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The McAuley Catholic High School History Department

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Modern World AFL and Revision

Based on AFL and Revision booklets and activities created by Roy Huggins and the Mexborough History Department. 1

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933 45?

You need to think about: How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime? How effectively did the Nazis deal with their political opponents? How did the Nazis use culture and the mass media to control the people? Why did the Nazis persecute many groups in German society? You need to know about: removal of opposition; methods of control and repression; use of culture and the mass media.

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45? Contents
The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933 45? ......................................... 2 Opposition within Nazi Germany ............................................................................................................ 4 How did the Nazis keep control? ............................................................................................................ 9 Propaganda ........................................................................................................................................... 12 Why did the Nazis persecute many groups in German society? .......................................................... 17 How Far Does this source explain type questions: ............................................................................... 23 Why was this source published type question: .................................................................................... 26 Are you surprised by the source type questions: ................................................................................. 27 Question 5 or 6 (a) style questions: .................................................................................................. 33 Question 5 or 6 (B) style questions: .................................................................................................. 34 Question 5 or 6 (c ) stQuestion 5 or 6 (c ) style questions: ............................................................... 35

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Opposition within Nazi Germany


It is difficult to know how much opposition there was to the Nazis because officially no opposition was recognised. Nazi propaganda gave the impression that everyone loved the Fuhrer. Many people did object to the personal restrictions placed upon them and to the treatment of the Jews. But there was a big difference between objecting to some of Hitlers policies and active opposition. Opposition was extremely dangerous and therefore there was little effective opposition before the Second World War. In 1933 Hitler had used the Enabling Law to ban all political parties other than the Nazis. His two main opponents the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist Party (KPD) went underground and published anti-Nazi propaganda, little of it reached the German people. Opposition from artists and authors was more common, but here the opposition was largely concerned with the restrictions on artistic freedom. Some spoke out against the restrictions, but most chose either to suffer in silence or emigrate. The Nazis saw it as important to keep a good relationship with the church. They feared that as many Germans were committed Christians if there were problems between the church and the Nazis many Germans would put their faith before the Nazis. At first the Christian churches seemed to be keen to work with the Nazis. The governments encouragement of family values and its campaign against immorality in Germany was very much in keeping with Christian beliefs. In 1933 the Catholic church signed a concordat with the Nazis. The church agreed not to make comment on political matters if the Nazis did not interfere in religion. However Hitler did increasingly interfere in Catholic Church matters such as closing down Catholic youth movements because they rivalled the Hitler Youth. In 1937 Pope Pius XI denounced Nazism as anti-Christian and in 1941 a letter from the Pope
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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
criticising the Nazis for their abuse of Human Rights was read out in Catholic churches. Hitler Responded by sending nuns and priests to labour camps. Relations with protestant churches also deteriorated after Hitler set up the Reich church. Some 800 protestant churchmen such as Pastor Martin Niemoller were sent to labour camps for speaking out against the Nazis. Task 1: Using the information complete the table below: Key point What I have learned Why was there little opposition towards the Nazis?

What was the enabling law?

What opposition was there from artists and authors?

How did the Nazis try to control religion?

What opposition was there from the church?

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Some Army Generals were suspicious of the Nazis. One of the most prominent was General Ludwig Beck, who disagreed with Hitlers foreign policy of expansion. Although the Hitler Youth movement was popular with many German Youngsters, some objected to the restrictions. Around a million young people refused to join the Hitler youth. They did not want training for the army or motherhood. Instead they were more interested in dancing to American and English songs and listening to overseas radio stations. The Helmuth Hubener Group handed out leaflets which protested against the Nazi regime and provided translated BBC broadcasts and leaflets. Its leader Helmuth Hubener was arrested by the Gestapo and executed by guillotine in 1942. This was known as the swing movement. Other groups which opposed the Nazis included the Navajos gang or Edelwiess pirates. They often fought members of the Hitler Youth. There was increasing opposition to the Nazis from within the upper classes. Although they had originally approved of the way the Nazis brought stability back to Germany, by 1940 they were tired of Nazi brutality and feared that Hitlers aggressive foreign policy would lead to Germanys ruin. The Kreisau circle was led by Helmuth Von Moltke from one of Germanys most famous aristocratic families. They wanted to see the Nazis overthrown but they were not men of violence. In 1944 their group was discovered and theThere was increasing opposition to the Nazis from within the upper classes. Although they had originally approved of the way the Nazis brought stability back to Germany, by 1940 they were tired of Nazi brutality and feared that Hitlers aggressive foreign policy would lead to Germanys ruin. The Kreisau circle was led by Helmuth Von Moltke from one of Germanys most famous aristocratic families. They wanted to see the Nazis overthrown but they were not men of violence. In 1944 their group was discovered and the were executed. The Beck-Goerdeler group who realised that the only way to get rid of Hitler was to assassinate him. They were involved in the July Plot. During the second world war opposition increased. A group of university students in Munich led by Sophie Scholl formed the white rose movement. They handed out pamphlets appealing for people to oppose the policies of the Nazi regime. In 1943 the government arrested and executed leading members of the group. During the war the activities of the Navajos and Edelweiss pirates became more serious and they helped spread allied propaganda. In July 1944 the Beck-Goerdeler group and one of their supporters Count Von Stauffenberg placed a briefcase with a bomb inside at a meeting attended by Hitler. Although the bomb exploded Hitler was not seriously injured.
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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Task Two: Key points How did the army oppose Hitler? What I have learned

How did the young oppose Hitler?

How did the upper classes oppose Hitler?

What opposition was there to Hitler during the war?

Task Three: Complete the pros and cons grid for opposition in Nazi Germany

How did the Nazis keep control?

Task One: Match up the descriptions to the correct means of control Group SS Key Points 1) Secret police 2) They could send suspects to concentration camps without trial 3) Top jobs in local police forces were given to high ranking Nazis 4) Very few people emerged alive from the camps. They held communists, socialists, jews, trade unionists. 5) Led by Heinrich Himmler 6) Led by Reinhard Heydrich 7) Ignored crimes committed by Nazis 8) Run by deaths head units 9) Ran the concentration camps 10) Many Germans informed on each other because they thought this group would find out anyway 11) Had to report to Himmler 12) These were set up as soon as Hitler took power 10) One of the sub divisons was the deaths head units 11) Waffen ss were special armoured section which fought alongside the army 12) They could arrest citizens on suspicion 13) Magistrates and judges controlled by the Nazis therefore there was rarely a fair trial.

Gestapo

The Peoples Court

Concentration Camps

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Task Two: Use your table and the text book provided to complete the table below.

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Task: Complete this summary diagram adding information around each of the boxes.

How did the Nazis try and control the church?

Opposition from the church

The Church Gestapo Judges and Police Concentration camps

How did the Nazis try to stop opposition?

Political Parties

The Army

Youth groups

Upper classes

Propaganda

Enabling act

SS

During the war

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Propaganda
Hitler not only wanted political control of Germany - he also wanted to control what people thought. In 1933 he set up a MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND PROPAGANDA. Joseph Goebbels was in charge and he set about making sure that all books, newspapers, radio programmes, films, plays and other entertainments put across Nazi ideas.

There was no escape from the endless stream of propaganda. In the home, at school or work and in all public places Nazi propaganda was present. Every method was used to make sure no-one could escape seeing or hearing Nazi ideas. The main message was that Hitler was the saviour of Germany and it was the duty of every German to obey him without question.

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Everyone who worked in the arts, music, films etc, had to join the Nazi Artists organisation. Many talented people left Germany in the 1930s. All books, films, plays paintings and music, which the Nazis considered unGerman, were banned. This included most modern art and all works by Jews. All news was censored. Germans were only told what the Nazis wanted them to know. Listening to foreign radio stations was severely punished. Radio was an important way of spreading propaganda. Loudspeakers were put up in public places. It was compulsory to listen to Hitlers speeches. Posters and adverts were placed in all public places and newspapers. These usually told people to hate the Jews, to support Nazi policies, and to obey Hitler. Cinemas had to show propaganda films of Hitler and other Nazi leaders. Other films showed the Jews as evil enemies and the Nazis as heroes who would save Germany. Childrens books and teaching in schools and universities had to include Nazi propaganda - often this was about Hitlers racist ideas. All over Germany there were parades and marches by Nazi organizations. These were to demonstrate the strength and popularity of the Nazis. Above all the main message of Nazi propaganda was that Hitler was the saviour of Germany and should be obeyed at all times. Anyone who criticized propaganda or did not listen to radio broadcasts risked being arrested. Children were questioned in school about whether their parents listened.

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Task One:

Key Points

What I have learned

Who was Joseph Goebbels?

Why was propaganda so important to the Nazis?

What methods did the Nazis use to spread their propaganda?

What was the purpose of the large Nazi parades and rallies?

Describe how Hitler was portrayed in Nazi propaganda?

Explain why Nazi propaganda was so successful?

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Why did the Nazis persecute many groups in German society?

The Nazis believed that the ideal German was an Aryan (a white person with blonde hair). They believed that Aryans were the master race and were superior to other racial groups. Hitler feared that Aryans would mix with inferior races. So the Nazis persecuted and later murdered members of what they called racially inferior groups. Gypsies and Jews suffered the most. It is estimated that 500,000 Gypsies died in death camps such as Auschwitz. The Nazis also persecuted anyone who did not fit their idea of an ideal German. They called these people a-socials. The Nazis thought that Germany wasted money looking after them and that they weakened the country. Ideal Germans were socially useful they worked hard and served the FATHERLAND. So the Nazis persecuted tramps, beggars, alcoholics and anyone who refused to
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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
work. Around 500,000 tramps and beggars were sent to concentration camps in 1933. Ideal Germans pledged total loyalty to Hitler so the Nazis persecuted anyone who refused to do this. For example, Jehovahs witnesses refused to offer total loyalty to anyone other than God, so one third of them in Germany were sent to concentration camps. Ideal Germans married, had children and created stable families so the Nazis persecuted homosexuals, prostitutes and problem families. Ideal Germans were strong and powerful so the Nazis persecuted mentally handicapped people and those with inherited diseases. About 350,000 were sterilised. Later the Nazis Started a Euthanasia campaign. About 200,000 people were killed in nursing homes. Key points Explain Hitlers ideas on racial purity and the Master Race? What I have learned

How were minorities persecuted in Germany?

Hitlers greatest obsession was his hatred of the Jews. He believed that the people of the world could be divided into superior and inferior races. At the top were the Arayans or Nordic Europeans of which the Germans were the purest form (The Master Race). At the bottom were those of mixed blood - Slavs, Gypsies and lowest of all the Jews. Hitler believed there was a plot by Jewish businessmen and communists to take over Germany. The Nazis saw it as their duty to destroy Germanys racial enemies and when they came to power they began to persecute Jews and make laws against them. This finally resulted in the Holocaust. After 1941 over 6 million men, women and children were exterminated In his book Mein Kampf Hitler blamed the Jews for Germanys defeat in WWI and claimed they had invented communism to take over the world. When they came to power the Nazis began to terrorise Jews, attack synagogues and boycott Jewish shops and businesses.
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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

In 1933 anti Jewish laws were introduced - Jews could not be civil servants or lawyers and Jewish doctors could not work in state hospitals. Joseph Goebbels banned Jews from working in the arts or the media and Jews were not allowed to own newspapers. The Nuremberg Laws 1935 - Jews were forbidden to marry or have sexual relations with Germans. They could not be German citizens or vote. Arayanisation Laws 1937 - Jews were forced to sell their businesses and property to Germans at very low prices or it would be confiscated. KRISTALLNACHT 9-10 Nov 1938 - The Nazis organized attacks on Jewish homes, shops and synagogues. Over 100 Jews were killed. This was after a Jewish student killed two Nazi officials in Paris. Goebbels planned a big pay back in Germany. Jewish properties were smashed and synagogues burned down. Over 100 Jews were killed and 30,000 arrested. Many ended up in concentration camps. In 1938 Jewish doctors and dentists were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients. Anti Jewish propaganda increased. Jewish children were banned from state schools. Jews could not use cinemas, parks, swimming pools, and theatres or join clubs and societies. In the 1930s thousands of Jews, the lucky ones, fled from Germany to Britain, the USA and other parts of Europe. After the Wansee Conference in January 1942, the Nazis began the extermination of millions of Jews in Eastern Europe. This was The Final Solution. Death camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka were used to gas and incinerate the bodies of Jewish men, women and children from all over Nazi occupied Europe.

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Task 2: Complete the table below

Key point Describe the ways in which the Nazis persecuted Jews 1933-39.

What I have learned

Describe the ways in which Jews suffered discrimination in Germany 1933-39?

What were the Nuremberg Laws of 1936?

Describe the events of 9th November 1938 known as KRISTALLNACHT.

What did the Nazis mean by the phrase The Final Solution?

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Task Three: Why did the Nazis persecute certain groups in German society?

Place the five factors in order of importance. Explain why you ranked them in this order.

Most Important Factor:

Least important:

The five factors: The Second World War Nazi leaders trying to impress Hitler Racism Desire for a strong society where all Germans play a useful role Demand for total loyalty to Hitler

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Paper 1: Assessment for Learning In paper 1 the first section that you will answer is about International Relations. For Germany you will answer Question 4 which is compulsory and either question 5 or 6. Question 4 is made up of three sources and three questions. The three questions will be similar to the three below. a) How far does this source explain (7) b) Why was this cartoon published (7) c) Are you surprised by this source (6)

Once you have answered question 4 you choose either question 5 or 6. Question 5 or 6 are made up of three questions a) Description question worth 4 marks b) Explain question worth 6 marks c) A How Far question worth 10 marks

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45? How Far Does this source explain type questions:
1)

(2006)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

2)

(2006)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

3) Interpretation of source type question

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Why was this source published type question:

4)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Are you surprised by the source type questions:

5)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Markscheme for how far type questions 1)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
2)

3)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

4) Why was this source published type question:

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

5) Are you surprised type questions markscheme:

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Question 5 or 6 (a) style questions:
1) Describe the propaganda methods used by the Nazis. (4) (2007)

2) Briefly describe the methods used by the Nazis to deal with their opponents within Germany.[4] (2002)

3) What were the main features of the Nazi police state? (4) (2003)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Question 5 or 6 (B) style questions:


1) Explain why the Nazis persecuted different groups in German society. (6)
(2008)

2) Explain why different groups opposed Nazi rule. [6] (2002)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Question 5 or 6 (c ) stQuestion 5 or 6 (c ) style questions:


The following were all equally important reasons why there was little opposition to Hitler and the Nazis in the 1930s: (i) the Gestapo; (ii) Nazi propaganda; (iii) the reduction of unemployment. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer referring only to (i), (ii) and (iii). [10] (2009)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

2) 'The most important factor enabling the Nazis to control the German people was their use of terror.' Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. [10] (2003)

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Question 5 or 6a: Describe: (4 Marks) E.g. 1) (a) Describe the propaganda methods used by the Nazis. (4) (2007)

Type of question?

This is a fairly standard description question.

What do I need to do?

The aim of the question is to get you to describe 3 or 4 relevant points to answer the question or two points backed up with examples.

Hot Tip:

Do: You should aim to spend no more than 4 minutes on this question. Get straight to the point and list 3 or 4 points OR explain two points. Dont: go into too much detail!

Ideas for your answer

Option 1: 4 Points Points might include: use of the radio, newspapers, rallies, books, films, the Olympics,the work of Goebbels, images of Hitler. Option 2: 2 Points explained. e.g. 'The Nazis made use of enormous rallies like the Nuremberg rally. Tens of thousands of people would gather. The sight would be a spectacular one with thousands of Nazi flags and stirring music to create a really strong atmosphere.' One mark for each point Extra mark for each point that is supported with an example.

Pupil Mark Scheme

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?

Question 5 or 6 b Explain: (6 Marks) E.g. Explain why the Nazis persecuted different
groups in German society. (6) (2008)

Type of question?

This is a fairly standard explanation question.

What do I need to do?

The aim of the question is to get you to explain 2 or 3 relevant points backed up with examples.

Hot Tip:

Do: You should aim to spend no more than 6 minutes on this question. Its marked in similar way to previous question but you are expected to explain each point. Dont: Just list the reasons, explain them!

Ideas for your answer

This answer is perfect for PEE or PEEL

Point There was discontent in Germany due to the effects of hyperinflation. Examples Many nationalists still hated the Treaty and were furious when Stresemann called off the passive resistance in the Ruhr and resumed paying reparations. Explain With this in mind Hitler thought it was the right time to seize power. Do these two or three times for full marks. (One explained reason 3-4 marks; two or more explained reasons 4-6 marks.) e.g. The Nazis believed that the Aryans were the master race and superior to other groups. They believed that Jews, eastern Europeans and blacks were lowlife and not worthy of any respect. The Jews were not only an inferior race but had joined the communists in undermining Germanys efforts in the First World War. Homosexuals were despised as they were not in keeping with the Aryan ideal of masculinity. Pupil Mark Scheme Level 1 = Lists un connected point. (1 marks) Level 2 = Describes several relevant points. (2 3 Marks) Level 3 = One explained reason 3-4 marks; two or more explained reasons marks. (4 6 Marks) Basically two marks for each explained reason

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The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
Section B: Type 4: Extended answer: c) The following were all equally important reasons why there was little opposition to Hitler and the Nazis in the 1930s: (i) the Gestapo; (ii) Nazi propaganda; (iii) the reduction of unemployment. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer referring only to (i), (ii) and (iii). [10] (2009)

Type of question? What do I need to do? Hot Tip:

This is an extended answer type question. The aim of this question is to get you to use your knowledge to explain the arguments for and against the statement into 3 or 4 short paragraphs. Do: Spend about 15 minutes answering this question. Start each paragraph clearly. Write two paragraphs, one for each side of the argument, in the main body of your answer. Use PEEL to ensure that the examples and explanations that you give are linked to the question and ensure that you directly answer the question. Introduction: Set the question into context and outline how you are going to address it. E.g. In 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. From August 1934 he was Fuhrer. There was little effective opposition to Hitler because of the Gestapo, Nazi propaganda and the reduction of unemployment. Agreement paragraph: On the one hand, it could be argued that the Munich Putsch was a disaster (Point Example Explain Link) . Disagreement paragraph: On the other hand, it could be argued that it was not a disaster (Point Example Explain Link) Conclusion: Overall Possible points to include: In 1936 the control of the Gestapo was extended to the whole of Germany and it became linked to the SS as part of the police state and the reign of terror. The job of the Gestapo was to search out opponents of Nazi government. They used informers to uncover any attempts to organise opposition. OR Propaganda was used in a number of ways to ensure only the Nazi message was held. Non-Nazi newspapers were closed down and the Nazi press were told by Goebbels what they could print. Cheap radios were made available so everybody could hear Hitlers speeches. The idea was to put across a limited range of ideas 40

Ideas for your answer

The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933-45?
time and time again until other ideas disappeared. OR Getting unemployment down was a priority for Hitler. He had seen what had happened in the Great Depression and wanted to ensure that male Germans had jobs. He created public works, introduced re-armament and conscription to get people into work. This increased support for the Nazi Party. Pupil Mark Scheme Level 1 = General comments or points without any supporting (1-2 marks) Level 2 = Describes several points backed up with examples for OR against the statement. (3-4 marks) Level 3 = Explains several points backed up with examples for OR against the statement. . (5-6 marks) Level 4 = Explains factors both for and against the statement. (7 - 9 marks) Level 5 = As for level 4 but evaluates how far and reaches an overall judgement in the form of a conclusion. (10 Marks)

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