting is due early next year and for the first time in recent history the outcome is uncertain. The president's partydominant since the end of military rule 11 years agocannot agree on a nominee. The losers in a forthcoming primary may break away. One-party rule could end. As the election campaign picks up pace, the president's focus is likely to drift and electricity may return to the back burner. Or perhaps it already has. At the two-day conference in Abuja, Mr Jonathan failed to show up for the second day. Apparently, he was lured away to another meeting by his wife, Dame Patience, who is one of his closest advisers. For now, privatisation is wobbling along and some deals may be done. But consumers will have to wait until next year before they can even think about turning off their generators. Good luck and patience will both be needed.

This years list recognizes 10 Best Workplaces in Nigeria. Find the top 10 companies below.
1. GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC www.guinness-nigeria.com Industry: Manufacturing & Production Food products Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 2. First Bank of Nigeria Plc www.firstbanknigeria.com Industry: Financial Services & Insurance Banking/Credit Services Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 3. Guaranty Trust Assurance Plc www.gtassur.com/ Industry: Financial Services & Insurance Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 4. ACCENTURE NIGERIA www.accenture.com/ng-en/Pages/index.aspx Industry: Information Technology IT Consulting Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 5. Fidelity Bank Plc www.fidelitybankplc.com/ Industry: Financial Services & Insurance Banking/Credit Services Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 6. Lagos Business School www.lbs.edu.ng/ Industry: Education & Training Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 7. FITC Financial Institutions Training Center www.fitc-ng.com/index.asp Industry: Financial Services & Insurance Ownership: Non-profit

8. TOTAL NIGERIA www.ng.total.com/ Industry: Manufacturing & Production Coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 9. Access Bank Plc www.accessbankplc.com/default.aspx Industry: Financial Services & Insurance Banking/Credit Services Ownership: Publicly quoted/held 10. GLAXOSMITHKLINE CONSUMER www.gsk.com/ng/ Industry: Health Care Ownership: Publicly quoted/held

MAJOR COMPETITORS IN THE MARKET OF GENERATORS IN NIGERIA


Perkins Generator
Category: Electrical Equipment & Supplies| Diesel Generators TECLAB MANAGEMENT SERVICES LIMITED

Business Type: Agent

Diesel Generators
MIKANO INTERNATIONAL

Business Type: Manufacturer No of Employees: Above 1000 People Management Certification: ISO 9001:2000;

Non fuelled generator


DIVERSE IDEAS NIGERIA LIMITED

Business Type: Manufacturer, Distributor/Wholesaler Management Certification: HACCP; ISO 9001:2000; QS-9000; ISO 14001:2004; ISO/TS 16949;

Sound proof generator sets


SOUTHATLANTIC INDUSTRY CO. LTD

Business Type: Manufacturer, Trading Company

Dorman Generator set


OREDUNNI ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION WORKS LTD

Business Type: Manufacturer

No of Employees: 11 - 50 People

Diesel Generators
MIKANO INTERNATIONAL

Business Type: Manufacturer No of Employees: Above 1000 People Management Certification: ISO 9001:2000;

Diesel Generator Sets


SOUTHATLANTIC INDUSTRY CO. LTD

Business Type: Manufacturer, Trading Company

Solar Power Generators


OMEGA WEB CREATIONS

Business Type: Trading Company, Agent

Perkins Diesel Generator


AKOMS LTD

Business Type: Agent

Inomina Generators
5KVA, 10KVA, 15KVA, 20KVA, 25KVA, 30KVA, 40KVA, 50KVA, 60KVA, 100KVA, 160KVA and above...
INOMINA INTERNATIONAL SERVICES

No of Employees: 51 - 100 People

SEGMENTATION

Geographical segmentation:
This product will used in all states of Nigeria. Each state will have its own distribution centre.

Demographical segmentation:
Income: it will segment as income wise also as price of generator is different according to the size, capacity, and efficiency of generators.

Occupation: occupation is the main demographic factors in case of wind-diesel generators as its purpose is also to use for the industry and production purposes. In small, medium and large size units require different size of generators; it will be categorized accordingly by generating of power.

Benefit segmentation:
product can be also segment by its used and benefits to the customers. Customers can be classified according to the benefits of the generator like fuel efficiency, low charges and maintenance, high watts generating. Etc.