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The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science


Schmidt, Nathaniel. Ibn Khaldun. Pp. 67. New York: Columbia University Press, 1930. $2.00
Howard Becker The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 1931 154: 194 DOI: 10.1177/000271623115400184 The online version of this article can be found at: http://ann.sagepub.com/content/154/1/194.2.citation

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users, the Populist spasm which culminated in the epileptic tongue of Bryan, all these are left as cold and unsav ory as y esterdays leg of lamb. And Reed himself emerges as a dynamic figure only because the author is continually saying so. When we compare the futile attempts at leadership in the present Congress with the summary way in which Reed dominated a much more virile group of men, then first do we glimpse what a personality he must have been. But we do not come away from Dr. Robinsons book with any such realization, and this is certain to prove a fatal defect. ALPHONSE B. MILLER



evidently one who not only felt their full

Carl Schurz— Militant Liberal. Pp. xxi, 270. Evansville, Wisconsin: The Antes Press, 1930. Carl Schurz was a many-sided man. He was a scholar and a musician; a general in the Civil War; a United States Senator and Cabinet officer; a friend and opponent of presidents and politicians; editor and publicist, and, next to George William Curtis, the foremost proponent of civil service reform ; and, above all, a militant liberal in

public affairs.
All of these phases and activities of a brave and persevering man are clearly brought out by Dr. Schafer, who writes as dispassionately as a devoted and admiring friend can. In 870 pages he has given a good summary of one who became one of the most distinguished of the foreign-born leaders of America in the nineteenth century. While wielding at times great influence among German-born citizens, he never traded on this influence. His constant endeavor was to win their generous and whole-hearted support of what he believed to be American ideals of government. Passionately devoted to what he conceived to be the genius of American liberty and free40m, he never wavered in what he thought to be his duty, even at the expense of longtime attachments and friendships. From personal acquaintance I know of his personal charm and power, both of which were potent even when one differed most radically from him. The author of this most interesting study

was a devoted follower as well, a fact which Marie Jiissen Monroe of Milwaukee (now the nearest kin to Schurz) frankly admits in her interesting introduction, when she quotes Schurzs own remark from his essay on Abraham Lincoln: &dquo;We are inclined to idealize that which we lov ea state of mind very unfavorable to sober, critical judgment.&dquo; Schurz was characterized by a &dquo;stubborn public honesty&dquo; in dealing with great questions of public policy. It won for him great respect even when one most greatly differed from him, and it was because of this quality that he made so substantial a contribution to the growth of independent political thought and action. Not only was he at all times a relentless opponent of the spoils system and a staunch supporter of the merit system, but he could always be depended upon to put what he believed to be the cause of good government before the demands of party. This book, which of necessity is a sketchy one because it seeks to cover so much ground in such compact space, is singularly deficient in its references to Theodore Roosevelt, who is mentioned only twice and then by name only. CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF

effect, but


New York: Columbia


Press, 1930.


All the rich experience of the Moslem travelers and the ripe culture of the Greeks come to a focus in that greatest of fourteenth-century geographers, historians, and sociologists, the Berber of Tunis, Ibn Khaldun. His importance lies, as Barnes has said, in the feat, unique for his time, of having been able to regard history as a natural process; he was the first successor of Polybius. Anticipating Vice and Turgot, he stressed the continuity of historical development and at the same time the importance of &dquo; intrusive factors.&dquo; Ibn Khaldun has been much praised, but no translation of his great Prolegomena to History is available in English. Flint paid a good deal of attention to him in his History of the Phil.~sapl~~ of History, and in this

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secondary way only has he become known to the English-speaking world. His direct influence on sociologists probably dates from 1899, when Gumplowicz published the Sociologische Essays, for in this book was a chapter on Ibn Khaldun, &dquo;An Arabian Sociologist of the Fourteenth Century.&dquo; Due to the stress laid by Gumplowicz upon the conflict theory of social development, however, some of the significant
features of the Berbers doctrine were almost totally obscured. Even the comparatively recent and comprehensive estimate by Barnes regards Ibn Khaldun almost exclusively from the conflict-theory standpoint; the same is true of that by Franz Oppenheimer, the present-day champion of the conflict theory. It is all the more gratifying, therefore, to call attention to a book which does justice to the Moslem thinker in his capacities as an exponent of Kulturgeschichte, of a comprehensive theory of history free from value-judgments, and of a balanced sociology having as its primary focus the fact of social change. Professor Schmidts little volume of sixty-seven pages has more packed within its covers than many ponderous tomesthat must be granted. It is to be hoped, however, that Professor Schmidt, splendidly equipped as he is to work with the Arabic sources, will some day present the learned world with a bulky volume on Ibn Khaldun, for the Berber eminently warrants all the time and trouble that one man, at least, can lavish upon him, particularly when that man is no mere philologist, but gives evidence of a thorough understanding of the methodological problems with which Ibn Khaldun grappled. In the meantime, no one interested in social or sociological theory can afford to miss this book. HOWARD BECKER University of Pennsylvania


of his and a conclusion which discuss post-war antiSemitism. Father and son are like-minded in their sympathies for the Jews, but not in their faith in ultimate world-wide tolerance. The elder Kalergi, who retired from the active life of an Austrian diplomat to amass a great library devoted to the Jewish problem and to pen the results of his studies, created a mild sensation a generation ago by his thoroughgoing study of anti-Jewish feeling and its causes. He had to disclaim Jewish origin, so warm and complete was his espousal of the Jewish people. Attitude apart, the volume is a mine of exact and carefully compiled information on the denunciations of the Jews and in the detailed exposure of the fallacies involved in the current prejudices against the Jewish people. Kalergi hews even closer to the line than Josephus did in his famous Against Apion, for he examines, minutely, aspersion after aspersion and builds each rejoinder out of a mass of evidence for which he gives chapter and verse from Bible, Talmud, or rabbinic writings or from anthropologists or social scientists. Kalergi assumes that the Jews are a na-



father, and


interesting memoir introductory chapter

tionality artificially created, to wit, an amalgam of many nationalities that supports a common religion and has been fostered by voluntary as well as by forcible separation from other peoples. This, he believes, is the consequence of religious
Their codes, the pressure under which they have lived, and the callings they have followed have evolved the specific Jewish physical and moral types. This definition leads to at least a partial acceptance of the Herzlian Zionist theory that the movement of the mass of Jewsout of Europe will advantage the minority remaining there and accepting more of assimilation than has hitherto been possible. The son is less responsive to this attitude. His is the rhetorical invitation to the &dquo;better minds&dquo; to join forces in slaying the monster, anti-Jewish prejudice. Either conclusion is less important than is the material painstakingly brought together to substantiate the viewpoint. JACOB DE HAAS New York City


HEINRICH. Wesen des Antisemitismus . Pp. Wien: Paneuropa Verlag, 1929.


With its bold challenge on its cover to the Swastika of the Hitlerites, this classic nonJewish defense of the Jewish position is brought up to date by the son of the author,

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