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# Calculate the energy, in joules and calories. required to heat 25.0g of water from 12.5 deg. celcius to 25.7 d?

The calories is the easy one, since 1 calorie heats 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius. 25x(25.7-12.5) = 25x13.2 = 330 calories. Then convert to Joules: 1 cal = 4.184 J, so 330 cal = 4.184 x 330 J = 1381 J

A 28.5 g sample of iron is heated to 95.0C and then dropped into 58.0 g of water in a coffee-cup calorimeter. The temperature of the water rises from 23.5 C to 27.1C. Calculate the specific heat of iron. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.184 J/g.C.

q = (specific heat) x m . t q(water) = 4.184 J/g.C x 58.0 g x (27.1 - 23.5)C = 874 J so the iron loses 874 J of heat as it cools to 27.1C so -874 = x . 28.5(27.1 - 95.0) x = 0.452 So the specific heat of iron is 0.452 J/g.C

Problem #1: Determine the final temperature when a 25.0 g piece of iron at 85.0 C is placed into 75.0 grams of water at 20.0 C. First some discussion, then the solution. Forgive me if the points seem obvious:

a) The colder water will warm up (heat energy "flows" in to it). The warmer metal will cool down (heat energy "flows" out of it). b) The whole mixture will wind up at the SAME temperature. This is very, very important. c) The energy which "flowed" out (of the warmer water) equals the energy which "flowed" in (to the colder water) Solution Key Number One: We start by calling the final, ending temperature 'x.' Keep in mind that BOTH the iron and the water will wind up at the temperature we are calling 'x.' Also, make sure you understand that the 'x' we are using IS NOT the t, but the FINAL temperature. This is what we are solving for. The warmer iron goes down from to 85.0 to x, so this means its t equals 85.0 minus x. The colder water goes up in temperature, so its t equals x minus 20.0. That last paragraph may be a bit confusing, so let's compare it to a number line:

To compute the absolute distance, it's the larger value minus the smaller value, so 85.0 to x is 85.0 minus x and the distance from x to 20.0 is x minus 20.0 Solution Key Number Two: the energy amount going out of the warm water is equal to the energy amount going into the cool water. This means: qlost = qgain So, by substitution, we then have: (25.0) (85.0 - x)(0.45) = (75.0) (x - 20.0) (4.184) Solve for x Please note the use of the specific heat value for iron. It is 0.45 J per gram degree Celsius. Noting that 75/25 = 3, we arrive at: 38.25 - 0.45x = 12.552x - 251.04 then 13.002x = 289.29 The answer is 22.25 C

if you aren't too fussy about significant figures. Note that the iron drops quite a bit in temperature, while the water moves only a very few (2.25 in this case) degrees. This is the typical situation in this type of problem. Determine the final temperature when 10.0 g of aluminum at 130.0 C mixes with 200.0 grams of water at 25.0 C. There is no difference in calculational technique from sample problem #1. Please note the starting temperature of the metal is above the boiling point of water. In reality, the sample may vaporize a tiny amount of water, but we will assume it does not for the purposes of the calculation. Solution: 1) Set up the numbers: qaluminum = qwater (10) (130 - x) (0.901) = (200.0 )(x - 25) (4.18) 2) Noting that 200/10 = 20, I get: 117.13 - 0.901x = 83.6x - 2090 x = 26.12 C. Keep in mind that 'x' was identified with the final temperature, NOT the t. Also, I did this problem with 4.18. Doing it with 4.184 gives a slightly different answer. Make sure you check with your teacher as to the values of the various constants that he/she wishes for you to use. Determine the final temperature when 20.0 g of mercury at 165.0 C mixes with 200.0 grams of water at 60.0 C. (Cp for Hg = 0.14 J per gram degree Celsius.) We will ignore the fact that mercury is liquid. it does not dissolve in water. (20.0) (165.0 - x) (0.14) = (200.0) (x - 60.0) (4.18) Noting that 200/20 = 10, I get: 23.1 - 0.14x = 41.8x - 2508 41.94x = 2531.1

x = 60.35 C Note that the water moves only 0.35 of one degree. Keep in mind that there is a large amount of water compared to the mercury AND that it takes a great deal more energy to move water one degree as compared to the same amount of mercury moving one degree. A 12.48 g sample of an unknown metal is heated to 99.0 C and then was plunged into 50.0 mL of 25.0 C water. The temperature of the water rose to 28.1C. (a) How many joules of energy did the water absorb? (b) How many joules of energy did the metal lose? (c) What is the heat capacity of the metal? (d) What is the specific heat capacity of the metal? The definitions for heat capacity and specific heat capacity may be found here. 1) Solution to (a): q = (50.0 g) (3.1 C) (4.181 J g1 C1) = 648.52 J I used 50.0 g because the density of water is 1.00 g/mL and I had 50.0 mL of water. 2) Solution to (b): q = 648.52 J We assume all heat absorbed by the water was lost by the metal. We assume no loss of heat energy to the outside during the transfer. 3) Solution to (c): 648.52 J / 74.0 C = 8.76 J/C (or 8.76 J/K) 4) Solution to (d): (50.0 g) (3.1 C) (4.181 J g1 C1) = (12.48 g) (74.0 C) (x) Solve for x. 10.0 g of water is at 59.0 C. If 3.00 g of gold at 15.2 C is placed in the calorimeter, what is the final temperature of the water in the calorimeter? (The specific heat of gold is 0.128 J/g C.) Solution: 1) Set up the following:

qwater = qgold (10.0) (59.0 - x) (4.184) = (3.00) (x - 15.2) (0.128) 2) Algebra: 2468.56 - 41.84x = 0.384x - 5.8368 42.224x = 2474.3968 x = 58.6 C Note that, in this case, the water cools down and the gold heats up. This is opposite to the most common problem of this type, but the solution technique is the same. 105.0 mL of H2O is initially at room temperature (22.0 C). A chilled steel rod (2.00 C) is placed in the water. If the final temperature of the system is 21.5 C, what is the mass of the steel bar? (Specific heat of water = 4.184 J/g C; Specific heat of steel = 0.452 J/g C) Solution: (105.0 g) (0.5 C) (4.184 J C-1 g-1) = (x) (19.5 C) (0.452 J C-1 g-1) x = 24.9 g