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# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

## DATE: 10TH NOVEMBER 2009

TITLE: PARALLEL DRIVING OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR OBJECTIVES: To synchronize a generator to infinite bus bars. To investigate the behavior of parallel driven generators on the distribution of load. APPARATUS: DC motor Synchronous Generator Wattmeter Power Factor Meter Starter 2 Potential Transformers 2 Current transformers Bulbs Voltmeters Ammeters

THEORY OF EXPERIMENT: A synchronous machine operates at synchronous speed, that is, at the speed at which the magnetic field created by the field coils rotates. This machine may either be a generator or a motor. The synchronous speed Ns in revolutions per minute (rpm) is given as N 120 f .
s

## f is Frequency (Hz) P is the number of poles

When generators are supplying power to the load, they are all connected in parallel. The bus bar connecting these generators to the load is termed as infinite bus bar. This is because it consists of many other connections to other loads and alternators. To connect a generator to infinite bus bar is called synchronizing. SYNCHRONIZING Synchronizing is the operation of connecting an alternator in parallel with another alternator or with common bus-bars. In most cases alternators are used in power systems where they are in parallel with other alternators. The System to which an alternator is connected is most probably already connected with many other alternators and loads and as such that the incoming alternator must maintain the existing system specifications in terms of voltage and frequency. As such, the terminal voltage, speed and phase voltage of the alternator must match those of the bus-bar. Failure to fulfill this condition may lead to the destruction of the incoming alternator or even destabilization of the entire system. To achieve synchronization, synchronizing bulbs can be used. They are connected between the alternator and the bus-bar as shown.

## Figure: Connection of bulbs, alternator and infinite bus-bar

REACTIVE POWER If the voltage is greater than the bus bar voltage reactive cross current flows from high voltage side. This current gives a magnetizing action to the low voltage side (leading power factor to the low voltage generator) and demagnetizing current to the high voltage side (lagging power factor to the high voltage generator). This action in effect keeps the voltage constant while the power factor as well as the phase angle changes. The opposite happens when the field excitation of the generators is reduced.

LOADING THE GENERATOR After synchronizing the generator to the infinite bus bars, the load connected to it is that seen by all generators to those bus bars.

PROCEDURE:
1. Parallel driving (lamp sequence method) The circuit was connected as shown in figure 1. The dc motor was then driven to synchronous speed. The terminal voltage of the generator is adjusted to bus bars voltage by varying the field current. If the phase angle between the incoming generator and that of the bus bars is large, the rotation indicated by turning ON and OFF the lamps is high. When the phases agree bulb B2 turns OFF and the other two have equal brightness. Switch S3 is turned ON immediately. The incoming generator is then running in parallel with infinite bus bars generators. Note: if the power factor us lagging for under excitation, interchange secondary connections of both current transformers. 2. Loading Load the generator from zero to the rated capacity by increasing the dc motor output (by varying the field current of the dc motor) and the instrument readings were noted each time. 3. Reactive Power The generator was driven with the rated current then the field current was varied under excited and overexcited conditions and the instrument readings were noted each time.

RESULTS:
Loading: Varying power by steps of 3watts.
Power(w)
Armature current,Ia

Ig
0 0.5 1.0 1.25 1.65 2.05 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

p.f
1 -0.95 -0.91 -0.90 -0.89 -0.89 -0.89 -0.89 -0.89

Vg
410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410 410

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24

## Varying generator field current by 0.2A.

Armature current,Ia

Power(w)W * 80

Ig
4.2 3.5 2.9 2.8 3.15 3.7 4.6

p.f
-0.99 -0.94 -0.73 -0.39 -0.22 -0.30 -0.50

## 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1

24 24 25 25 25 24 24

## Vg 410 410 410 410 410 410 410

p.f. loading
1.03 0.98 Pf 0.93 0.88 0 0.5 1 1.5 if (A) 2 2.5 3 3.5 pf

ig vs if for loading
1.4 1.2 1 Ig (A) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 If (A) 2 2.5 3 3.5 ig

## p.f. vs if for reactive power

1.2 1 0.8 PF 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.5 1 IF (A) 1.5 2 2.5 pf

## ig vs if for reactive power

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 If (A) 1.5 2 2.5

Ig (A)

## ig vs if for reactive power

DISCUSSION:
Synchronizing Indicator commonly used in practice Lamps can be used in Synchronization but they are not quite accurate, because they depend on a sense of correct judgment of the operator. To eliminate this element of personal judgment in routine operations of alternators, the machines are synchronized by a more accurate device called a synchronoscope. A synchronoscope consists of 3 stationary coils and a rotating iron vane which is attached to a pointer. Out of 3 coils, a pair is connected to one phase of the line and the other to the corresponding machine terminals, potential transformer being used. The pointer moves to one side or the other from its vertical position depending on whether the incoming machine is too fast or too slow. For correct speed, the pointer moves vertically up. Lamps as a synchronizing indicator If machine 2 has a different speed from that of machine 1, then its frequency will also be different, hence there is a phase difference between their voltages ( even when they are equal in magnitude). This phase difference will be continuously changing with changes in frequency. Sometimes the resultant voltage is maximum and some other times its minimum. Hence the current is alternating maximum and minimum. Due to this changing current through lamps, a flicker will be produced, the flicker of the lamp being (f2 f1). Lamps will glow up and dark out alternatively. Darkness indicates that the two voltages E1 and E2 are in exact phase opposition relative to the local circuit and hence no resultant current through lamps. Lamps will glow brightest when the two voltages are in phase with the bus bar voltage because then voltage across them is twice the voltage of each machine.

Effect of unequal voltages The phasor diagram is as shown: If E1 is greater than E2, then their resultant is Er = (E1 E2) and is in phase with E1. This Er sets up a synchronizing current ISY which is almost 900 behind Er and hence behind E1 also. This lagging current produces demagnetizing effect on the first machine, hence E1 is reduced. The other machine runs as a synchronous motor, taking almost 900 lead current. Hence its field current is strengthened due to magnetizing effect of armature reaction. This tends to increase E2. These two effects act together and hence lessen the inequalities between the two voltages and tends to establish stable conditions.

Effect of unequal phase If E2 falls back by a phase angle electrical degree. Though E1 = E2 in magnitude but there is a resultant voltage Er which circulates a synchronizing current. This current ISY sets up a synchronizing torque, which tends to retard the generating machine with E1 and accelerate the motoring machine with E2.

CONCLUSION The experiment was a success as we were able to synchronize a generator to infinite bus bar. The objectives met despite a few errors attributed to; Human error while taking the readings. Instruments error thus giving inaccurate values.

## REFERENCES A text book of Electrical Technology By Theraja http://www.en.wikipedia.org

Electric Machinery Fitzgerald Kingsley