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Contents

1. Project Details
1. 1 Introduction 1. 2 Why We use LPG

1-2
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2. Components
2.1 Internal Combustion Engine 2.1.1 Introduction 2.1.2 Parts 2.1.3 Operation 2.1.4 Engine cycles 2.1.5 Common component 2.1.6 Problem Arise Due to Normal Engine 2.1.7 Application

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3-13 3 4 5 6 7 12 13

3. Two Stroke Engine


3.1 Introduction 3.2 Processes 3.3 Strokes

14-17
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17 18- 20
18 19 20

4. LPG Kit
4.1 Introduction 4.2Advantages due to use LPG as a fule 4.3 Disadvantages due to use LPG as a fule

5. Conclusion 6. Reference

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1. Project Details 1.1 Introduction


The STUDY OF TWO STROKE ENGINE WITH DUAL FUEL project has focused on the use of fuel in two stroke Gasoline engine. The goal of our project is to utilize non-conventional fuel and reduce the conventional fuel usage that has become expensive and insufficient today. This has resulted in less air pollution than conventional fuels which is better based on considerations of economic.

Bi-fuel vehicles are vehicles with multifuel engines capable of running on two fuels. One fuel is petrol and the other alternate fuel is LPG. The two fuels are stored I separate tanks and the engine runs on one fuel at a time but in our project the stored two different fuels are mixed together in the same tank, and the resulting blend is burned in the combustion chamber. So we will use petrol/LPG fuel system here, in two stroke petrol engine with petrol and LPG in this project which will be use in flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual fuel vehicle.

A FFV is an alternate fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel and having both the fuel in same tank and supply both fuel into the combustion chamber at the same time in various calibrated proportions.

Now a days petrol and diesel are consumed at so rapid rate that in few time they will exhausted and in future there will be no such fuel will be available to use by which crisis will take place. As a result of shortage of petrol and diesel their price reaches to sky and one time occur when it cant be afford by everyone. So we should be ready for such type of condition.

So by working on this project we are trying to reduce the use of petrol and diesel and that can be conserve for our next generation. And it also helps in controlling pollution as we use Liquefied Petroleum Gas which is natural gas. The LPG means Liquefied Petroleum Gas. It is also called as bottled gas (or) Refinery gas. It is obtained as a by product during cracking of heavy crude oils. It is then compressed in the liquid form to increase the fuel gas and reserved with trade name such as INDANE-BURSHANE etc.

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By the use of Natural gas technology in I.C engines beats the current emission standards for hydro carbons (HC) and nitrous oxide (NO) by more than two thirds and level for carbon dioxide (CO) by more half as LPG consists of Hydrocarbons that they exist as gas under atmospheric pressure and are volatile.

1.2 Why we use LPG


The combustion of Auto gas is smoother as a result of the higher octane content. Unlike other fuels, no additives are required to guarantee high quality.

Auto gas contains no lead and is therefore cleaner and leaves no residue.

It is actually better than petrol because it reaches the engine in pure gas form with improved combustion resulting and fewer knocking.

With modern technology, there is hardly any discharge of carbon monoxide, and compared to petrol and diesel, the exhaust fumes contain less harmful substances.

The life of the engine is extended as a result of the absence of acids and carbon deposits. One can safely state that engines on LPG last almost twice than that on Petrol/Gasoline.

Less carbon means less fouling of spark plugs and points i.e. less wear and tear.

The engine oil does not become diluted with a consequential reduction in servicing costs.

Unlike diesel, you do not have to adjust your driving style. Cold starting is no problem; engine performance is almost exactly the same as with petrol. There is no spilling when filling your tank and no possibility of theft or pilfering. Engine noise is low and you'll be driving in a more environment-friendly way.

The environmental advantages of Auto gas for automotive use are indisputable.

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2.Components

2. 1 Internal combustion engine


The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of working fluid flow circuit. All the automobile engines work on the principal of internal combustion engine. Since we are using here the internal combustion engine that can work on both petrol and LPG as a fuel. So, the introduction and description of internal combustion engine is discussed below:-

2.1.1 Introduction The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction creates gases at high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. Internal combustion engines are defined by the useful work that is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause the movement of solid parts of the engine.

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Figure 2.1 Automobile engine The term Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is often used to refer to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as a Wrankel engine or a reciprocating piston engine in which there is controlled movement of pistons, cranks, cams, or rods. However, continuous combustion engines such as jet engines, most rockets, and many gas turbines are also classified as types of internal combustion engines. This contrasts with external combustion engines such as steam engines and Stirling engines that use a separate combustion chamber to heat a separate working fluidwhich then in turn does work, for example, by moving a piston or a turbine. A huge number of different designs for internal combustion engines exist, each with different strengths and weaknesses. Although they're used for many different purposes, internal combustion engines particularly see use in mobile applications such as cars, aircraft, and even handheld applications: all where their ability to use an energy-dense fuel (especially fossil fuels) to deliver a high power-to-weight ratio.

2.1.2 Parts
For a four-stroke engine, key parts of the engine include the crankshaft (purple), connecting rod (orange), one or more camshafts (red and blue), and valves. For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. In both types of engines there are one or more cylinders (grey and green), and for each cylinder there is a spark plug (darker-grey, gasoline engines only), a piston (yellow), and a crankpin (purple). A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke. The downward stroke that occurs directly after the air-fuel mix passes from the carburetor or fuel injector to the cylinder, where it is ignited. This is also known as a power stroke.

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Figure 2.3 An illustration of several key components in a typical four-stroke engine

A Wrankel engine has a triangular rotor that orbits in an epitrochoidal chamber around an eccentric shaft. The four phases of operation (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) take place in what is effectively a moving, variable-volume chamber. A Bourke Engine uses a pair of pistons integrated to a Scotch Yoke that transmits reciprocating force through a specially designed bearing assembly to turn a crank mechanism. The intake, compression, power, and exhaust occur in each stroke.

2.1.3 Operation
Internal combustion engines have 4 basic steps:

Intake :Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber

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Compression :The mixtures are placed under pressure

Combustion/Expansion :The mixture is burnt, almost invariably a deflagration, although a few systems involve detonation. The hot mixture is expanded, pressing on and moving parts of the engine and performing useful work.

Exhaust :The cooled combustion products are exhausted.

Many engines overlap these steps in time; jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines. Some internal combustion engines have extra steps.

2.1.4 Engine cycle


2.1.4.1 Two-stroke Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes (one up, one down) for every power stroke. Since there are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes, alternative methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. The most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize fresh charge in the crankcase, which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their power output and mechanically very simple; however, they are also generally less efficient and more polluting than their four-stroke counterparts. In terms of power per cubic centimetre, a single-cylinder small motor application like a two-stroke engine produces much more power than an equivalent four-stroke engine due to the enormous advantage of having one power stroke for every 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720 degrees in a 4 stroke motor). Small displacement, crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to scavenging allowing some of it to escape out of the exhaust port. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use air-assisted fuel

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injection which avoids this loss, and are more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke engines. Fuel injection is essential for a modern two-stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent emission standards. Research continues into improving many aspects of two-stroke motors including direct fuel injection, amongst other things. The initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts. Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles, lawnmowers, weed-whackers, chain saws, jet skis, mopeds, outboard motors, and many motorcycles. The largest compression-ignition engines are two-strokes and are used in some locomotives and large ships. These particular engines use forced induction to scavenge the cylinders; an example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer turbocharged two-stroke diesel as used in large container ships. It is the most efficient and powerful engine in the world with over 50% thermal efficiency. For comparison, the most efficient small four-stroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency (SAE 900648); size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to area.

2.1.4.2 Four-stroke Engines based on the four-stroke or Otto cycle have one power stroke for every four strokes (updown-up-down) and are used in cars, larger boats, some motorcycles, and many light aircraft. They are generally quieter, more efficient, and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. There are a number of variations of these cycles, most notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. The steps involved here are:1. 2. 3. 4. Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in. Compression stroke: Fuel vapor and air are compressed and ignited. Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is pushed downwards. Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. During the 1st, 2nd, and 4th stroke the piston is relying on power and the momentum generated by the other pistons. In that case, a four cylinder engine would be less powerful than a six or eight cylinder engine.

2.1.5 Common components

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2.1.5.1 Combustion chambers Internal combustion engines can contain any number of combustion chambers (cylinders), with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 (Lycoming R-7755) have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses, that is, the mass of each piston can be less thus making a smoother-running engine since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons moving up and down: secondly, with a greater displacement and more pistons, more fuel can be combusted and there can be more combustion events (more power strokes) in a given period of time. This means that such an engine can generate more torque than a similar engine with fewer cylinders. The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power. For highperformance gasoline engines using current materials and technologysuch as the engines found in modern automobiles, there seems to be a break-point around 10 or 12 cylinders after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency. Although, exceptions such as the W16 engine from Volkswagen exist.

Most car engines have four to eight cylinders with some high performance cars having ten, twelveor even sixteen, and some very small cars and trucks having two or three. In previous years, some quite large cars such as the DKW and Saab 92, had two-cylinder or two-stroke engines. Radial aircraft engines (now obsolete) had from three to 28 cylinders; an example is the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. A row contains an odd number of cylinders so an even number indicates a twoor four-row engine. The largest of these was the Lycoming R-7755 with 36 cylinders (four rows of nine cylinders), but it did not enter production. Motorcycles commonly have from one to four cylinders, with a few high performance models having six; although, some 'novelties' exist with 8, 10, or 12. Snowmobiles usually have two cylinders. Some larger but not necessarily high-performance touring machines have four. Small portable appliances such as chainsaws, generators, and domestic lawn mowers most commonly have one cylinder, but two-cylinder chainsaws exist.

2.1.5.2 Ignition system

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An internal combustion engine can be classified by its ignition system. Today most engines use an electrical or compression heating system for ignition. 2.1.5.2.1 Spark: The mixture is ignited by an electrical spark from a spark plugthe timing of which is very precisely controlled. Almost all gasoline engines are of this type, but not diesel engines. 2.1.5.2.2 Compression: Ignition comes from the heat derived from oxidation and the mechanical compression of the air or mixture. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition temperature. In this case, the timing comes from the fuel injection system. Very small model engines for which simplicity is more important than fuel costs, use special fuels to control ignition timing.
2.1.5.3 Ignition Timing: For reciprocating engines, the point in the cycle at which the fuel-

oxidizer mixture is ignited has a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. The thermodynamics of the idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a high temperature, resulting from compressionnear top dead center. The speed of the flame front is directly affected by the compression ratio, fuel mixture temperature, and octane or cetane rating of the fuel. Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly requiring more advanced ignition timing. It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front (deflagration), not by a shock wave. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or knocking. So at least in gasoline-burning engines, ignition timing is largely a compromise between an earlier "advanced" sparkwhich gives greater efficiency with high octane fueland a later "retarded" spark that avoids detonation with the fuel used. For this reason, high-performance diesel automobile proponents such as, Gale Banks, believe that

2.1.5.4 Fuel systems

A device used to deliver fuel to the internal combustion engine. Fuels burn faster and more completely when they have lots of surface area in contact with oxygen. In order for an engine to work efficiently the fuel must be vaporized into the incoming air in what is commonly referred to as a fuel-air mixture. There are two commonly used methods of vaporizing fuel into the air: one is the carburetor and the other is fuel injection.

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2.1.5.4.1 Carburetor: Often for simpler reciprocating engines, a carburetor is used to supply fuel into the cylinder. However, exact control of the correct amount of fuel supplied to the engine is impossible. Carburetors are the current most widespread fuel mixing device used in lawn mowers and other small engine applications. Prior to the mid-1980s, carburetors were also common in automobiles. 2.1.5.4.2 Fuel injection: Larger gasoline engines used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems (see Gasoline Direct Injection). Diesel engines always use fuel injection because it is the fuel system that controls the ignition timing. Other internal combustion engines like jet engines use burners and rocket engines use various different ideas including impinging jets, gas/liquid shear, preburners, and many other ideas.

2.1.5.5 Oxidizer-Air inlet system

Some engines such as solid rockets have oxidisers already within the combustion chamber but in most cases for combustion to occur, a continuous supply of oxidiser must be supplied to the combustion chamber.

2.5.5.1 Natural aspirated engines: When air is used with piston engines it can simply suck it in as the piston increases the volume of the chamber. However, this gives a maximum of 1 atmosphere of pressure difference across the inlet valves, and at high engine speeds the resulting airflow can limit potential power output.

2.1.5.5.2 Superchargers: A supercharger is a "forced induction" system which uses a compressor powered by the shaft of the engine which forces air through the valves of the engine to achieve higher flow. When these systems are employed the maximum absolute pressure at the inlet valve is typically around 2 times atmospheric pressure or more.

2.1.5.6 Piston engine valves

In piston engines, the valves are grouped into 'inlet valves' which admit the entrance of fuel and air and 'outlet valves' which allow the exhaust gases to escape. Each valve opens once per cycle

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and the ones that are subject to extreme accelerations are held closed by springs that are typically opened by rods running on a camshaft rotating with the engines' crankshaft.

2.1.5.7 Control valves Continuous combustion enginesas well as piston enginesusually have valves that open and close to admit the fuel and/or air at the startup and shutdown. Some valves feather to adjust the flow to control power or engine speed as well.

2.1.5.8 Exhaust systems

Internal combustion engines have to manage the exhaust of the cooled combustion gas from the engine. The exhaust system frequently contains devices to control pollution, both chemical and noise pollution. In addition, for cyclic combustion engines the exhaust system is frequently tuned to improve emptying of the combustion chamber. For jet propulsion internal combustion engines, the 'exhaust system' takes the form of a high velocity nozzle, which generates thrust for the engine and forms a colimated jet of gas that gives the engine its name.

2.1.5.9 Cooling systems Combustion generates a great deal of heat, and some of this transfers to the walls of the engine. Failure will occur if the body of the engine is allowed to reach too high a temperature, either the engine will physically fail, or any lubricants used will degrade to the point that they no longer protect the engine. Cooling systems usually employ air or liquid cooling while some very hot engines using radiative cooling (especially some Rocket engines). Some high altitude rocket engines use ablative cooling where the walls gradually erode in a controlled fashion.

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2.1.5.10 Piston A piston is a component of reciprocating engines. It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. Its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.

2.1.5.11 Crankshafts Very many reciprocating internal combustion engines end up turning a shaft. This means that the linear motion of a piston must be turned into a rotation. This is typically achieved by a crankshaft.

Figure 2.4 A crankshaft for a 4 cylinder engine

2.1.5.12 Flywheels Flywheels are found in most reciprocating engines as a way to smooth out the power delivery over each rotation of the crank. Without it, many engines would stall at low engine speeds.

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2.1.5.13 Starter systems Internal combustion engines require systems to put them into a operational mode that can be sustained. For piston engines this can involve a starter motor; small portable engines can be started with a manual crank or even pull cords.

2.1.5.14 Lubrication Systems Internal combustions engines require lubrication in operation to allow moving parts to slide smoothly over each other. Insufficient lubrication will subject the engine to rapid wear and ultimately, it may even seize up entirely. Several different types of lubrication systems are used. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated by oil mixed into the fuel or injected into the induction stream as a spray. Early slow-speed stationary and marine engines were lubricated by gravity from small chambers similar to those used on steam engines at the timewith an engine tender refilling these as needed. As engines were adapted for automotive and aircraft use, the need for a high power-to-weight ratio led to increased speeds, higher temperatures, and greater pressure on bearings which in turn required pressure-lubrication for crank bearings and connecting-rod journals. This was provided either by a direct lubrication from a pump, or indirectly by a jet of oil directed at pickup cups on the connecting rod ends which had the advantage of providing higher pressures as the engine speed increased.

2.6 Problem arise due to Normal Engine

2.6.1 Air and noise pollution Internal combustion engines such as reciprocating internal combustion engines produce air pollution emissions, due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel. The main derivatives of the process are carbon dioxide CO2, water and some sootalso called particulate matter (PM). The effects of inhaling particulate matter have been studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. There are however some additional products of the combustion process that includes nitrogen oxides and sulfur and some un-combusted hydrocarbons, depending on the operating conditions and the fuel-air ratio.

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Not all of the fuel will be completely consumed by the combustion process; a small amount of fuel will be present after combustion, some of which can react to form oxygenates, such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde, or hydrocarbons not initially present in the fuel mixture. The primary causes of this is the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline engines in order to achieve combustion and the resulting "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls, otherwise the fuel would burn more completely in excess air. When running at lower speeds, quenching is commonly observed in diesel (compression ignition) engines that run on natural gas. It reduces the efficiency and increases knocking, sometimes causing the engine to stall. Increasing the amount of air in the engine reduces the amount of the first two pollutants, but tends to encourage the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to combine to produce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) that has been demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health. Further chemicals released are Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene that are also particularly harmful; and not all of the fuel burns up completely, so Carbon Monoxide (CO) is also produced. Carbon fuels contain sulfur and impurities that eventually lead to producing sulfur oxides (SO) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust which promotes acid rain. One final element in exhaust pollution is ozone (O3). This is not emitted directly but made in the air by the action of sunlight on other pollutants to form "ground level ozone", which, unlike the "Ozone Layer" in the high atmosphere, is regarded as a bad thing if the levels are too high. Ozone is broken down by nitrogen oxides, so one tends to be lower where the other is higher. For the pollutants described above (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone) there are accepted levels that are set by legislation to which no harmful effects are observedeven in sensitive population groups. For the other three: benzene: 1:3 butadiene: particulates, there is no way of proving they are safe at any level so the experts set standards where the risk to health is, "exceedingly small". Finally, significant contributions to noise pollution are made by internal combustion engines. Automobile and truck traffic operating on highways and street systems produce noise, as do aircraft flights due to jet noise, particularly supersonic-capable aircraft. Rocket engines create the most intense noise.

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2.7

Applications

The motion of internal combustion engines is usually performed by the controlled movement of pistons, cranks, rods, rotors, or even the entire engine itself. Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy-density. Generally using a petroleum called All-Petroleum Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles or APICEVs, these engines have appeared in transport in almost all automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives. Internal combustion engines appear in the form of gas turbines as well where a very high power is required, such as in jet aircraft, helicopters, and large ships. They are also frequently used for electric generators and by industry.

3 Two stroke engine 3.1 Introduction


A two-stroke engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle in only one crankshaft revolution and with two strokes, or up and down movements, of the piston in comparison to a "four-stroke engine", which uses four strokes to do so. This is accomplished by the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happening simultaneously and performing the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions at the same time. Two-stroke engines often provide high power-to-weight ratio, usually in a narrow range of rotational speeds called the "power band", and, compared to 4-stroke engines, have a greatly reduced number of moving parts. The first commercial two-stroke engine involving in-cylinder compression is attributed to Scottish engineer Dugald Clerk, who in 1881 patented his design, his engine having a separate charging cylinder. The crankcase-scavenged engine, employing the area below the piston as a charging pump, is generally credited to Englishman Joseph Day. Petrol(spark ignition) versions are particularly useful in lightweight (portable) applications such as chainsaws and small, lightweight and racing motorcycles, and the concept is also used in diesel compression ignition engines in large and weight insensitive applications, such as ships, locomotives and electricity generation. The heat transfer from the engine to the cooling system is less in a two-stroke engine than in a traditional four-stroke, a fact that adds to the overall engine efficiency, however, traditional 2-strokes have a poor exhaust emissions feature.

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3.2 Processes
The two stroke engine employs both the crankcase and the cylinder to achieve all the elements of the Otto cycle in only two strokes of the piston. The various processes are as follows :

3.2.1 Intake The fuel/air mixture is first drawn into the crankcase by the vacuum that is created during the upward stroke of the piston. The illustrated engine features a poppet intake valve; however, many engines use a rotary value incorporated into the crankshaft.

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Fig: Intake 3.2.2 Crankcase compression During the downward stroke, the poppet valve is forced closed by the increased crankcase pressure. The fuel mixture is then compressed in the crankcase during the remainder of the stroke.

fig: Crankcase compression 3.2.3 Expansion At the top of the stroke, the spark plug ignites the fuel mixture. The burning fuel expands, driving the piston downward, to complete the cycle. (At the same time, another crankcase compression stroke is happening beneath the piston.)

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fig: Crankcase expansion

3.2.4

Exhaust

Toward the end of the stroke, the piston exposes the intake port, allowing the compressed fuel/air mixture in the crankcase to escape around the piston into the main cylinder. This expels the exhaust gasses out the exhaust port, usually located on the opposite side of the cylinder. Unfortunately, some of the fresh fuel mixture is usually expelled as well.

fig: Exhaust

3.1 Strokes

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We have simplified as much as possible so of the correct terms have been replaced. There are many more factor which enable an engine to run, such as fuel/air ratios, ignition timing & shaped piston heads etc.

3.3.1 Stroke 1: In this stroke piston travels up the piston barrel. Induction and compression occures during this stroke.As the piston travels up the barrel fresh fuel/air mix sucked into crankcase (bottom of engine ) & the fuel/air mix in the cylinder (top of the engine) is compressed ready for ignition

3.3.2 Stroke 2: In this stroke piston travels down the piston barrel. Ignition and exhaust occurs during this stroke.The spark plug ignites compressed fuel/air mix inside the cylinder, the resulting explosion pushes the piston back down bottom of the cylinder as the piston travels down the transport openings are exposed & the fresh fuel/air mix is sucked from crankcase into the cylinder. As the fresh fuel/air mix is drawn into the cylinder, it forces spent the exhaust gases out through the exhaust port.

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4 LPG Kit 4.1 Introduction


CONVERSION KITS :- Conversion kit comprises of following Major items:

5.1 Pressure Reducer - Electronic Type 5.2 Pressure Reducer - Turbo Type 5.3 Solenoid Valves/Commutators 5.4 Simulators (for MPFI) / Relay (for SPFI) 5.5 Fixed Tank with Multicontrol 5.6 Multi control Lambda Systems

The auto gas which is filled at a pressure in special high quality steel tanks is sent through the copper feed lines to the Vaporizer commonly also known as the PRV or the Reducer which
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reduces the pressure of the LPG and thus its state from liquid to vapor form. This is then supplied to the engine as per its requirement through a Gas- Air mixer. The pressure of the auto gas is reduced by circulating the car's engine coolant through the reducer.

The fuel supply is controlled by magnetic valves or the Solenoids. The (GPL) Gas Solenoid controls the gas supply and the Petrol Solenoid controls the Petrol supply to the engine respectively. One can select either of the fuels by means of an electric switch which is fitted on the car dashboard for instant change over between the two fuels. Injection controllers or emulators are used in cars with fuel injection to protect the onboard ECM and to avoid display of onboard check engine lights. To meet stringent environmental norms Lambda Controller systems are installed in Fuel Injection cars also equipped with Catalytic Converters. Also available are the new Phased Sequential Injection System (FAST) for latest generation cars to meet Euro-4 emission norms.

There are two types of reducers available namely Aspirated/Vacuum and Electronic/ based on the principle of vacuum generated in the engine and are most suited to Carbureted cars like the Premier Fiat, Ambassador, Maruti Van, Gypsy etc. The Electronic kits are suited to any car with Multi Point Fuel Injection like the Cielo, Ford Icon, Opel Corsa, Hyundai Santro, Accent, Maruti 800, Alto, Wagon-R, Esteem or Euro-II vehicles etc. However, the electronic reducers can also be used for Carbureted cars, Automatic types. The vacuum reducers are primarily the system is entirely safe with lock off type magnetic valves and tested equipments. There is also a provision for a safety solenoid which acts as a pressure relief valve and cuts the supply of gas in case of leakage and impact/accident.

Besides the LPG tanks are made of strong steel and tested for explosion with three times the working pressure. Tanks are never filled with more than 80% capacity and have a Multivalve which is covered by a vacuum tight box releasing all vapors/LPG in case of leakage to outside of the car. The multivalve is connected to the switch via a electronic sensor showing the level of LPG in the tank. Tanks and Multivalve are approved by the Government of India, Explosives Department for safety. We use only high quality LOVATO MULTIVALVES which are approved by the CCOE, Govt. of India.

4.2 Advantages due to use of LPG as a fuel


LPG fuel is much cheaper than petrol, saving can be between 45% to 80% on fuel costs as against petrol. This can vary with the petrol and LPG prices.
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LPG has an anti knocking power which is comparable with Gasoline and superior to Diesel. The oil drain period of car running on Auto LPG will increase and it will also extend the life of spark plug as Auto LPG is a clean fuel. Adulteration or spilling or theft is not responsible. LPG reaches the engine in pure form resulting in an improved air / fuel mixture and enables refined combustion. There is hardly any discharge of CO (Carbon mono- oxide) as compared to petrol and diesel since the exhaust fumes contains less harmful substance. The CO emissions are around 80% less than petrol and 40% less than diesel. Hydrocarbon emissions are 60% less than petrol and 50% less than diesel. Nitrous oxide emissions are around 80% less than petrol and 90% less than diesel. Carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming is less. Existing fuel system is retained which can work as an option and thus increases the flexibility of the usage of the mode of fuel.

4.3 Disadvantages due to use LPG as a fule


It is heavy in weight, due to the use of cylinder and engine. Its initial cost is high. Complex mechanism. High maintenance cost. High safety required.

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5. Conclusion

Here we are using a concept of Flexible- fuel vehicle. A FFV is an alternate fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel and having both the fuel in same tank and supply both fuel into the combustion chamber at the same time in various calibrated proportions.

This concept is generally use in many four wheelers and used by many four wheeler company. This concept is highly used now a day, but as we know in our country quantity of two wheeler is higher than four wheeler. So we are here using this concept to operate a two stroke two wheeler. But by higher the use of two wheeler higher the pollution rate.

So as per requirement we are just using the concept in two wheelers. As we know cost of fuel is increased day by day, so to reduce the cost and pollution with as per requirement of vehicles we are working on it.

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6. Bibliography

www.petrol2lpg.com www.zeropollutions.com

www.surajautolpg.com www.autogas-india.com

www.zeropollutions.com www.stargasindia.com

www.axisauto.com

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