Mass transfer Correlations for various packings

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Mass transfer correlations for packed towers

Mass transfer Correlations for various packings

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Chemical Engineering Research and Design

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Model for the prediction of liquid phase mass transfer of

randompacked columns for gasliquid systems

Jerzy Ma ckowiak

a b s t r a c t

The following work presents a new, generally applicable model for description of the mass transfer in the liquid

phase for packed columns lled with random dumped non-perforated and lattice-type packing with size between

12 and 90mmfor gasliquid systems in operating range up to ooding point.

The new equation for evaluation of the volumetric mass transfer coefcient in the liquid phase

L

a

e

was derived

on the basis of the assumption that liquid ows down in packed bed mainly in the formof droplets and that effective

interfacial area a

e

depends on hold-up in packed bed. The relation between the uid dynamics and the mass transfer

is shown based on the channel model with a partly open structure.

The experimentally derived values for the effective mass transfer area in different types of random packings a

e

are in good agreement with the calculation based on the new model. It is therefore possible to separate the product

L

a

e

into liquid phase mass transfer coefcient

L

and effective interfacial area a

e

.

2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Random packing; Lattice-type packing; Liquid phase mass transfer coefcient; Separation performance;

Effective mass transfer area; Extended channel model

1. Introduction

In the eld of separation technology, the use of random,

lattice-type packings in addition to structured packings has

been gradually increasing in the last 20 years.

The new generation of lattice packings, so called Nor-Pac

was rst presented by Billet and Ma ckowiak (1980) in 1979 at

a conference held during the German trade fair Envitec. Con-

trary to expectations, initial experimental results (Billet and

Ma ckowiak, 1980) showed that the mass transfer behaviour

of the 25mm Nor-Pac with small specic packing area a was

similar to that of 25mm plastic Pall rings (1962) with large

specic packing area a, which were analysed for compari-

son. The loading capacity of the new lattice packings was

signicantly higher than that of Pall rings, whilst the pres-

sure drop Lp/H and the specic pressure drop Lp/NTU

OV

of

the lattice packings was considerably lower, yet they were

found to have the same separation efciency when applied

under the same operating conditions. As a result, a number

Abbreviations: RSR, Raschig Super ring; PR, Pall ring; BR, Biaecki ring; CMR, Cascade Mini Rings; RR, Raschig ring; IS, Intalox saddle;

Ralu, Ralu Flow ring; K, ceramic; M, metal; PP, polypropylene.

Presented on 9th Distillation & Absorption Conference in Eindhoven, The Netherlands on 1215 September 2010.

E-mail address: j.mackowiak@envimac.de

of new lattice-type packing elements of different types such

as IMTP ring (1977), Hiow ring (1982), Envipac (1984), Flexi-

max (1991), Mc-Pac (1991) or Raschig Super Ring (1995) were

produced by leading packing manufacturers, see Fig. 1. These

lattice packings were initially made of plastic, followed later

by models made of ceramic and metal (Billet and Ma ckowiak,

1980, 1982a, 1985; Ma ckowiak, 1990, 1999, 2010; Billet et al.,

1983).

Acomprehensive overviewof the methods used to describe

the resistance of the mass transfer in the liquid phase is avail-

able in the literature (e.g. Onda et al., 1968; Bornhtter and

Mersmann, 1993; Wang and Yuan, 2005; Kolev, 1976), but there

is no method explaining and correlating the inuence of form

andgeometric data of packing onthe volumetric mass transfer

coefcient

L

a

e

in liquid phase.

The separation of the product

L

a

e

was rst achieved

by Zech and Mersmann (1978) (Kolev, 1976) and Shi and

Mersmann (1984, 1985). Based on the assumption of rivulet

formation, they derived new correlations for determining

0263-8762/$ see front matter 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2011.01.021

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1309

Nomenclature

a geometric surface area of packing per unit vol-

ume [m

2

/m

3

]

a

e

interfacial area per unit volume [m

2

/m

3

]

C

p

constant, Eq. (7a) []

d packing diameter [m]

d

h

hydraulic diameter [m]

d

S

column diameter [m]

d

T

mean droplet diameter acc. to Sauter [m]

D

L

diffusion coefcient in the liquid phase [m

2

/s]

F

V

gas load factor in relation to full column cross

section, F

V

=u

V

,

V

0.5

[Pa

0.5

]

g acceleration of gravity [m/s

2

]

h

L

liquid hold-up in relation to total free packing

volume V

S

, h

L

=V

L

/V

S

[m

2

/m

3

]

H packing height [m]

l mean contact path [m]

N packing density [1/m

3

]

p operating pressure [bar]

t temperature [

C]

u

V

linear gas velocity in relation to full column

cross section [m/s]

u

L

specic liquid load in relation to full column

cross section [m/s]

V

L

liquid volume [m

3

]

V

S

free packing volume, V

S

= (( d

2

S

),4) H [m

3

]

Greek symbols

mass transfer coefcient [m/s]

P

formfactor []

t contact time [s]

,, L, density, density difference L, =,

L

,

V

[kg/m

3

]

o

L

surface tension [N/m]

v kinematic viscosity [m

2

/s]

Indices

cal calculated value

exp experimentally derived value

L relating to liquid

Fl relating to operating point at ooding point

S relating to operating point above loading point,

0.65F

V

/F

V,Fl

1

V relating to gas

Dimensionless numbers

Fo = 4 D

L

t,d

2

T

Fourier number

Fr

L

= u

2

L

u,g Froude number

Re

L

=u

L

/a v

L

Reynolds number

Sh

L

=

L

d

T

/D

L

Sherwood number

We/Fr

L

=,

L

g/a

2

o

L

Weber/Froude number

Sc

L

=v

L

/D

L

Schmidt number

the effective interfacial area per unit volume a

e

for ceramic

spheres, Raschig rings and saddles.

Following on from the correlations for mass transfer pre-

diction for liquidliquid systems derived by Ma ckowiak and

Billet (1982/84) (Billet and Ma ckowiak, 1982b; Ma ckowiak and

Billet, 1986), which are based on the model of non-stationary

diffusion for short contact times, it was in the 1990s that

dimensionless correlations, developed by Billet and Schultes

(1993) as well as Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993),

were applied to gasliquid systems, but they required the

knowledge of the individual packing constants that must be

evaluated from experimental data for each packing type and

size. The correlations are valid in the operating range up to

loading line.

The aim of this study is to develop a generally applicable

method for determining the volumetric mass transfer coef-

cient in the liquid phase

L

a

e

for gasliquid systems in whole

operating range up to ooding, valid for different types of clas-

sic, non-perforatedas well as for lattice-type packing elements

and that can be used to predict the separation efciency for

any type of packing based only on specic packing-related

data.

2. Deriving a model for determining the

volumetric mass transfer coefcient in the

liquid phase

L

a below the loading line

Visual observations and measurements of droplet propor-

tions have shown that in packed bed liquid primarily occurs

in the form of droplets rather than rivulets (Bornhtter and

Mersmann, 1991, 1993; Charpentier et al., 1968). As the size of

the packing element increases, the amount of the droplets in

the packed bed also increases, an observation that was con-

rmed as early as 1960 by Charpentier et al. (1968) and by

studies carried out by Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993)

in connection with large diameter lattice packings, d2550.

For this reason, it can be expected that mass transfer occurs

non-stationary and can be described by model that is valid for

disperse systems. Droplets generated in the random packing

fall in the gas phase, which constitutes the continuous phase.

The new method is derived on the basis of a model,

whereby the liquid in a randompacking ows down along the

surface of the individual packing elements in the formof thin

rivulets, whereas between the individual packing elements

the liquidows downmainly inthe formof droplets, providing

the area for mass transfer. In addition, the following assump-

tions were made: in the case of droplet fall in the packing,

deformed droplets with a Sauter diameter d

32

=d

T

are formed

below the loading line in accordance with the correlation

d

T

= C

T

o

L

L, g

; C

T

= 1 [m] (1)

(d

T

>1mm). The validity of this equation for falling droplets

has been conrmed by numerous experimental results

for liquidliquid systems (Billet and Ma ckowiak, 1982b,

1988; Ma ckowiak and Billet, 1986) and gasliquid systems

(Bornhtter and Mersmann, 1991, 1993).

The effective mass transfer area a

e

is identical to the

droplet surface, whilst the total liquid hold-up h

L

corresponds

to the liquid hold-up of the droplets. As a result, it is possible

to determine the interfacial area per unit volume using the

correlation of Eq. (2)

u

c

= 6

n

L

d

T

[m

2

,m

3

] (2)

which is valid for disperse systems.

The liquid owing down the edges of the packing in the

formof droplets has a composition that is not in equilibrium

with the surrounding gas phase. This disequilibrium results

in a mass transfer, which is highest at the beginning and

decreases along the ow length l, which is referred to here as

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

1310 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320

Fig. 1 Overview of packing elements investigated.

the contact path. During the formation of rivulets, mass trans-

fer is interrupted and only recommences as new droplets are

formed. The process is therefore non-stationary, as described

by the well-known model of Higbie (1935)

L

=

2

D

L

t

[m,s] (3)

As a result, the mass transfer coefcient

L

for mass transfer in

the liquid phase can be determined acc. to Eq. (3) if the contact

time t is known.

The contact time t in Eq. (3) is described by the time that

a droplet needs to cover the distance l between two contact

points within the packing. Hence:

t =

l

u

L

[s] (4)

The absolute droplet velocity u

L

is expressed by Eq. (5):

u

L

=

u

L

n

L

[m,s] (5)

By substituting Eq. (5) in Eq. (4) we obtain Eq. (6):

t =

l n

L

u

L

[s] (6)

In order to determine the contact time t acc. to Eq. (6) for a

givenspecic liquid load, the liquid hold-up h

L

and the contact

path l must be known.

The contact path l can be determined for randompackings

using the volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

derived

from measurements, as has been done for liquidliquid sys-

tems (Billet and Ma ckowiak, 1982b; Ma ckowiak and Billet,

1986). This means that in practice the contact path l can be

seen as a mean value that is valid for a whole series of mea-

surements.

Acc. to Ma ckowiak (2010), the liquid hold-up h

L

in random

packings for turbulent liquid ow Re

L

2 in the range below

loading point F

V

0.65F

V,Fl

can be described by Eq. (7a):

n

L

= C

p

Fr

1,3

L

= C

p

u u

2

L

g

1,3

for C

p

= 0.57 [m

3

,m

3

] (7a)

The liquidhold-uph

L

according toEq. (7a) decreases as the size

of the packing is increased, whilst the liquid load u

L

remains

constant, see as an example Fig. 2, and h

L

is equivalent to u

L

raised to the power of 2/3.

Based on the evaluation of more than 1000 experimental

data points for the liquid hold-up using systems withdifferent

physical properties (Ma ckowiak, 2010), the constant C

p

in Eq.

(7a) was found to have a mean value of C

p

=0.57. The exper-

imental values (Ma ckowiak, 2010) are reproduced by Eq. (7a)

for the operating range below the loading line with a relative

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1311

Fig. 2 Flow structure in randompacking: (a) for ceramic packing elements acc. to Charpentier et al. (1968); (b) for different

packing elements acc. to Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993); (c) droplet fall in packed column model.

error of 2025% for different types of plastic packings with

nominal sizes of 0.0150.090m(Fig. 3).

For laminar liquid ow0.16<Re

L

<2, the Eq. (7b) is valid acc.

to Ma ckowiak (2010):

n

L

=

3

4

3

g

1,3

u

2,3

(u

L

v

L

)

1,3

[m

3

,m

3

] (7b)

Fig. 3 Liquid hold-up h

L

as a function of the specic liquid

load u

L

valid for 1550mmmetal Pall rings in the range

F

V

0.65F

V,Fl

(Ma ckowiak, 2010).

The product of the mass transfer coefcient

L

and the inter-

facial area per unit volume a

e

results from Eqs. (2) and (3).

Substituting Eqs. (1), (6) and (7a) in Eqs. (2) and (3) leads to

the following correlation for determining the volumetric mass

transfer coefcient

L

a

e

(8), valid for turbulent liquid ow

Re

L

2:

L

u

c

= 12

C

p

l

1,2

u

g

1,6

D

L

L, g

o

L

1,2

u

5,6

L

[1,s]

(8)

where the contact pathl must be knownfor eachpacking type.

3. Experimental results

Table 1ad contains a list of technical data for different types

of packings investigated as well as the operating conditions

used in experiments carried out in columns with diameters

between 0.15 and 1.2m and a packing height of H=0.74m,

some of which have been published previously (Billet and

Ma ckowiak, 1977, 1980, 1982a,b, 1985; Ma ckowiak, 1990, 2006;

Bornhtter and Mersmann, 1991, 1993; Mackowiak, 1975; Billet

et al., 1983). In addition, the table contains experimental data

available in the literature, e.g. data obtained by Bornhtter

and Mersmann (1991, 1993) using a plant with d

S

=1m and

H=1.654m, as well as data provided by Schultes (2001)

for Raschig Super rings, and by Sahay and Sharma (1973),

Dharwadkar and Sawant (1985), and Linek et al. (1983).

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

1312 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320

Table 1 Overview of technical data of packings used for calculating volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

acc. to Eqs.

(10) and (12), as well as formfactors

P

, valid for (a) to (d).

Packing Symbol d10

3

(m)

(m

3

/m

3

)

a

(m

2

/m

3

)

N 10

3

(1/m

3

)

d

S

(m) H (m) u

L

10

3

,

fromto

(m/s)

t

L

(

C)

P

()

(a) Classic, non-perforated packing elements

Raschig ring 15 0.626 239.3 0.10 1.0 1.711 2040 0

Ceramic 50 0.782 100 6300 0.3 0.75 122.5 20 0

Intalox saddle

ceramic

38 0.757 125.7 18.9 0.3 1.4 111 21 0

(b) Packing elements with slightly perforated walls

Pall ring metal

15 0.964 380 243.2 0.3 0.87 111 22.5 0.28

25

s =0.4

0.954 223.5 53.9 0.3 1.46 111 21.5 0.28

25 0.942 232.1 55.6 0.15 1.3 0.7910 22.5 0.28

35 0.946 150 19.6 0.3 1.4 1.28 19.5 0.28

38 0.952 149.6 15.8 0.3 1.46 111 20 0.28

50 0.95 115.4 6.4 0.3 1.36 112 22.5 0.28

Pall ring plastic

(PP)

25 0.894 238 55.18 0.3 1.4 110 23 0.309

35 0.905 160 18 0.3 1.4 110 20 0.309

50 0.93 111 6.85 1.0 1.65 118 20 0.309

50 0.92 110 6.7 0.3 1.35 115 22 0.309

Pall ring ceramic 50 0.78 120 6.4 0.22 1 112 20 0.430

Bialecki ring

metal

12 0.934 403 443 0.3 0.9 111 17.5 0.158

25 0.94 238 55 0.15 1.5 0.7928 20 0.208

25 0.939 227 52.6 0.3 1.4 17 22 0.208

35 0.95 155 19 0.3 0.74 230 17.5 0.158

50 0.97 111.7 6.7 0.3 1.45 111 20 0.158

53.5 0.968 101.5 6 0.3 1.21.4 0.828 16.5 0.208

(c) Lattice packings with moderately perforated walls

Top-Pak

45 0.957 104.7 6.8 0.3 1.45 111 20 0.474

75 0.979 75.0 2.8 1.0 1.65 118 20 0.424

VSP ring metal

32 0.972 200 33.5 0.3 1.46 112 23 0.38

50 0.982 95.3 7.15 0.3 1.46 112 20 0.38

Ralu-Flow 58 0.941 98.9 4.7 0.3 1.44 112 19 0.705

CMR metal

1.5 0.974 176.3 60.8 0.3 1.4 0.86 19.5 0.475

1 0.9712 232.5 158.5 0.3 1.4 112 22.3 0.475

CMR plastic 1 0.94 200.0 25.6 0.3 1.42 111 12.0 0.496

(d) Lattice packings with highly perforated walls

Hiow ring metal

27 0.965 198.4

184

95.4

37 0.22

0.3

0.45

1.2

1.42

2

115 24

22.5

0.509

58 0.977 92.3

92.3

90

4.78 0.3

0.45

1.00

1.4

2

1.7

112

112

118

22.5

22.5

20

0.63

Hiow ring

plastic (PP)

17 0.91 292 183.8 0.3 1.43 111 21 0.54

28 0.92 192.5 46.1 0.3 0.9/1.4 110 22 0.54

50 0.935 100.0 7.02 1.0 1.65 128 20 0.7

50 0.932 107.7 6.3 0.3 1.57 112 14 0.7

90 0.955 61.0 1.415 1.0 1.65 128 20 0.694

9065 0.956 64.5 0.3 1.5 111 20 0.736

Hiow ring

ceramic (1985)

20 (A) 0.77 261 110.74 0.3 1.2 212 20 0.587

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1313

Table 1 (Continued)

Packing Symbol d10

3

(m)

(m

3

/m

3

)

a

(m

2

/m

3

)

N 10

3

(1/m

3

)

d

S

(m) H (m) u

L

10

3

,

fromto

(m/s)

t

L

(

C)

P

()

50(A) 0.815 88.8 5.12 0.3 1.3 110 20 0.54

Hiow ring

ceramic (1988)

20 (B) 0.696 227 87.1 0.3 1.15 17 23.5 0.492

38 (B) 0.788 119.2 13.2 0.3 1.46 111 20 0.55

ENVIPAC PP

32 0.941 124 49.2 0.3 1/1.4 111 22 0.590

58 0.964 91.7 6.3 0.3 1.45 111 22 0.676

80

0.96 54.2 1.81 0.3 1.45 111 23.5

0.676

0.954 61.1 2.05 1 1.6 112 20

DTNPAC 70 0.936 112 10.2 0.3 1.45 111 20 0.676

CMR turbo metal 1.5 0.976 167.7 60.3 0.3 1.4 111 21 0.475

Nor-Pac (NSW

ring) plastic

2227 0.914 243 68.8 0.3 0.9 111 20 0.694

17 0.88 332 221.6 0.3 0.9 111 20 0.694

28 0.9215 191.7 47.4 0.3 1.4 210 17 0.694

38 0.932 138 20.5 0.3 1.4 0.86 16.5 0.694

50 0.95 95 7.71 0.3 1.4 112 22.5 0.694

Hackette, PP 45 0.932 131 12 0.3 1.4 122 15 0.665

3.1. Effect of the packing form on mass transfer in the

liquid phase

Fig. 4a shows that the mass transfer coefcient in the liq-

uid phase

L

a

e

is highly dependent on the type of packing.

Contrary to expectation, 17mm Hiow rings made of plastic

witha smaller specic geometric surface area of a=292m

2

/m

3

and 17mm Nor-Pac made of plastic with a=332m

2

/m

3

were

found to have a considerably higher separation efciency than

12mm metal Bialecki rings with a specic surface area of

a=403m

2

/m

3

and metal 15mmPall rings with a=380m

2

/m

3

.

This would suggest that inrandompackings containing lattice

packing elements, the geometric surface area of the packing

available for mass transfer is used more efciently and the

size of the geometric surface area of the packing a is not the

mainly factor that determines mass transfer. In classic ran-

dom packings, not all of the surface area appears to be used

for mass transfer. In addition, Figs. 4, 5ad, 6ad and 7 show

the signicance of the packing form, i.e. the bigger the perfo-

ration of the packing element, the better the mass transfer in

liquid phase.

3.2. Inuence of the packing size and type on mass

transfer in the liquid phase

Eq. (8) and the experimental results, shown as an example in

Figs. 57, reveal two parameters that have a main effect on

mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

in the liquid phase: the geo-

metric surface area of the packing per unit volume a and

the contact path l.

3.3. Evaluation of the contact path l for different

packing forms

This was discussed in a previous study (Ma ckowiak, 2006,

2010) onthe modelling of the uiddynamics of packedcolumn

lled with lattice packings, where the effect of the individual

packing elements on the uid dynamics of random packings

was described by an extended channel model with open

structure (Ma ckowiak, 2006, 2010). Acc. to this model, a ran-

dompacking is characterised by three parameters, which are:

the geometric surface area of the packing a, the void fraction

and the form factor

P

, which is dened as the ratio of

the open area to the total surface area of the packing element

(Ma ckowiak, 2006, 2010).

Inthe case of classic packing elements withnon-perforated

walls, as Raschig rings and saddles,

P

is given as

P

=0 acc.

to Ma ckowiak (2006, 2010). Fig. 8 shows that for the same

hydraulic diameter d

h

their contact paths are almost twice as

long as those of lattice packings with a very open structure

acc. to Fig. 5d with formfactors of

P

=0.550.7.

The numerical values for the contact paths l in Eq. (8) for

the investigated packings were determined on the basis of the

experimental data of this work shown for example in Figs. 47.

Plotting the contact path l on the hydraulic diameter d

h

of

the packing gives the following correlation (9) for the packings

investigated acc. to data presented in Figs. 47:

l = 0.115 (1

P

)

2,3

d

1,2

n

[m] (9)

where

P

is a parameter relating to a different characteristic

form of packing element, s. Table 1ad, and d

h

is hydraulic

diameter of packing.

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

1314 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320

Fig. 4 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

as a

function of the specic liquid load u

L

, valid for: (a)

randomly lled 15mmPall rings, 12mmBialecki rings and

17mmHiow rings as well as 17mmNor-Pac made of

plastic. System: CO

2

water/air, 293K, d

S

=0.3m, H=0.9m;

(b) randomly lled 25mmPall rings, Bialecki rings and

Hiow rings made of metal. System: CO

2

water/air, 1bar,

293K, d

S

=0.3m, H=1.36m.

Fig. 8ad shows that not only the size and type of the pack-

ing element has a signicant effect on the contact path. It

can be noted that the more open the structure of the packing

element, the shorter the contact paths l.

Substituting the relations of Eq. (9) in Eq. (8) leads to the

new, generally valid Eq. (10) for the prediction of volumetric

mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

in columns with randompack-

ings below the loading line F

V

0.65F

V,Fl

and for turbulent

liquid ow Re

L

2:

L

u

c

=

15.1

(1

P

)

1,3

d

1,4

n

D

L

L, g

o

L

1,2

u

g

1,6

u

5,6

L

[1,s]

(10)

see Fig. 6.

For laminar liquid ow 0.16<Re

L

<2, the Eq. (11) will be

obtained after substitution of Eqs. (7b) and (9) into Eqs. (2),

Fig. 5 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

as a

function of the specic liquid load u

L

, valid for randomly

lled packing elements made of metal: (a) VSP rings size 1

and 25mmPall rings; (b) VSP rings size 2 and 38mmPall

rings; (c) 50mmPall rings, Bialecki rings and Hiow rings.

System: CO

2

water/air, 1bar, 293K, d

S

=0.3m, H=1.36m.

(3) and (6)

L

u

c

=

17.3 u

1,3

(1

P

)

1,3

d

1,4

n

3 v

L

g

1,6

D

L

L, g

o

L

1,2

u

2,3

L

[1,s] (11)

Fig. 9af shows the comparison between the calculation based

on Eqs. (10) and (11) and the experimental data of this work

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1315

Fig. 6 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

as a function of the specic liquid load u

L

, valid for different types of

packing elements made of plastic (PP): (a) 32, 56 and 80mmENVIPAC; (b) 45mmHackettes, 45mmNor-Pac, Hiow rings,

Hiow Super rings, Ralu rings and Pall rings; (c) Dtnpac size 2; (d) 58mmRalu Flow, 50mmPall rings, 50mmNor-Pac.

System: CO

2

water/air, 1bar, 295K, d

S

=0.31.0m, H=1.451.6m.

plus data collected by Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993),

Budzi nski and Kozio (2000) and Schultes (2001).

Eqs. (10) and (11) allow consolidating the information on

mass transfer in the liquid phase in randompackings contain-

ing packing elements of different types and sizes, enabling us

to predict the

L

a

e

values for different types of modern and

classic packings sufciently enough for practical applications

with a mean error of 13% in the range belowloading line for

more then 800 experimental points.

The comparison between experimental data for 50mm

Hiowrings and calculated values according to Eq. (10) as well

as to various models available in the literature is shown in

Fig. 10.

4. Model for determining the volumetric

mass transfer coefcient in the liquid phase

(

L

a

e

)

S

above the loading line and below the

ooding point

Based on the assumption that in the range above the loading

line, i.e. for high gas velocities F

V

>0.65F

V,Fl

acc. to Ma ckowiak

(2010), the droplet diameter d

T

remains acc. to Eq. (2) constant,

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

1316 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320

Fig. 7 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

as a

function of the specic liquid load u

L

, valid for different

packing elements with nominal dimensions of 1575mm

made of ceramic. System: CO

2

water/air, 1bar, 295K,

d

S

=0.10.3, H=0.751.4m.

the volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

acc. to Eq. (14) is

equivalent to the liquid hold-up h

L

raised to the power of 1/2

L

u

c

n

1,2

L

(12)

Fig. 11 shows that in the range above the loading line for

F

V

>65%of the ooding point, the ratio of liquid hold-up h

L,S

/h

L

for moderate liquid loads is just a function of the relative

column load F

V

/F

V,Fl

. This information applies to packing ele-

ments of different types, materials and sizes.

As a result, the quotient (

L

a

e

)

S

/(

L

a

e

) can be expressed as

a function of the relative column load F

V

/F

V,Fl

. The experimen-

tal values listed in Fig. 12a and b can be described according

to data presented in Fig. 12 using the following empirical cor-

relation (13) for u

L

=const.:

(

L

u

c

)

S

= (

L

u

c

)

1 +

F

V

F

V.Fl

0.65

u

L

=const

= (

L

u

c

)

0.35 +

F

V

F

V.Fl

u

L

=const

[1,s] (13)

By substituting Eq. (10) in Eq. (13), we obtain Eq. (14):

(

L

u

c

)

S

=

15.1

(1

P

)

1,3

d

1,4

n

D

L

L, g

o

L

1,2

u

g

1,6

0.35 +

F

V

F

V.Fl

u

L

=const

u

5,6

L

[1,s] (14)

The evaluation of approx. 40 experimental points in the range

above the loading line reveals a congruence between the cal-

culation based on Eq. (14) and the experiment, with a relative

error (

L

a

e

)

S

of less than 15%. These experimental results

are also shown in Fig. 9ad (Table 2).

5. Validation of model

5.1. Dimensionless representation of the correlation

for determining the interfacial area per unit volume and

the mass transfer coefcient

L

Eqs. (1), (2) and (7a) lead to Eq. (15) for determining the inter-

facial area per unit volume for turbulent liquid ow Re

L

2 in

Fig. 8 Effect of hydraulic diameter d

h

on mean contact path l for types of packings investigated: (a) for classic,

non-perforated packing elements for

P

=0; (b) for classic, perforated packing elements

P

=0.150.30; (c) for lattice packings

with perforated walls for

P

=0.300.55; (d) for lattice packings with highly perforated walls for

P

0.550.70.

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1317

Fig. 9 Comparison between calculation acc. to Eqs. (10) and (12) and experimental values for: (a) classic, non-perforated

packing elements,

P

=0; (b) packing elements with partly open structure,

P

=0.150.30; (c) lattice-type packing elements

with open structure,

P

=0.300.55; (d) lattice-type packing elements with open structure,

P

=0.550.70; (e) packing

elements with highly open structure: Raschig Super rings (RSP),

P

=0.28.

the operating range below loading line:

u

c

u

= 6 C

p

Fr

1,3

L

Wc

Fr

L

1,2

Cp=0.57

3.42 Fr

1,3

L

Wc

Fr

L

1,2

[] (15)

which describes the experimental data well, as illustrated in

Fig. 13.

Correlation(16) provides a dimensionless representationof

the mass transfer coefcient

L

for short contact times (Higbie,

1935; Brauer, 1971):

Sn

L

= 2.26

1

Fo

1,2

L

(16)

By substituting Eqs. (7a) and (9) in Eqs. (6) and (3), we obtain

Eq. (17) for predicting of the mass transfer coefcient in the

liquid phase

L

in random packings of any type and nominal

dimension, valid for turbulent liquid ow Re

L

2 below the

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

1318 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320

Fig. 10 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient

L

a

e

as a

function of the specic liquid load u

L

, valid for randomly

lled 50mmHiow rings made of plastic (PP). System:

CO

2

water/air, 293K, d

S

=0.31.0m, H=1.41.65m.

Comparison between experimental points [A,7,8] and Eq.

(10) (straight line) as well as different literature methods

(Billet and Schultes, 1993; Bornhtter and Mersmann, 1993;

Kolev, 1976; Zech and Mersmann, 1978; Shi and

Mersmann, 1984; Onda et al., 1968).

loading line:

L

=

5.524

u

1,12

D

1,2

L

g

1,6

(1

P

)

1,3

1,4

u

1,6

L

[m,s] (17)

For laminar liquid owRe

L

<2 belowthe loading line we obtain

following Eq. (18) for determining the interfacial area:

u

c

= 6.49 u

2,3

L,

1,2

g

1,6

v

1,3

L

o

1,2

L

u

1,3

L

[m

2

,m

3

] (18)

Fig. 11 Ratio of liquid hold-up h

L,S

/h

L

as a function of the

relative gas load, valid for different packing elements acc. to

Ma ckowiak (2010).

Fig. 12 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient (

L

a

e

)

S

/(

L

a

e

)

as a function of the relative gas load F

V

/F

V,Fl

in the entire

operating range up to ooding point, valid for: (a) 25mm

metal Biaecki and Hiow rings, metal CMR rings no. 1.5

and 20mmHiow rings made of ceramic; (b) 50mmPall

and Hiow rings made of plastic.

Table 2 Experimental conditions and limits of validity

of models as per Eq. (14) for Re

L

2.

d=0.0120.090m

d

S

=0.101.4m

d

S

/d6

H=0.714m

a=54.2403.0m

2

/m

3

=0.6960.987m

3

/m

3

Re

L

=2900

F

V

/F

V,Fl

1

Fr

L

=5.510

6

1.410

2

We/Fr

L

=0.84.5

Sc

L

=510010,000

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1319

Fig. 13 Effective interfacial area per unit volume a

e

as a function of the specic liquid load u

L

, valid for different packing

elements. Comparison between Eq. (15) (continuous line) and experimental data of different authors. (a) 28mmNor-Pac and

25mmTellerette made of plastic (Krtsch, 1981 and Krtsch and Krten, 1979); (b) 35mmPall rings and 38mmNor-Pac

made of plastic; (c) 25mmmetal Pall rings (Sahay and Sharma, 1973).

and Eq. (19) for the mass transfer coefcient in the liquid

phase

L

:

L

=

3.842 D

1,2

L

(1

P

)

1,3

d

1,4

n

(3,g)

1,6

u

1,3

v

1,6

L

u

1,3

L

[m,s] (19)

6. Conclusions

On the basis of the presented model, according to the assump-

tion that droplet ow occurs in packed columns lled with

random packings, combined with the application of the

model of non-stationary diffusion for short contact times

(Ma ckowiak and Billet, 1986; Higbie, 1935), it has been shown,

that it is possible to calculate the volumetric mass transfer

coefcient

L

a

e

for packings of any type and size without

evaluation of specic empirical packing constants which have

to be derived from experiments. The equations according to

(10) and (11) are valid in the range below the loading line

for turbulent and laminar ow respectively and have been

extended to the range up to ooding point according to Eq.

(14). The presented mass transfer correlations as well as the

interconnected hydraulics correlations have been tested with

various absorption and various distillation systems covering

a large range of physical properties, details are shown in the

literature (Ma ckowiak, 2010). For the prediction of the mass

transfer coefcient

L

Eq. (17) is derived. Therefore it is nec-

essary to determine the effective mass transfer area. It is the

area formed by droplets that determines the interfacial area

per unit volume a

e

/a in the random packing for laminar and

turbulent liquid ow in the range of Re

L

900 acc. to Eqs. (15)

and (18).

References

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1977. Chem. Tech. 6, 455461.

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1980. Chem. Tech. (Heidelberg) 9, 219226.

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1982a. vt verfahrenstechnik 16 (2),

6774.

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1982b. Inz. Chem. Procesowa (Orig. Engl.)

3 (3/4), 459482.

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1984. Chem. Tech. 12, 3746 (1985) 4,

9199 and (1985) 5, 195206.

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1988. Chem. Eng. Technol. 11, 213227.

Billet, R., Schultes, M., 1993. Chem. Eng. Technol. 16, 1.

Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., ugowski, Z., Filip, S., 1983. Fette Seifen

Anstrichmittel 85 (10), 383389.

Bornhtter, K., Mersmann, A., 1991. Chem. Ing. Tech. 63 (2),

132133.

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1320 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320

Bornhtter, K., Mersmann, A., 1993. Chem. Eng. Technol. 16,

4657.

Brauer, H., 1971. Stoffaustausch einschlielich chemischer

Reaktionen. Verlag Sauerlnder, Aarau.

Budzi nski, W., Kozio, A., 2000. Chem. Eng. Sci..

Charpentier, J., van Swaaij, V., Le Goff, 1968. Chemie et industrie

genie Chemique 99, 6.

Dharwadkar, S.W., Sawant, S.B., 1985. Chem. Eng. J. 31, 1521.

Higbie, R.R., 1935. AIChE J., 365389.

Kolev, N., 1976. Chem. Ing. Tech. 48 (12), 11051112.

Krtsch, P., 1981. Chem. Ing. Tech. 53 (11), 892893, synopsis 953.

Krtsch, P., Krten, H., 1979. Verfahrenstechnik 13, 939944.

Linek, V., Petricek, P., Benes, P., Krivsky, Z., Braun, R., 1983. vt

verfahrenstechnik 17 (6), 382385.

Ma ckowiak, J., 1975. Einuss der Fhrungschen in

ringfrmigen Fllkrpern auf die Fluiddynamik und

Stoffaustausch imSystemGas-Flssigkeit, Dissertation TU

Wrocaw (Poland).

Ma ckowiak, J., 1990. StaubReinhaltung der Luft 50, 221.

Ma ckowiak, J., 1999. Chem. Ing. Tech. 71 (1+2), 100104.

Ma ckowiak, J., 2006. Chem. Ing. Tech. 78 (8), 10791086.

Ma ckowiak, J., 2010. Fluid Dynamic of Packed Columns.

Springer-Verlag.

Ma ckowiak, J., Billet, R., 1986. German Chem. Eng. 9 (1), 4864.

Onda, K., Takeuchi, H., Okumoto, Y., 1968. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 1 (1),

5661.

Sahay, B.N., Sharma, M.H., 1973. Chem. Eng. Sci. 28, 4147.

Schultes, M., 2001. Raschig Super-Ring A New Fourth Generation

RandomPacking Paper Presented at AICHE Meeting , Houston,

Texas, April 2226.

Shi, G., Mersmann, A., 1984. Chem. Ing. Tech. (MS 1222/84) 56 (5).

Shi, G., Mersmann, A., 1985. German Chem. Eng. 8, 8796.

Wang, G.Q., Yuan, X.G., 2005. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 8715

8729.

Zech, J.B., Mersmann, A., 1978. Chem. Ing. Tech. 50, 7 MS

604/78.

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