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Dental Anatomy & Occlusion Dent 202


The act of closure or being closed A static morphological tooth contact relationship Includes all factors concerned with the development and stability of the masticatory system and the use of teeth in oral motor behavior Includes the integrated system of functional units involving teeth, joints and muscles of the head and neck

Concepts of occlusion
Balanced occlusion

Bilateral contacts in all functional excursions Prevent tipping of the denture bases Not necessarily existing in natural dentition because each tooth is a separate unit

Intercuspal position Centric occlusion Concepts developed in relation to orthodontics, complete dentures and full mouth rehabilitation

None are completely applicable to natural dentition

Overview of primary occlusion

Each tooth occludes with 2 teeth of the opposing jaw Exceptions

Mandibular central incisor Maxillary second molar

Occlusion is supported and made more efficient after eruption of first permanent molars Interdental spacing is important for future sufficiency of space in permanent teeth Probability of crowding in permanent teeth is related to the amount of interdental spacing in primary dentition

Primary molar relationship

Terminal plane relationship


56% - Class I Angles molar relationship 44% - Class II Angles molar relationship Class II Angles molar relationship A greater probability for Class I Angles molar relationship A lesser probability for Class III Angles molar relationship

Distal step

Mesial step

Primary molar relationship

Factors influencing the effect of terminal plane relationship on Angles molar relationship

Differential growth of the jaw Forward growth of the mandible Sufficient Leeway space to accommodate a mesial shift of the permanent molars

Leeway space is the amount of space gained by

the difference in the mesiodistal diameter between deciduous molars and premolars

Permanent occlusion
Anteroposterior relationship
Incisors: Class I, II, III Canine: Class I, II, III Molars: Angles Class I, II, III

Faciolingual relationship
Premolars Molars

Incisal relationship
Class I Class II Class III Overjet Reverse overjet Overbite

Canine relationship
Class I Class II Class III

Molar Occlusal relationship Angles Class I Angles Class II Angles Class III

Arch Occlusal relationship

Curves of occlusion
Curve of Spee Curve of Wilson Sphere of Monson

Inclination & angulation of the roots of the teeth

Mandibular arch is wider than maxillary arch Each tooth must be placed at the angle that best withstands the

With the exception of mandibular incisors and maxillary third molars, each tooth contacts two antagonist teeth in the opposing arch Loss of one tooth keeps the adjacent tooth in contact with opposing antagonist Mesial or distal drifting into the space disturbs occlusal contact with antagonist teeth

Centric stops
Lingual cusp tips of maxillary posterior make contact with opposing fossae and marginal ridges of mandibular posterior teeth Buccal cusp tips of mandibular posterior make contact with opposing fossae and marginal ridges of maxillary posterior teeth Lingual cusps of maxillary posterior teeth and buccal cusps of mandibular posterior teeth are called supporting cusps Areas of occlusal contact that a supporting cusp make with opposing teeth in centric occlusion are centric stops The tip of that cusp is also a centric stop Knowledge of centric stops are important in restorative dentistry

Movements away from centric occlusion


Working side Non-working side In complete dentures

Balancing side Non-balancing side

Movement in TMJ Tooth guidance

Group function Canine guidance


Incisal guidance The most retrusive position is the centric occlusion in complete dentures