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Rectangular Waveguides - Basic Theory

Electric and Magnetic Fields in a Rectangular waveguide:


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 0 = + 2 (From Helmholtz wave equa+ z + y = 0 = 2 =x + z + y For any wave, x

tion)

For a wave in rectangular waveguide, we need to apply boundary conditions Etangential = 0 and Hnormal = 0. Then we get, Ey Ex = A1 sin m n x cos y ejz z a b m n = A2 cos x sin y ejz z a b

In the above equation indicates the fact that the wave can propagate in either z or +z direction. From Poynting theorem we get,
Hx Ex = = A1 n m x cos y ejz z sin mn Z0 a b A2 n m x sin y ejz z , cos mn Z0 a b

mn where Z0 indicates the characteristic impedance corresponding to the mnth mode (either TE or TM mode, which we will study after CAT II exam).

Now, Let's closely observe the below equation: Ey m n = A1 sin x cos y ejz z a b m m n n 1 1 = A1 ej a x ej a x ej b y + ej b y 2j 2
waves along x waves along y

ejz z
waves along z

As we can see, Ey can be decomposed into waves propagating along +x, x, +y, y, +z, and z directions. We can decompose other elds also like this. Important point to observe here is, propagation constants along various directions are given as
x y = = m a n 0 + jy = 0 + j b 0 + jx = 0 + j

(1)

OK ... Then what is z ? ... If you know answer to this question, that means you understood the

concept of wave propagation in waveguides ...

Propagation Constant along z direction:


2 2 2 2 We know from the previous section that x + y + z = 0 = 2 . Substituting (1) in this equation gives 2 2 2 x + y + z = 2 2 2 2 z = x y 2 m 2 n 2 2 z = j j 2 a b n 2 m 2 2 + 2 z = a b m 2 n 2 z = 0 + jz = + 2 . a b

(2)

Cuto Frequency, Wavelength, and Propagation Constants:


If a wave propagates along z directions, then the corresponding propagation constant z should be a pure imaginary term like 0 + jz . So, wave propagation occurs only when the term inside the square root of the above equation becomes negative number, i.e.,
m a n 2 2 < 0 b m 2 n 2 + < 2 a b m 2 > a 1 > +
2

+ m a

n b
2

n b

= cuto .

(3)

So, signals with frequency greater than cuto only can propagate. Of course, we can similarly dened cuto wavelength too. Cuto wavelength is given as
cuto = cuto = c = fcuto 2
m 2 a

c
cutoff 2

1 = .

2
1 m 2 a

n 2 b

n 2 b

(4)

And, nally we can also dene one more parameter, cuto propagation constant as shown below:
cuto = 2 cuto = m a
2

n b

(5)

Rectangular Waveguide lled with Lossy Dielectric Medium:


Until now, we assumed that the rectangular waveguide is lled with loss-less medium (e.g., vacuum). However, some times we may need to ll it with lossy dielectric materials. In such cases, waves get attenuated as they propagate along z direction. so, we need to calculate that attenuation constant (i.e., z ). So, let's calculate

that parameter in this section. From (2),


lossy z

= = = = = =

m a m a m a

n b 2 n + b +
2

2 2 0 r 0 r (1 j tan )
2

n b

2 0 0 r + j 2 0 0 r tan , assuming r = 1

2 2 z, lossless + j 0 0 r tan 2 (jz,lossless ) + j0 ,lossless tan 2 2 z, lossless + j0,lossless tan 2

= jz,lossless jz,lossless = = jz,lossless +

1 1

2 j0 ,lossless tan 2 z, lossless 2 1 j0 ,lossless tan 2 2 z, lossless

2 1 0 ,lossless tan 2 z,lossless

2 1 0 ,lossless tan +j z,lossless . 2 z,lossless z,lossy z,lossy

So, for a rectangular waveguide lled with lossy dielectric material, real and imaginary parts of the propagation constant are given as
z,lossy z,lossy = =
2 1 0 ,lossless tan 2 z,lossless

z,lossless = 2 0 0 r

(6)

Guided Wavelength:
Since the wave is propagating (in other words guided ) along z direction, guided wavelength is nothing but wave length along z direction. We already know propagation constant along z direction. So, guided wavelength is given from z as
guided = 2 . z

We also know from (2) that


m 2 n 2 + 2 a b m 2 n 2 2 z = + 2 a b m 2 n 2 2 z = 2 + a b jz = z = 2 m a
2

n b

So, guided wavelength is given as


guided = 2 = z 2 2
m 2 a

. +
n 2 b

(7)

Summary
2 + 2 + 2 = 2 = 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 = 2 = + 2 x x y z y z 0 0

x = 0 + jx = 0 + j m , & y = 0 + jy = 0 + j n a b z = 0 + jz = cuto =
1 m 2 a m 2 a

n 2 b n 2 b

For lossy Rectangular waveguide


z,lossy z,lossy = = 1 0,lossless tan 2 z,lossless z,lossless = 2 0 0 r
2

guided =

2 z

=
2

( m a )

+( n b )