Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm

chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320


Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Chemical Engineering Research and Design
j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ cher d
Model for the prediction of liquid phase mass transfer of
randompacked columns for gasliquid systems

Jerzy Ma ckowiak

ENVIMAC Engineering GmbH, Im Erlengrund 27, 46149 Oberhausen, Germany


a b s t r a c t
The following work presents a new, generally applicable model for description of the mass transfer in the liquid
phase for packed columns lled with random dumped non-perforated and lattice-type packing with size between
12 and 90mmfor gasliquid systems in operating range up to ooding point.
The new equation for evaluation of the volumetric mass transfer coefcient in the liquid phase
L
a
e
was derived
on the basis of the assumption that liquid ows down in packed bed mainly in the formof droplets and that effective
interfacial area a
e
depends on hold-up in packed bed. The relation between the uid dynamics and the mass transfer
is shown based on the channel model with a partly open structure.
The experimentally derived values for the effective mass transfer area in different types of random packings a
e
are in good agreement with the calculation based on the new model. It is therefore possible to separate the product

L
a
e
into liquid phase mass transfer coefcient
L
and effective interfacial area a
e
.
2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Random packing; Lattice-type packing; Liquid phase mass transfer coefcient; Separation performance;
Effective mass transfer area; Extended channel model
1. Introduction
In the eld of separation technology, the use of random,
lattice-type packings in addition to structured packings has
been gradually increasing in the last 20 years.
The new generation of lattice packings, so called Nor-Pac
was rst presented by Billet and Ma ckowiak (1980) in 1979 at
a conference held during the German trade fair Envitec. Con-
trary to expectations, initial experimental results (Billet and
Ma ckowiak, 1980) showed that the mass transfer behaviour
of the 25mm Nor-Pac with small specic packing area a was
similar to that of 25mm plastic Pall rings (1962) with large
specic packing area a, which were analysed for compari-
son. The loading capacity of the new lattice packings was
signicantly higher than that of Pall rings, whilst the pres-
sure drop Lp/H and the specic pressure drop Lp/NTU
OV
of
the lattice packings was considerably lower, yet they were
found to have the same separation efciency when applied
under the same operating conditions. As a result, a number
Abbreviations: RSR, Raschig Super ring; PR, Pall ring; BR, Biaecki ring; CMR, Cascade Mini Rings; RR, Raschig ring; IS, Intalox saddle;
Ralu, Ralu Flow ring; K, ceramic; M, metal; PP, polypropylene.

Presented on 9th Distillation & Absorption Conference in Eindhoven, The Netherlands on 1215 September 2010.

Tel.: +49 2089410440; fax: +49 208941044100.


E-mail address: j.mackowiak@envimac.de
of new lattice-type packing elements of different types such
as IMTP ring (1977), Hiow ring (1982), Envipac (1984), Flexi-
max (1991), Mc-Pac (1991) or Raschig Super Ring (1995) were
produced by leading packing manufacturers, see Fig. 1. These
lattice packings were initially made of plastic, followed later
by models made of ceramic and metal (Billet and Ma ckowiak,
1980, 1982a, 1985; Ma ckowiak, 1990, 1999, 2010; Billet et al.,
1983).
Acomprehensive overviewof the methods used to describe
the resistance of the mass transfer in the liquid phase is avail-
able in the literature (e.g. Onda et al., 1968; Bornhtter and
Mersmann, 1993; Wang and Yuan, 2005; Kolev, 1976), but there
is no method explaining and correlating the inuence of form
andgeometric data of packing onthe volumetric mass transfer
coefcient
L
a
e
in liquid phase.
The separation of the product
L
a
e
was rst achieved
by Zech and Mersmann (1978) (Kolev, 1976) and Shi and
Mersmann (1984, 1985). Based on the assumption of rivulet
formation, they derived new correlations for determining
0263-8762/$ see front matter 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2011.01.021
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1309
Nomenclature
a geometric surface area of packing per unit vol-
ume [m
2
/m
3
]
a
e
interfacial area per unit volume [m
2
/m
3
]
C
p
constant, Eq. (7a) []
d packing diameter [m]
d
h
hydraulic diameter [m]
d
S
column diameter [m]
d
T
mean droplet diameter acc. to Sauter [m]
D
L
diffusion coefcient in the liquid phase [m
2
/s]
F
V
gas load factor in relation to full column cross
section, F
V
=u
V
,
V
0.5
[Pa
0.5
]
g acceleration of gravity [m/s
2
]
h
L
liquid hold-up in relation to total free packing
volume V
S
, h
L
=V
L
/V
S
[m
2
/m
3
]
H packing height [m]
l mean contact path [m]
N packing density [1/m
3
]
p operating pressure [bar]
t temperature [

C]
u
V
linear gas velocity in relation to full column
cross section [m/s]
u
L
specic liquid load in relation to full column
cross section [m/s]
V
L
liquid volume [m
3
]
V
S
free packing volume, V
S
= (( d
2
S
),4) H [m
3
]
Greek symbols
mass transfer coefcient [m/s]

P
formfactor []
t contact time [s]
,, L, density, density difference L, =,
L
,
V
[kg/m
3
]
o
L
surface tension [N/m]
v kinematic viscosity [m
2
/s]
Indices
cal calculated value
exp experimentally derived value
L relating to liquid
Fl relating to operating point at ooding point
S relating to operating point above loading point,
0.65F
V
/F
V,Fl
1
V relating to gas
Dimensionless numbers
Fo = 4 D
L
t,d
2
T
Fourier number
Fr
L
= u
2
L
u,g Froude number
Re
L
=u
L
/a v
L
Reynolds number
Sh
L
=
L
d
T
/D
L
Sherwood number
We/Fr
L
=,
L
g/a
2
o
L
Weber/Froude number
Sc
L
=v
L
/D
L
Schmidt number
the effective interfacial area per unit volume a
e
for ceramic
spheres, Raschig rings and saddles.
Following on from the correlations for mass transfer pre-
diction for liquidliquid systems derived by Ma ckowiak and
Billet (1982/84) (Billet and Ma ckowiak, 1982b; Ma ckowiak and
Billet, 1986), which are based on the model of non-stationary
diffusion for short contact times, it was in the 1990s that
dimensionless correlations, developed by Billet and Schultes
(1993) as well as Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993),
were applied to gasliquid systems, but they required the
knowledge of the individual packing constants that must be
evaluated from experimental data for each packing type and
size. The correlations are valid in the operating range up to
loading line.
The aim of this study is to develop a generally applicable
method for determining the volumetric mass transfer coef-
cient in the liquid phase
L
a
e
for gasliquid systems in whole
operating range up to ooding, valid for different types of clas-
sic, non-perforatedas well as for lattice-type packing elements
and that can be used to predict the separation efciency for
any type of packing based only on specic packing-related
data.
2. Deriving a model for determining the
volumetric mass transfer coefcient in the
liquid phase
L
a below the loading line
Visual observations and measurements of droplet propor-
tions have shown that in packed bed liquid primarily occurs
in the form of droplets rather than rivulets (Bornhtter and
Mersmann, 1991, 1993; Charpentier et al., 1968). As the size of
the packing element increases, the amount of the droplets in
the packed bed also increases, an observation that was con-
rmed as early as 1960 by Charpentier et al. (1968) and by
studies carried out by Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993)
in connection with large diameter lattice packings, d2550.
For this reason, it can be expected that mass transfer occurs
non-stationary and can be described by model that is valid for
disperse systems. Droplets generated in the random packing
fall in the gas phase, which constitutes the continuous phase.
The new method is derived on the basis of a model,
whereby the liquid in a randompacking ows down along the
surface of the individual packing elements in the formof thin
rivulets, whereas between the individual packing elements
the liquidows downmainly inthe formof droplets, providing
the area for mass transfer. In addition, the following assump-
tions were made: in the case of droplet fall in the packing,
deformed droplets with a Sauter diameter d
32
=d
T
are formed
below the loading line in accordance with the correlation
d
T
= C
T

o
L
L, g
; C
T
= 1 [m] (1)
(d
T
>1mm). The validity of this equation for falling droplets
has been conrmed by numerous experimental results
for liquidliquid systems (Billet and Ma ckowiak, 1982b,
1988; Ma ckowiak and Billet, 1986) and gasliquid systems
(Bornhtter and Mersmann, 1991, 1993).
The effective mass transfer area a
e
is identical to the
droplet surface, whilst the total liquid hold-up h
L
corresponds
to the liquid hold-up of the droplets. As a result, it is possible
to determine the interfacial area per unit volume using the
correlation of Eq. (2)
u
c
= 6
n
L
d
T
[m
2
,m
3
] (2)
which is valid for disperse systems.
The liquid owing down the edges of the packing in the
formof droplets has a composition that is not in equilibrium
with the surrounding gas phase. This disequilibrium results
in a mass transfer, which is highest at the beginning and
decreases along the ow length l, which is referred to here as
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
1310 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320
Fig. 1 Overview of packing elements investigated.
the contact path. During the formation of rivulets, mass trans-
fer is interrupted and only recommences as new droplets are
formed. The process is therefore non-stationary, as described
by the well-known model of Higbie (1935)

L
=
2

D
L
t
[m,s] (3)
As a result, the mass transfer coefcient
L
for mass transfer in
the liquid phase can be determined acc. to Eq. (3) if the contact
time t is known.
The contact time t in Eq. (3) is described by the time that
a droplet needs to cover the distance l between two contact
points within the packing. Hence:
t =
l
u
L
[s] (4)
The absolute droplet velocity u
L
is expressed by Eq. (5):
u
L
=
u
L
n
L
[m,s] (5)
By substituting Eq. (5) in Eq. (4) we obtain Eq. (6):
t =
l n
L
u
L
[s] (6)
In order to determine the contact time t acc. to Eq. (6) for a
givenspecic liquid load, the liquid hold-up h
L
and the contact
path l must be known.
The contact path l can be determined for randompackings
using the volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
derived
from measurements, as has been done for liquidliquid sys-
tems (Billet and Ma ckowiak, 1982b; Ma ckowiak and Billet,
1986). This means that in practice the contact path l can be
seen as a mean value that is valid for a whole series of mea-
surements.
Acc. to Ma ckowiak (2010), the liquid hold-up h
L
in random
packings for turbulent liquid ow Re
L
2 in the range below
loading point F
V
0.65F
V,Fl
can be described by Eq. (7a):
n
L
= C
p
Fr
1,3
L
= C
p

u u
2
L
g

1,3
for C
p
= 0.57 [m
3
,m
3
] (7a)
The liquidhold-uph
L
according toEq. (7a) decreases as the size
of the packing is increased, whilst the liquid load u
L
remains
constant, see as an example Fig. 2, and h
L
is equivalent to u
L
raised to the power of 2/3.
Based on the evaluation of more than 1000 experimental
data points for the liquid hold-up using systems withdifferent
physical properties (Ma ckowiak, 2010), the constant C
p
in Eq.
(7a) was found to have a mean value of C
p
=0.57. The exper-
imental values (Ma ckowiak, 2010) are reproduced by Eq. (7a)
for the operating range below the loading line with a relative
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1311
Fig. 2 Flow structure in randompacking: (a) for ceramic packing elements acc. to Charpentier et al. (1968); (b) for different
packing elements acc. to Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993); (c) droplet fall in packed column model.
error of 2025% for different types of plastic packings with
nominal sizes of 0.0150.090m(Fig. 3).
For laminar liquid ow0.16<Re
L
<2, the Eq. (7b) is valid acc.
to Ma ckowiak (2010):
n
L
=
3
4

3
g

1,3
u
2,3
(u
L
v
L
)
1,3
[m
3
,m
3
] (7b)
Fig. 3 Liquid hold-up h
L
as a function of the specic liquid
load u
L
valid for 1550mmmetal Pall rings in the range
F
V
0.65F
V,Fl
(Ma ckowiak, 2010).
The product of the mass transfer coefcient
L
and the inter-
facial area per unit volume a
e
results from Eqs. (2) and (3).
Substituting Eqs. (1), (6) and (7a) in Eqs. (2) and (3) leads to
the following correlation for determining the volumetric mass
transfer coefcient
L
a
e
(8), valid for turbulent liquid ow
Re
L
2:

L
u
c
= 12

C
p
l

1,2

u
g

1,6

D
L
L, g
o
L

1,2
u
5,6
L
[1,s]
(8)
where the contact pathl must be knownfor eachpacking type.
3. Experimental results
Table 1ad contains a list of technical data for different types
of packings investigated as well as the operating conditions
used in experiments carried out in columns with diameters
between 0.15 and 1.2m and a packing height of H=0.74m,
some of which have been published previously (Billet and
Ma ckowiak, 1977, 1980, 1982a,b, 1985; Ma ckowiak, 1990, 2006;
Bornhtter and Mersmann, 1991, 1993; Mackowiak, 1975; Billet
et al., 1983). In addition, the table contains experimental data
available in the literature, e.g. data obtained by Bornhtter
and Mersmann (1991, 1993) using a plant with d
S
=1m and
H=1.654m, as well as data provided by Schultes (2001)
for Raschig Super rings, and by Sahay and Sharma (1973),
Dharwadkar and Sawant (1985), and Linek et al. (1983).
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
1312 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320
Table 1 Overview of technical data of packings used for calculating volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
acc. to Eqs.
(10) and (12), as well as formfactors
P
, valid for (a) to (d).
Packing Symbol d10
3
(m)

(m
3
/m
3
)
a
(m
2
/m
3
)
N 10
3
(1/m
3
)
d
S
(m) H (m) u
L
10
3
,
fromto
(m/s)
t
L
(

C)
P
()
(a) Classic, non-perforated packing elements
Raschig ring 15 0.626 239.3 0.10 1.0 1.711 2040 0
Ceramic 50 0.782 100 6300 0.3 0.75 122.5 20 0
Intalox saddle
ceramic
38 0.757 125.7 18.9 0.3 1.4 111 21 0
(b) Packing elements with slightly perforated walls
Pall ring metal
15 0.964 380 243.2 0.3 0.87 111 22.5 0.28
25
s =0.4
0.954 223.5 53.9 0.3 1.46 111 21.5 0.28
25 0.942 232.1 55.6 0.15 1.3 0.7910 22.5 0.28
35 0.946 150 19.6 0.3 1.4 1.28 19.5 0.28
38 0.952 149.6 15.8 0.3 1.46 111 20 0.28
50 0.95 115.4 6.4 0.3 1.36 112 22.5 0.28
Pall ring plastic
(PP)
25 0.894 238 55.18 0.3 1.4 110 23 0.309
35 0.905 160 18 0.3 1.4 110 20 0.309
50 0.93 111 6.85 1.0 1.65 118 20 0.309
50 0.92 110 6.7 0.3 1.35 115 22 0.309
Pall ring ceramic 50 0.78 120 6.4 0.22 1 112 20 0.430
Bialecki ring
metal
12 0.934 403 443 0.3 0.9 111 17.5 0.158
25 0.94 238 55 0.15 1.5 0.7928 20 0.208
25 0.939 227 52.6 0.3 1.4 17 22 0.208
35 0.95 155 19 0.3 0.74 230 17.5 0.158
50 0.97 111.7 6.7 0.3 1.45 111 20 0.158
53.5 0.968 101.5 6 0.3 1.21.4 0.828 16.5 0.208
(c) Lattice packings with moderately perforated walls
Top-Pak
45 0.957 104.7 6.8 0.3 1.45 111 20 0.474
75 0.979 75.0 2.8 1.0 1.65 118 20 0.424
VSP ring metal
32 0.972 200 33.5 0.3 1.46 112 23 0.38
50 0.982 95.3 7.15 0.3 1.46 112 20 0.38
Ralu-Flow 58 0.941 98.9 4.7 0.3 1.44 112 19 0.705
CMR metal
1.5 0.974 176.3 60.8 0.3 1.4 0.86 19.5 0.475
1 0.9712 232.5 158.5 0.3 1.4 112 22.3 0.475
CMR plastic 1 0.94 200.0 25.6 0.3 1.42 111 12.0 0.496
(d) Lattice packings with highly perforated walls
Hiow ring metal
27 0.965 198.4
184
95.4
37 0.22
0.3
0.45
1.2
1.42
2
115 24
22.5
0.509
58 0.977 92.3
92.3
90
4.78 0.3
0.45
1.00
1.4
2
1.7
112
112
118
22.5
22.5
20
0.63
Hiow ring
plastic (PP)
17 0.91 292 183.8 0.3 1.43 111 21 0.54
28 0.92 192.5 46.1 0.3 0.9/1.4 110 22 0.54
50 0.935 100.0 7.02 1.0 1.65 128 20 0.7
50 0.932 107.7 6.3 0.3 1.57 112 14 0.7
90 0.955 61.0 1.415 1.0 1.65 128 20 0.694
9065 0.956 64.5 0.3 1.5 111 20 0.736
Hiow ring
ceramic (1985)
20 (A) 0.77 261 110.74 0.3 1.2 212 20 0.587
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1313
Table 1 (Continued)
Packing Symbol d10
3
(m)

(m
3
/m
3
)
a
(m
2
/m
3
)
N 10
3
(1/m
3
)
d
S
(m) H (m) u
L
10
3
,
fromto
(m/s)
t
L
(

C)
P
()
50(A) 0.815 88.8 5.12 0.3 1.3 110 20 0.54
Hiow ring
ceramic (1988)
20 (B) 0.696 227 87.1 0.3 1.15 17 23.5 0.492
38 (B) 0.788 119.2 13.2 0.3 1.46 111 20 0.55
ENVIPAC PP
32 0.941 124 49.2 0.3 1/1.4 111 22 0.590
58 0.964 91.7 6.3 0.3 1.45 111 22 0.676
80
0.96 54.2 1.81 0.3 1.45 111 23.5
0.676
0.954 61.1 2.05 1 1.6 112 20
DTNPAC 70 0.936 112 10.2 0.3 1.45 111 20 0.676
CMR turbo metal 1.5 0.976 167.7 60.3 0.3 1.4 111 21 0.475
Nor-Pac (NSW
ring) plastic
2227 0.914 243 68.8 0.3 0.9 111 20 0.694
17 0.88 332 221.6 0.3 0.9 111 20 0.694
28 0.9215 191.7 47.4 0.3 1.4 210 17 0.694
38 0.932 138 20.5 0.3 1.4 0.86 16.5 0.694
50 0.95 95 7.71 0.3 1.4 112 22.5 0.694
Hackette, PP 45 0.932 131 12 0.3 1.4 122 15 0.665
3.1. Effect of the packing form on mass transfer in the
liquid phase
Fig. 4a shows that the mass transfer coefcient in the liq-
uid phase
L
a
e
is highly dependent on the type of packing.
Contrary to expectation, 17mm Hiow rings made of plastic
witha smaller specic geometric surface area of a=292m
2
/m
3
and 17mm Nor-Pac made of plastic with a=332m
2
/m
3
were
found to have a considerably higher separation efciency than
12mm metal Bialecki rings with a specic surface area of
a=403m
2
/m
3
and metal 15mmPall rings with a=380m
2
/m
3
.
This would suggest that inrandompackings containing lattice
packing elements, the geometric surface area of the packing
available for mass transfer is used more efciently and the
size of the geometric surface area of the packing a is not the
mainly factor that determines mass transfer. In classic ran-
dom packings, not all of the surface area appears to be used
for mass transfer. In addition, Figs. 4, 5ad, 6ad and 7 show
the signicance of the packing form, i.e. the bigger the perfo-
ration of the packing element, the better the mass transfer in
liquid phase.
3.2. Inuence of the packing size and type on mass
transfer in the liquid phase
Eq. (8) and the experimental results, shown as an example in
Figs. 57, reveal two parameters that have a main effect on
mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
in the liquid phase: the geo-
metric surface area of the packing per unit volume a and
the contact path l.
3.3. Evaluation of the contact path l for different
packing forms
This was discussed in a previous study (Ma ckowiak, 2006,
2010) onthe modelling of the uiddynamics of packedcolumn
lled with lattice packings, where the effect of the individual
packing elements on the uid dynamics of random packings
was described by an extended channel model with open
structure (Ma ckowiak, 2006, 2010). Acc. to this model, a ran-
dompacking is characterised by three parameters, which are:
the geometric surface area of the packing a, the void fraction
and the form factor
P
, which is dened as the ratio of
the open area to the total surface area of the packing element
(Ma ckowiak, 2006, 2010).
Inthe case of classic packing elements withnon-perforated
walls, as Raschig rings and saddles,
P
is given as
P
=0 acc.
to Ma ckowiak (2006, 2010). Fig. 8 shows that for the same
hydraulic diameter d
h
their contact paths are almost twice as
long as those of lattice packings with a very open structure
acc. to Fig. 5d with formfactors of
P
=0.550.7.
The numerical values for the contact paths l in Eq. (8) for
the investigated packings were determined on the basis of the
experimental data of this work shown for example in Figs. 47.
Plotting the contact path l on the hydraulic diameter d
h
of
the packing gives the following correlation (9) for the packings
investigated acc. to data presented in Figs. 47:
l = 0.115 (1
P
)
2,3
d
1,2
n
[m] (9)
where
P
is a parameter relating to a different characteristic
form of packing element, s. Table 1ad, and d
h
is hydraulic
diameter of packing.
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
1314 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320
Fig. 4 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
as a
function of the specic liquid load u
L
, valid for: (a)
randomly lled 15mmPall rings, 12mmBialecki rings and
17mmHiow rings as well as 17mmNor-Pac made of
plastic. System: CO
2
water/air, 293K, d
S
=0.3m, H=0.9m;
(b) randomly lled 25mmPall rings, Bialecki rings and
Hiow rings made of metal. System: CO
2
water/air, 1bar,
293K, d
S
=0.3m, H=1.36m.
Fig. 8ad shows that not only the size and type of the pack-
ing element has a signicant effect on the contact path. It
can be noted that the more open the structure of the packing
element, the shorter the contact paths l.
Substituting the relations of Eq. (9) in Eq. (8) leads to the
new, generally valid Eq. (10) for the prediction of volumetric
mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
in columns with randompack-
ings below the loading line F
V
0.65F
V,Fl
and for turbulent
liquid ow Re
L
2:

L
u
c
=
15.1
(1
P
)
1,3
d
1,4
n

D
L
L, g
o
L

1,2

u
g

1,6
u
5,6
L
[1,s]
(10)
see Fig. 6.
For laminar liquid ow 0.16<Re
L
<2, the Eq. (11) will be
obtained after substitution of Eqs. (7b) and (9) into Eqs. (2),
Fig. 5 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
as a
function of the specic liquid load u
L
, valid for randomly
lled packing elements made of metal: (a) VSP rings size 1
and 25mmPall rings; (b) VSP rings size 2 and 38mmPall
rings; (c) 50mmPall rings, Bialecki rings and Hiow rings.
System: CO
2
water/air, 1bar, 293K, d
S
=0.3m, H=1.36m.
(3) and (6)

L
u
c
=
17.3 u
1,3
(1
P
)
1,3
d
1,4
n

3 v
L
g

1,6

D
L
L, g
o
L

1,2
u
2,3
L
[1,s] (11)
Fig. 9af shows the comparison between the calculation based
on Eqs. (10) and (11) and the experimental data of this work
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1315
Fig. 6 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
as a function of the specic liquid load u
L
, valid for different types of
packing elements made of plastic (PP): (a) 32, 56 and 80mmENVIPAC; (b) 45mmHackettes, 45mmNor-Pac, Hiow rings,
Hiow Super rings, Ralu rings and Pall rings; (c) Dtnpac size 2; (d) 58mmRalu Flow, 50mmPall rings, 50mmNor-Pac.
System: CO
2
water/air, 1bar, 295K, d
S
=0.31.0m, H=1.451.6m.
plus data collected by Bornhtter and Mersmann (1991, 1993),
Budzi nski and Kozio (2000) and Schultes (2001).
Eqs. (10) and (11) allow consolidating the information on
mass transfer in the liquid phase in randompackings contain-
ing packing elements of different types and sizes, enabling us
to predict the
L
a
e
values for different types of modern and
classic packings sufciently enough for practical applications
with a mean error of 13% in the range belowloading line for
more then 800 experimental points.
The comparison between experimental data for 50mm
Hiowrings and calculated values according to Eq. (10) as well
as to various models available in the literature is shown in
Fig. 10.
4. Model for determining the volumetric
mass transfer coefcient in the liquid phase
(
L
a
e
)
S
above the loading line and below the
ooding point
Based on the assumption that in the range above the loading
line, i.e. for high gas velocities F
V
>0.65F
V,Fl
acc. to Ma ckowiak
(2010), the droplet diameter d
T
remains acc. to Eq. (2) constant,
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
1316 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320
Fig. 7 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
as a
function of the specic liquid load u
L
, valid for different
packing elements with nominal dimensions of 1575mm
made of ceramic. System: CO
2
water/air, 1bar, 295K,
d
S
=0.10.3, H=0.751.4m.
the volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
acc. to Eq. (14) is
equivalent to the liquid hold-up h
L
raised to the power of 1/2

L
u
c
n
1,2
L
(12)
Fig. 11 shows that in the range above the loading line for
F
V
>65%of the ooding point, the ratio of liquid hold-up h
L,S
/h
L
for moderate liquid loads is just a function of the relative
column load F
V
/F
V,Fl
. This information applies to packing ele-
ments of different types, materials and sizes.
As a result, the quotient (
L
a
e
)
S
/(
L
a
e
) can be expressed as
a function of the relative column load F
V
/F
V,Fl
. The experimen-
tal values listed in Fig. 12a and b can be described according
to data presented in Fig. 12 using the following empirical cor-
relation (13) for u
L
=const.:
(
L
u
c
)
S
= (
L
u
c
)

1 +

F
V
F
V.Fl
0.65

u
L
=const
= (
L
u
c
)

0.35 +
F
V
F
V.Fl

u
L
=const
[1,s] (13)
By substituting Eq. (10) in Eq. (13), we obtain Eq. (14):
(
L
u
c
)
S
=
15.1
(1
P
)
1,3
d
1,4
n

D
L
L, g
o
L

1,2

u
g

1,6

0.35 +
F
V
F
V.Fl

u
L
=const
u
5,6
L
[1,s] (14)
The evaluation of approx. 40 experimental points in the range
above the loading line reveals a congruence between the cal-
culation based on Eq. (14) and the experiment, with a relative
error (
L
a
e
)
S
of less than 15%. These experimental results
are also shown in Fig. 9ad (Table 2).
5. Validation of model
5.1. Dimensionless representation of the correlation
for determining the interfacial area per unit volume and
the mass transfer coefcient
L
Eqs. (1), (2) and (7a) lead to Eq. (15) for determining the inter-
facial area per unit volume for turbulent liquid ow Re
L
2 in
Fig. 8 Effect of hydraulic diameter d
h
on mean contact path l for types of packings investigated: (a) for classic,
non-perforated packing elements for
P
=0; (b) for classic, perforated packing elements
P
=0.150.30; (c) for lattice packings
with perforated walls for
P
=0.300.55; (d) for lattice packings with highly perforated walls for
P
0.550.70.
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1317
Fig. 9 Comparison between calculation acc. to Eqs. (10) and (12) and experimental values for: (a) classic, non-perforated
packing elements,
P
=0; (b) packing elements with partly open structure,
P
=0.150.30; (c) lattice-type packing elements
with open structure,
P
=0.300.55; (d) lattice-type packing elements with open structure,
P
=0.550.70; (e) packing
elements with highly open structure: Raschig Super rings (RSP),
P
=0.28.
the operating range below loading line:
u
c
u
= 6 C
p
Fr
1,3
L

Wc
Fr
L

1,2
Cp=0.57
3.42 Fr
1,3
L

Wc
Fr
L

1,2
[] (15)
which describes the experimental data well, as illustrated in
Fig. 13.
Correlation(16) provides a dimensionless representationof
the mass transfer coefcient
L
for short contact times (Higbie,
1935; Brauer, 1971):
Sn
L
= 2.26
1
Fo
1,2
L
(16)
By substituting Eqs. (7a) and (9) in Eqs. (6) and (3), we obtain
Eq. (17) for predicting of the mass transfer coefcient in the
liquid phase
L
in random packings of any type and nominal
dimension, valid for turbulent liquid ow Re
L
2 below the
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
1318 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320
Fig. 10 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient
L
a
e
as a
function of the specic liquid load u
L
, valid for randomly
lled 50mmHiow rings made of plastic (PP). System:
CO
2
water/air, 293K, d
S
=0.31.0m, H=1.41.65m.
Comparison between experimental points [A,7,8] and Eq.
(10) (straight line) as well as different literature methods
(Billet and Schultes, 1993; Bornhtter and Mersmann, 1993;
Kolev, 1976; Zech and Mersmann, 1978; Shi and
Mersmann, 1984; Onda et al., 1968).
loading line:

L
=
5.524


u
1,12
D
1,2
L
g
1,6
(1
P
)
1,3

1,4
u
1,6
L
[m,s] (17)
For laminar liquid owRe
L
<2 belowthe loading line we obtain
following Eq. (18) for determining the interfacial area:
u
c
= 6.49 u
2,3

L,
1,2
g
1,6
v
1,3
L
o
1,2
L
u
1,3
L
[m
2
,m
3
] (18)
Fig. 11 Ratio of liquid hold-up h
L,S
/h
L
as a function of the
relative gas load, valid for different packing elements acc. to
Ma ckowiak (2010).
Fig. 12 Volumetric mass transfer coefcient (
L
a
e
)
S
/(
L
a
e
)
as a function of the relative gas load F
V
/F
V,Fl
in the entire
operating range up to ooding point, valid for: (a) 25mm
metal Biaecki and Hiow rings, metal CMR rings no. 1.5
and 20mmHiow rings made of ceramic; (b) 50mmPall
and Hiow rings made of plastic.
Table 2 Experimental conditions and limits of validity
of models as per Eq. (14) for Re
L
2.
d=0.0120.090m
d
S
=0.101.4m
d
S
/d6
H=0.714m
a=54.2403.0m
2
/m
3
=0.6960.987m
3
/m
3
Re
L
=2900
F
V
/F
V,Fl
1
Fr
L
=5.510
6
1.410
2
We/Fr
L
=0.84.5
Sc
L
=510010,000
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320 1319
Fig. 13 Effective interfacial area per unit volume a
e
as a function of the specic liquid load u
L
, valid for different packing
elements. Comparison between Eq. (15) (continuous line) and experimental data of different authors. (a) 28mmNor-Pac and
25mmTellerette made of plastic (Krtsch, 1981 and Krtsch and Krten, 1979); (b) 35mmPall rings and 38mmNor-Pac
made of plastic; (c) 25mmmetal Pall rings (Sahay and Sharma, 1973).
and Eq. (19) for the mass transfer coefcient in the liquid
phase
L
:

L
=
3.842 D
1,2
L
(1
P
)
1,3
d
1,4
n
(3,g)
1,6
u
1,3
v
1,6
L
u
1,3
L
[m,s] (19)
6. Conclusions
On the basis of the presented model, according to the assump-
tion that droplet ow occurs in packed columns lled with
random packings, combined with the application of the
model of non-stationary diffusion for short contact times
(Ma ckowiak and Billet, 1986; Higbie, 1935), it has been shown,
that it is possible to calculate the volumetric mass transfer
coefcient
L
a
e
for packings of any type and size without
evaluation of specic empirical packing constants which have
to be derived from experiments. The equations according to
(10) and (11) are valid in the range below the loading line
for turbulent and laminar ow respectively and have been
extended to the range up to ooding point according to Eq.
(14). The presented mass transfer correlations as well as the
interconnected hydraulics correlations have been tested with
various absorption and various distillation systems covering
a large range of physical properties, details are shown in the
literature (Ma ckowiak, 2010). For the prediction of the mass
transfer coefcient
L
Eq. (17) is derived. Therefore it is nec-
essary to determine the effective mass transfer area. It is the
area formed by droplets that determines the interfacial area
per unit volume a
e
/a in the random packing for laminar and
turbulent liquid ow in the range of Re
L
900 acc. to Eqs. (15)
and (18).
References
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1977. Chem. Tech. 6, 455461.
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1980. Chem. Tech. (Heidelberg) 9, 219226.
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1982a. vt verfahrenstechnik 16 (2),
6774.
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1982b. Inz. Chem. Procesowa (Orig. Engl.)
3 (3/4), 459482.
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1984. Chem. Tech. 12, 3746 (1985) 4,
9199 and (1985) 5, 195206.
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., 1988. Chem. Eng. Technol. 11, 213227.
Billet, R., Schultes, M., 1993. Chem. Eng. Technol. 16, 1.
Billet, R., Ma ckowiak, J., ugowski, Z., Filip, S., 1983. Fette Seifen
Anstrichmittel 85 (10), 383389.
Bornhtter, K., Mersmann, A., 1991. Chem. Ing. Tech. 63 (2),
132133.
Journal Identication = CHERD Article Identication = 694 Date: June 6, 2011 Time: 4:14pm
1320 chemical engineering research and design 8 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 13081320
Bornhtter, K., Mersmann, A., 1993. Chem. Eng. Technol. 16,
4657.
Brauer, H., 1971. Stoffaustausch einschlielich chemischer
Reaktionen. Verlag Sauerlnder, Aarau.
Budzi nski, W., Kozio, A., 2000. Chem. Eng. Sci..
Charpentier, J., van Swaaij, V., Le Goff, 1968. Chemie et industrie
genie Chemique 99, 6.
Dharwadkar, S.W., Sawant, S.B., 1985. Chem. Eng. J. 31, 1521.
Higbie, R.R., 1935. AIChE J., 365389.
Kolev, N., 1976. Chem. Ing. Tech. 48 (12), 11051112.
Krtsch, P., 1981. Chem. Ing. Tech. 53 (11), 892893, synopsis 953.
Krtsch, P., Krten, H., 1979. Verfahrenstechnik 13, 939944.
Linek, V., Petricek, P., Benes, P., Krivsky, Z., Braun, R., 1983. vt
verfahrenstechnik 17 (6), 382385.
Ma ckowiak, J., 1975. Einuss der Fhrungschen in
ringfrmigen Fllkrpern auf die Fluiddynamik und
Stoffaustausch imSystemGas-Flssigkeit, Dissertation TU
Wrocaw (Poland).
Ma ckowiak, J., 1990. StaubReinhaltung der Luft 50, 221.
Ma ckowiak, J., 1999. Chem. Ing. Tech. 71 (1+2), 100104.
Ma ckowiak, J., 2006. Chem. Ing. Tech. 78 (8), 10791086.
Ma ckowiak, J., 2010. Fluid Dynamic of Packed Columns.
Springer-Verlag.
Ma ckowiak, J., Billet, R., 1986. German Chem. Eng. 9 (1), 4864.
Onda, K., Takeuchi, H., Okumoto, Y., 1968. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 1 (1),
5661.
Sahay, B.N., Sharma, M.H., 1973. Chem. Eng. Sci. 28, 4147.
Schultes, M., 2001. Raschig Super-Ring A New Fourth Generation
RandomPacking Paper Presented at AICHE Meeting , Houston,
Texas, April 2226.
Shi, G., Mersmann, A., 1984. Chem. Ing. Tech. (MS 1222/84) 56 (5).
Shi, G., Mersmann, A., 1985. German Chem. Eng. 8, 8796.
Wang, G.Q., Yuan, X.G., 2005. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 8715
8729.
Zech, J.B., Mersmann, A., 1978. Chem. Ing. Tech. 50, 7 MS
604/78.

Похожие интересы