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I. MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS

1. REINFORCING STEEL

Non-pre-stressing steel:

All reinforcing bar should comply with ASTM A615-96 Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.

Pre-stressing Steel:

Seven-wire uncoated stress-relieved strands conforming to AASHTO M204 Type WA, ASTM A416 Grade 270.

2. ANCHORAGE ASSEMBLIES

Bulgar Eden Post-Tensioning System Brand of Anchorage (VSL Pattern), Bearing Plate and Cone Guide will be used. (Manufacturer: Bulgar Eden, Taiwan)

The ½ inch diameter 3-jaw one-time use grips/wedges are made of hard steel pre-fabricated and imported from the U.S. (supplied by Bulgar Eden Post-Tensioning System).

3. DUCT TUBES

Polyethylene pipes of commercial grade shall be used as duct tubes to provide holes or voids in the concrete for the placement of post-tensioned bonded tendons. 21/2” diameter for 8 to 12 strands and 2” diameter for 6 to 7 strands.

II. CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY

The POST-TENSIONING is accomplished by the two (2) basic processes listed below:

(1)

Reinforcing Steel Bars Assembly

(2)

Full Stressing, Grouting and Packing

REINFORCING STEEL BARS ASSEMBLY

This process deals with the fabrication and assembly of the non-pre-stressed and pre-stressed reinforcing steel bars and strands.

STAGE ONE:

1.

The non-pre-stressing reinforcing steel bars are cut and assembled in place by main contractor.

STAGE TWO:

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1. After assembly, chairs 8-10mm diameter DRB to form the profile of the pre-stressing tendons are then tied into place.

2. The duct tubes are then set with the required profile after which the Grade 270 High Tensile Strands are inserted.

3. After insertion of the strands, the live end anchor guide is set in place with a block- out at end.

4. The dead end shall be assembled according to embedment length.

5. End forms with block-out shall be done by others.

FULL STRESSING, GROUTING, AND PACKING

After the concrete strength of the post-tensioned beams has attained a compressive strength of 27.60 Mpa, stressing works shall commence.

Stressing. The stressing of girders will be done by one end stressing using a multi- strand stressing jacks at live end of post-tensioned beam.

Computation of Jacking Force (J F ):

J F = S X A

S = grade of 12.7 mm Ø HTS = 1,862 N/mm 2 (per mill certificate)

A = area of 12.7mm Ø HTS = 98.71 mm 2

Note: Jacking force reduction factor is at 80 % to consider friction losses

For 12 pcs HTS per Tendon;

J F = 12 X 1,862 N/mm 2 X 98.71 mm 2 X 0.80

For 7 pcs HTS per Tendon;

J F = 1,764.46 kN

J F = 7 X 1,862 N/mm 2 X 98.71 mm 2 X 0.80

J F = 1,029.27 kN

The strands will stressed following the procedures listed below;

1. Cleaning of anchorage.

2. Checking the allowance of the P.C. Wire from the anchorage.

3. Removal of rust from P.C. Wire, Anchorage, and Grips.

4. Gradual stressing force introduction and reading of elongation.

Packing. After completion of stressing, the exposed anchorage shall be covered by concrete mortar mix. The inlets for the grout will be exposed.

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Grouting. After the completion of stressing of all tendons, grouting shall follow. The tendons shall be cleaned by running pressurized water into the P.E. hose inlet.

The grout shall be made of portland cement and intraplast additive mortar mix.

The grout shall be fed to the inlet using a pressurized grouting pump.

The completion of grouting will be checked by seeing to it that the grout will exit at the outlet and at the provided air vents.

By:

JONATHAN M. MONTECILLO

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PRESTRESSED GIRDER STRESSING METHODOLOGY

POSTTENSIONING BASIC INFORMATION

1. Anchorage

:

Bulgar Eden BEM-T13-12/BEM-T13-07

2. PC Wire

:

Siam Industrial Wire Co., Ltd Low Relaxation HTS 12.7mm dia.

3. PT Jack

:

Bulgar Eden YCW200A

4. PT Pump

:

Bulgar Eden ZB4-500

5. PT Methodology

:

a.) Tensioning Execution Both ends synchronized stressing b.) Tensioning Control Friction and Elongation Method

POSTTENSIONING STANDARD OPERATION PROCEDURE

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I. Before PT

1. Preparation of protection board.

2. Cleaning of anchorage.

3. Check the PC wire Mill Certificate and confirm if the inserted wires are the same wires certified.

4. Remove rust of PC wire, anchorages and grips.

5. Check the allowance of PC wire from anchorage.

6. Check posttensioning ducts by pushing the PC wire back and forth.

7. Establish marking points at girder ends and midspan, using a leveling instrument for the measurement of camber. (See Fig. 1)

8. Check actual length of girder.

9. Manpower schedule Operator 1 @ each side

-

2

PT Technician

-

1

PT Engineer

-

1

Jack Tender

-

4

10. Check electric source of pump and do test runs.

11. Check tendon numbers for the order of tensioning.

12. Coordination of signal for simultaneous/synchronized pump execution.

13. To prevent overturning of girder during stressing, lateral bracing should be provided.

14. Axial center of jack and anchorage shall be properly observed.

15. Check the PT control graph thru computation sheet, especially Ep, µ, l(2) and l(3).

II. During PT

1. Initial force introduction

This shall be 5 MPa at both ends simultaneously.

2. Mark reference point for elongation measurement

This shall be 20 cm reckoned from the push metal at both ends of the PC wire.

3. Gradual force introduction and reading the corresponding elongation

Gradually increased the pressure 5 MPa per step, and plot the elongation corresponding to the pressure. The elongation shall be read by subtracting 20 cm at both ends of PC wire.

4. Zero adjustment

Hold the tensioning execution at 50% of the desired final force and connect the points in the graph and slide the line parallel to the origin then project a line to the final force limit.

5. Determination of actual plotted line

Determine whether actual plotted line is within the pre-computed envelope of the control graph.

a.)

If elongation at both sides is nearly equal, proceed with stressing the 50% remaining required force.

b.)

If one of the elongations is more than two (2) times with the other, counter should be applied.

measures below

i) Give instruction to pump operator to synchronized stressing.

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ii) Then increase 5 MPa pressure and observe the effect. If the same situation exists, inclination of elongation has occurred. Stop stressing operation and release pressure without wedging. Check the PC tendons for obstruction like concrete inside the duct. If it is okay repeat the procedures 1-5. If the duct is clogged, this girder maybe abandoned as per decision of an authorized engineer.

c.) If line is within the limit, proceed with stressing the 50% remaining required force as per procedure 3. d.) If the line is out of the limit, stop the operation and detach the jack. Reset the jack and repeat procedure 1-5.

e.)

If repeated procedure resulted the same as 5-d, proceed to find the cause, the following counter measure steps shall be followed.

Step 1. Check jack and pump

a.)

b.) Pump might lack hydraulic fluids. If the mentioned conditions are observed, do subsequent actions, repair pump or jack and recalibrate.

Pump might have unknowingly encountered accident during shipment.

Step 2. If the jack and pump are normal, proceed to the following cases.

Case I: Elongation is lesser than computed

a.)

If the elongation is little bit far procedure.

from the

upper limit, proceed to the next

b.)

If the elongation is extra-ordinary or negligible to measure, abandon the procedure by releasing pressure without wedging. Check duct for some obstructions.

c.)

If Case I-1 is frequently observed to other tendons, check Ep & µ. Re-computation may be necessary using different value of Ep and µ.

Ep can be change to present value than the present one. Confirm if actual elongation is within the adjusted control graph.

Case II: Elongation is greater than computed

a.)

If the elongation is little far from the lower limit, proceed to the next procedure.

b.)

If the elongation is extra-ordinary abandon the procedure by releasing pressure without wedging.

Check grips, some wedges may have slip or grips are not properly installed.

PC wire might have low Ep value. Change the whole set if necessary. Never attempt to proceed the stressing with a low Ep PC wire to avoid understress.

c.)

If Case II-1 is frequently observed to other tendons, check Ep & µ. Re- computation may be necessary using different value of Ep and µ.

Ep can be changed to a lower value than the present one up to Ep=1.9x10 6 kg/cm 2 . (186.2x10 3 MPa) If adjusted Ep is lower than the above mentioned value, the authorized Engineer can decide if the tendon will be used or rejected.

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NOTE:

Generally 10% tolerance of computed limit is considered. In any case, if the above-mentioned is observed, PC wire materials may be substandard. Replacement of the materials with new sets may be recommendable.

To emphasize above, Allowable Control Limit comparison shall be presented below.

Example:

Table I. Allowable Control Limit Comparison for Elongation

   

ELONGATION

FRICTION

   

TENDON

   

LIMIT

& PRESSURE

COEFFICIENT

VARIANCE

 

C1

 

METHOD

METHOD

ELONGATION

   

UPPER LIMIT

 

222

201

+21

CONTROL

LOWER LIMIT

182

181

+1

LIMIT

LIMIT RANGE

40

20

+20

 

NOTE:

 

Pressure elongation method is more tolerable compared to Friction coefficient.

 

6.

Pre-final tension

 

The authorized Engineer decides the pre-final tension value if the plotted actual line is within the limit line.

7.

Measurement of camber

 

Camber usually occurs when PT force is more than the dead weight of the girder. The last cable to be stressed will determine the required camber. Now at pre-final tension, the camber shall be measured and then proceed as follows:

 

Step 1. If the camber is near to the designed one, pre-final tension shall represent for the final tension value. Then proceed to next step.

Step 2. If the camber is far from the designed one, pre-final tension shall be increased in order

to

attain the designed camber. This is subject to the decision of the authorized Engineer.

 

c

=

(Δc – Δel) + (Δc – Δer) = Δc

– (Δel + Δer)

8.

Locking the PC tendons

 

After determination of the final tension value, the tendons are wedged permanently.

 

9.

Release of tension

 

After wedging, the tension shall be released up to 5 MPa.

 

10.

Measurement of pull-in

 

After releasing the tension, PC wire will be pulled into anchorage slightly. This is called “pull-in”.

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Actual pull-in shall be measured as follows:

Actual pull-in, Δla = (Δl’ – Δ”) L + (Δl’ – Δ”) R

Where:

Δl’ = reading of elongation before wedging Δl” = reading of elongation after wedging and decreasing the pressure to 5 MPa. = left and right side elongation reading

( )L, ( )R

Measure the actual pull-in, and take actions as follows:

a.)

Actual pull-in < the computed pull-in.

Post-tensioning is greatly successful.

b.)

Actual pull-in is *6mm < the computed pull-in.

Post-tensioning is acceptable.

c.)

Actual pull-in is *6mm > the computed pull-in.

Post-tensioning on this particular cable is under-stressed. Correction value stress shall be computed or graphically shown. Actual pull-in shall include the shortening of PC tendons from tip of the push metal to reference marking point.

*6mm = This is called as the Standard Tolerance Error Reading (STER)

Actual Tolerance Error Reading (ATER) shall be computed as follows:

ATER = [P l/AE] x 2 ends

Where:

P

= applied stress

l

= length of cable inside the jack from back face of the anchor block to back of the jack

E = Young’s modulus of PC tendon

A = sectional area of PC tendon

Example:

ATER = [Pl/AE] x 2

= [(570kg/cm 2 x 300cm 2 x 352mm)/(1184.5mm 2 x 19,775.74 kg/mm 2 )] 2

= 5.14 mm

The formula below shall be applied for the Adjustment of Tensile Stress (ATS) to next girder.

ATS = [(Δla – Δlc) (σm)]/Δl

Where:

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Example:

a.)

Δl

Δlc = computed pull-in (mm) Δla = actual pull-in (mm)

= actual total elongation (mm)

By computation

Table 2. Tensioning Data

DESCRIPTION

SYMBOL

VALUE

Friction Coefficient

µ

0.30

Tensile Stress

σm

560

Total Elongation

Δl

186

Computed pull-in

Δlc

20

Actual pull-in

Δla

22

ATS = [(Δla – Δlc) (σm)]/Δl

= [(22 20) (560 kg/cm 2 )] / 186 mm

= 6.02 kg/cm 2

b.)

By graphical

Actual pull-in shall follow the Actual Stress-Elongation straight line. Therefore ATS can be determined by equivalent value of –Δl = -2mm on the actual graph. ATS = 6.02

ATER = [Pl/AE] x 2

= [(570kg/cm 2 x 300cm 2 x 352mm)/(1184.5mm 2 x 19,775.74 kg/mm 2 )] 2

= 5.14 mm

11. Individual cable posttensioning shall not be the absolute value of post tension to be considered. It should consider the sum or the total post tension force introduced.

Adjustment of pull-in losses of slips shall be minimal on the last cable since this cable path is not the centerline of girder.

III. After PT

1. Length

Check the total length of PC girder.

2. Camber

Check the final camber of the PC girder at midspan.

3. Control graph

Fill-up the necessary data in the control graph and get the signature of the authorized Engineer.

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4. PC tendon

Cutting shall not be less than 30 mm from the anchor head. Disc type cut-off machine shall be used.

5. Temporary stocking

Until grouting shall be made, the duct should be free from any water.

6. Packing

After cutting of PC tendon, packing of the anchor block with cement mortar is done.

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POST-TENSIONED GIRDER GROUTING METHODOLOGY

PC GROUT BASIC INFORMATION

1. Standard Specifications:

Japan Society of Civil Engineering Standard Specifications

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2. Cement:

Portland Cement

3. Admixture:

Sika Intraplast Z

4. Grout Pump:

Bulgar Eden YM-90

5. Grout Mixer:

Locally made

GROUTING

Post-tensioned steel shall be bonded to the concrete by grouting a soon as possible after stressing unless noted otherwise on the drawings when, in the opinion of the Consultant, such grouting is impracticable, the grouting shall take place as soon as is practicable and in any case not later than 28 days after stressing of the tendons in any cable duct is completed. All pre-stressing reinforcement enclosures and ducts shall be free of dirt, loose rust, grease, and other deleterious substances, the ducts shall be flushed out with clean water and compressed air first. Grout shall be placed within 45 minutes of mixing. Grout shall be placed under pressure of at least 7.0 kg/cm 2 or 100 psi, the injection shall be continuous and include a system for re-circulating the route if actual grouting is not in progress.

GROUTING PROCEDURE

1. Quality Assurance (See details of Quality Test Measurements)

a.)

Choice of admixture

b.)

Preparation of design mix

c.)

Execution of trial mix

d.)

Conducting quality test

e.)

Required quantity computation

2. Preparation for Grouting Operation

a.)

Installation of Grout Hose for Inlet and Discharge Outlet

Prior to pouring concrete into the girder, grout hose shall be inserted into the grout hose coupler at both end joint sheaths.

Grout hose shall be of type with meshing reinforcement and can withstand 7kg/cm 2 pressure. Polyethylene hose is not advisable to avoid cracking or bursting of hose due to pressure.

b.)

Covering of Anchorage

After pouring of concrete, anchorage portion shall be covered with vinyl sheet until grouting shall start to prevent entry of water and dust into the anchorage.

c.)

Installation of Exhaust Hose for Emitting Air

Hose shall be inserted into the hole of male cone prior to sealing. Hose with meshing reinforcement shall be used. Polyethylene hose is not advisable.

d.)

Sealing of the Block-out of Anchorages

Anchorage at girder ends shall be sealed with cement mortar to prevent leaking of grouting materials during grouting.

e.)

Flushing and Removal of Cleaning Water in the Duct

Enough cleaning water shall be provided to be able to flush clean the 3 ducts. Flushing of ducts with clean water shall be done to remove dirt, loose rust, grease, and other deleterious substances which may

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cause clogging and to determine whether the duct is not clogged. After flushing, remaining water shall be removed by introduction of compressed air.

f.)

Sieving of Cement

Prior to mixing the grout, cement shall be sieved thru 1.2 mm sieve, so that weathered cement can be removed. Cement shall be kept in cool dry place.

g.)

Grouting Scheme

Position of mixing plant shall be determined considering the site condition. Capacity of mixer and pump shall be carefully studied for smooth grouting operation.

3. Grouting Operation

a.)

Mixing Order

Mixing order shall be strictly followed as mentioned below:

1. Pour all the water first.

2. Gradually pour the cement.

3. Pour the admixture. See to it that the exact amount of admixture is poured.

4. Mix the mixture for about 3 minutes with covering lid to avoid spilling of grout mixture.

b.)

Grouting Pump Gauge Pressure

The standard pumping pressure is 2-3 kg/cm 2 . This figure is dependent on the length and diameter of the hose, conditions of bends and duct to void area.

c.)

Observation of Grout

While grouting, normal grouting can be observed by submerging discharged hose into the water in a small pail. If the air does not come out even if the pressure is increased, duct may be clogged and a counter measure shall be followed. As the grout comes out at the discharge hose, the density of the grout should be confirmed if it is the same consistency as the one inside the grout mixer.

d.)

Increasing of Pressure

After confirmation of the grout, the discharge hose shall be folded and tied with a tie wire. The pressure is then added about 5.0 kg/cm 2 for a short while. After the ducts are filled the pouring hose shall be folded and tied with tie wire.

e.)

PC Grout Quality Control

Quality control form shall be recorded before, during, and after grouting.

f.)

Countermeasure in Case of Clogging Trouble

g.)

Countermeasure shall be established before grouting. Clogging is the major trouble during grouting, therefore a flowchart to solve this problem is provided. See Table 4. Test Sampling

The sample mould is a cylinder type with dimensions of 5.0 cm diameter and 10.0 cm height.

4. After Grouting Operation

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a.)

Cleaning of Grout Pump and Mixer

Immediately after grouting, mixer and pump shall be washed and cleaned thoroughly.

b.)

Cleaning of Girder and Substructure

Upon after grouting, girder shall be washed immediately so that color of grout can be removed to avoid staining with dirt.

c.)

Treatment of Grout Hose

After cutting of grout hose, no treatment is needed if the portion where the hose is placed is covered with concrete later, otherwise that portion shall be chipped about 3.0 cm deep and sealed with epoxy mortar.

d.)

Curing

Unless otherwise specified, grout shall have a minimum compressive strength of 14 MPa at 28 days.

5. Quality Test Measurement

a.)

Choice of Admixture

Cement grout composed of water and cement, will shrink due to evaporation of water and bleeding. To control shrinkage and bleeding, an admixture should be added. Sika Intraplast Z is recommended.

b.)

Preparation of Design Mix

Figures in the table below shall be required to qualify the pc grout.

TABLE 5. STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR PC GROUT

CONSISTENCY

EXPANSION

CHLORIDE (kg/m 3 )

BLEEDING

W/C

COMP. ST (kg/cm 2 )

(seconds)

(%)

(%)

(%)

15.0 to 30.0

LESS 10.0

LESS 0.30

LESS 3.0

LESS 45.0

OVER 200

Table below represents standard design mix using premix type admixture. TABLE 6. STANDARD DESIGN MIX

W/C RATIO

WATER

CEMENT

ADMIXTURE

 

(%)

(kg)

(kg)

FG-10* (kg)

       

* in Japan, this is

44.0

17.6

40.0

0.40

known as GF630

c.)

Execution of Trial Mix

Mixing shall be water first, then cement is added gradually and then the admixture. Mix the mixture for about 3.0 minutes.

d.)

Conducting Quality Test

1. Consistency Test

This test shall be complied with JA funnel Method of JSCE-1986 PC Grout Test. (See Fig. 3)

a.)

Funnel shall be supported by funnel supporter.

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b.)

The inside of the JA funnel shall be wetted.

c.)

After pouring of grout, discharge a little amount of grout and shut it with the finger.

d.)

Pour the grout up to the top and level it.

e.)

Remove the finger and let grout flow until the time when it stops the continuous flow.

f.)

Measure the time above. This time represents the magnitude of consistency.

After the testing, the grout which remained inside the JA funnel is considered unsuitable.

2. Bleeding Test

3. Expansion Test

4. Compressive Strength Test

e.)

Required Material Quantity Computation

SAMPLE COMPUTATION:

1. DESIGN CRITERIA

Materials to be used

:

Water, Portland cement, Sika Intraplast Z

Water Cement Ratio

:

44%

Admixture

:

2% of Cement Weight

2. DESIGN MIX

The materials which are needed for 1 m 3 of grout shall be computed by the equation below:

1000 = W

+

C

+

A

w

c

a

where:

W

= Weight of Water

C

= Weight of Cement

A

= Weight of Admixture

= Specific Gravity of Materials

Since admixture is negligible in quantity compared to water and cement, this shall be neglected:

1000

=

W

+

C

 

w

c

w = 1.00 c = 3.15

 

1000

= _W_

+

_C_

 

1.00

3.15

1000

=

W

+

0.317 C

With water to cement ratio, W/C = 0.44

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1000

=

0.44 C + 0.317 C

1000

= 0.757 C

Therefore:

C = 1321.0 kg (Cement)

W =

581.2 kg (Water)

A =

26.4 kg (Sika Intraplast Z)

MIXTURE

W/C RATIO

WATER

CEMENT

Sika Intraplast Z (kg)

VOLUME

(%)

(kg)

(kg)

Per 1.00 m 3

44

581.2

1321.0

26.4

Per 1 batch

44

22.0

50.0

1.0